Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the Red River Valley : past and present, including an account of the counties, cities, towns, and villages of the Valley from the time of their first settlement and formation"

See other formats


FheHerdLd.Grninct  Forks,K,D, 





Including  an  Account  of  the  Counties,  Cities,  Towns 

and  Villages  of  the  Valley  from  the  Time 

of  Their  First  Settlement  and 











"  Genuine  history  is  brought  into  existence  only  when  the 
historian  begins  to  unravel,  across  the  lapse  of  time,  the  living 
man,  toiling,  impassioned,  entrenched  in  his  customs,  with  his 
voice  and  features,  his  gestures  and  dress,  distinct  and  complete 
as  he  from  whom  we  have  just  parted  in  the  street."  A  history 
of  a  people  which  has  passed  away  is  the  effort  to  make  the  past 
the  present;  to  revivify  the  dead  and  present  every  phase  of 
actual  life  as  it  once  existed,  with  all  its  bad  and  good,  its  bless- 
ings and  its  sufferings;  the  home  life,  the  public  highway,  the 
street,  the  field,  men  and  women  privately,  collectively,  at  work 
and  at  play,  socially  and  morally,  as  they  once  were  here  in  the 
struggle  for  life.  A  picture  most  difficult,  perhaps  about  impossi- 
ble to  draw.  Hence,  to  approach  this  perfection  in  any  respect, 
will  make  a  valuable  book,  and  one  whose  lessons  will  remain 
perpetually  to  the  coming  generations. 

A  history  of  a  people  must,  therefore,  carefully  consider  the 
race,  the  epoch,  and  the  climate  and  soil  and  their  combined 
effects  in  elucidating  the  causes,  after  the  facts  have  been  collated. 
Where  the  period  of  time  covered  by  the  story  is  short — only  a 
little  more  than  a  generation — as  in  the  history  of  this  valley, 
the  effects  flowing  out  from  these  causes  become  shadowy  and 
indistinct — more  difficult  to  trace  out  and  fix  clearly  to  the  view, 
in  due  ratio  to  the  brevity  of  the  period  which  comes  within  the 
purview  of  the  writer. 

These  conceptions  of  history  were  unknown  to  our  fore- 
fathers. They  wrote  of  all  men,  looking  always  from  the  same 
standpoint,  and  from  their  abstract  conceptions,  exactly  as 
though  all  men,  of  all  ages,  climes  and  surroundings,  were  exactly 


the  same.  Their  conceptions  and  conclusions  were  abstract  and, 
like  their  philosophy,  were  metaphysical,  and  whence  comes  the 
fact  that  real  history  is  a  modern  discovery;  not  wholly  but 
mostly  so. 

So  far  as  we  can  know,  everything  in  all  nature — the  whole 
mental  and  physical  world — is  a  growth,  not  in  a  single  instance 
a  miraculous  bursting  into  the  full  bloom  of  existence.  And 
that  growth  is  governed  by  omnipotent  laws.  To  know  these 
laws  and  apply  them  to  man,  to  the  family,  to  society,  to  the 
community,  to  the  state,  to  the  race,  is  the  exalted  work  of  the 

In  a  historical  point  of  view,  then,  "The  present  is  com- 
pleting the  past,  and  the  past  is  explaining  the  present."  And 
this  becomes  plain  and  its  value  incalculable  in  so  far  as  we  may 
from  the  records  and  data  that  come  to  our  hands  be  enabled  to 
point  out  the  laws  of  growth  that  have  led  us  to  where  we 
now  are. 

Everything  is  a  growth — a  development — a  passing  from  the 
simple  to  the  complex.  Thus  it  commences  with  the  legends,  then 
the  traditions,  the  chronicles,  the  annals,  and  last,  the  history. 
Our  people  are  agricultural  in  their  pursuits.  The  Red  River 
Valley  will  be  the  storehouse  and  granary  of  the  world.  It  can 
always  say  to  hungry  man,  "In  thy  Father's  house  is  enough 
and  to  spare."  With  its  wholesome  and  generous  products,  it 
will  freight  the  ships  whose  sails  will  fleck  every  sea.  Teach  the 
people  to  read  the  secrets  of  the  soil,  and  give  them  cheap  trans- 
portation and  the  unobstructed  and  free  markets  of  the  world, 
and  then,  indeed,  will  come  that  boundless  wealth  which  nurtures 
those  master  spirits  among  men  who  shape  and  fix  the  proud 
destiny  of  civilization. 

"Where  once  slow  creeping  glaciers  passed 
Resistless  o'er  a  frozen  waste, 
Deep  rooted  in  the  virgin  mould 
The  dower  of  centuries  untold." 

The  Grand  Forks  Herald  and  the  Cooper  Publishing  Com- 
pany have  collaborated  in  producing  this  history  of  the  famous 
Red  River  Valley,  and  wish  to  acknowledge  and  give  due  credit 


to  the  following  named  authors  who  have  contributed  to  this 
work  from  their  scientific  research  historical  facts  and  personal 
reminiscences  extending  from  the  very  earliest  records  of  this 
region  down  to  the  present  time : 

Warren  Upham,  Prof.  E.  J.  Babeock,  George  B.  Winship, 
Prof.  H.  L.  Bolley,  Prof.  J.  H.  Shepperd,  George  N.  Lamphere, 

B.  G.  Skulason ;  Sveinbjorn  Johnson,  M.  A. ;  J.  R.  Cole,  Webster 
Merrifield,  Thomas  D.  Walker,  Hon.  James  Twamley,  Rt.  Rev. 
Bishop  Shanley,  Rt.   Rev.  Bishop  Cameron  Mann,  Rev.  E.  H. 
Stickney,  Gen.  A.  P.  Peake,  William  H.  White,  H.  V.  Arnold, 
A.  H.  Laughlin,  Moorhead  Independent,  Hon.  James  H.  Sharp, 
Prof.  R.  Bogstad,  Mattie  M.  Davis,  J.  T.  Mattson,  Hon.  William 
Watts,  A.  A.  Miller,  E.  E.  Mclntire,  William  Robinson,  Hon. 
R.   J.   Montague,   Edward  Ballintine,   Edward  Nelson,   Kittson 
Enterprise,  John  Mahon,  William  M.  House,  Gordon  J.  Keeney, 

C.  G.  Baearnstern,  Fargo  Forum,  S.  G.  Roberts,  Hon.  Ed.  Pierce, 
and  Peter  H.  Konzen. 


Aaker,    Hans    H 456 

Administration  Building,  Agricultural  College 308 

Beecher,   David    342 

Belcourt,  Father    390 

Blaisdell,  Alfred    112 

Campus   and   Entrance   Agricultural    College 302 

Carmody,  Hon.  John   124 

Chemical   Laboratory   Agricultural   College 312 

Cooper,  E.   C 86 

Crum,   Taylor    136 

Drive  Near  Devils  Lake 18 

Engineering  Building,  Agricultural  College 318 

Engineering  Bldg.,  Chemical  Laboratory,  Agricultural  College. .  322 

Fargo  College 524 

Farm  Scene  in  Red  Eiver  Valley 54 

First  Church  in  Eed  River  Valley 410 

Fisk,  Hon.  Charles  J 100 

Francis  Hall,  Agricultural  College  326 

Gilbreath,   W.    C 148 

Gray,  Enos  484 

Haggart,  John  E 180 

Hanna,  Louis  B ,   196 

Hazlett,  L.  C 572 

Hill,  James  J Frontispiece 

Hubbard,   Newton   K 534 

Kelley,  J.  Nelson   560 

Kennedy,   James    490 

Later  Farm  House   44 



Lewis,  Eobert  S 260 

Library,   Laboratory   Agricultural   College 330 

Linwell,  Martin   160 

Mathews,  James  H 248 

McCoy,  Eobert  H 174 

McDonald,  Aaron 272 

Murphy,  M.  F 542 

On  Tongue  Eiver   24 

Peake,  Gen.  A.  P 462 

Pembina  Eiver  and  Mountains    32 

Poupore,  Joseph  E 216 

Price,  W.  J 478 

Eoberts,  S.  G 500 

Eoberts,  Mrs.  S.  G 510 

Sarles,  E.  Y 232 

St.  Luke's  Hospital,  Fargo   518 

Settlers  Sod  House 62 

Shanley,  Et,  Eev.  Bishop 378 

Skulason,  Bardi   G 552 

Spaulding,  Hon.  Burleigh  F 284 

Stevens,   J.   E 422 

Talcott,  Frank  S 296 

Tributary  to  the  Eed  Eiver , 38 

Turner,   James    436 

Twamley,  James    74 

Twichell,   Treadwell    358 

White,  William   H 470 

Worst,  John  H .  446 



By  Warren  Upham. 

Topographic  Features.  The  Archean  Era.  Paleozoic  Time. 
Mesozoic  Time.  Cenozoic  Time.  The  Ice  Age.  Glacial  Lake 
Agassiz.  Length  of  Time  Since  the  Ice  Age. 


By  E.  J.  Babcock. 
Turtle  Mountains.    Devil's  Lake.     Drift. 

Election  Notice.  Territorial  Government  Granted.  Territorial 
Officers.  Territorial  Voting  Precincts.  First  Territorial  Legis- 
lature. North  Dakota  as  a  State.  Official  Vote  for  Governor. 
Proclamation  of  Admission.  Governors.  Lieutenant  Governors. 
Secretaries  of  State.  Auditors.  Treasurers.  Attorney  Generals. 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction.  Commissioners  of  Agri- 
culture and  Labor.  Commissioners  of  Insurance.  Commissioners 
of  Railroads.  Judges  of  Supreme  Court.  Judges  of  District 
Courts.  First  Session  State  Legislature. 


VALLEY   73 

By  George  B.  Winship. 

Visit  Robert  Dale  Owen.  First  Post  Office.  Pembina  County 
Organized.  Episode  on  the  Red  River.  Northern  Pacific  Rail- 
road Completed  to  Moorhead.  Permanent  Settlement.  First 
Telegraph  Line.  Winship  Established  the  Acton  News.  First 
Judicial  District.  First  Religious  Services.  Fargo  and  Moor- 
head.  Drouth  of  1872.  Development  of  River  Traffic.  United 
States  Land  Office  at  Pembina.  Coming  of  the  Scandinavians. 
United  States  Land  Office  at  Grand  Forks.  Close  of  Claim 
Shanty  Period— 1883. 


Old  Settlers'  Organization.  List  of  Membership.  Date  of 
Meetings.  Eligibility.  Historical  Data.  Incorporation.  By- 
Laws.  Officers  and  Directors.  Reunion  June  12,  1900.  Pro- 
gramme. The  Old  Sod  Shack.  Senate  Bill  196.  Report  of 
Auxiliary  Organizations.  Purchase  of  a  Park  Site.  Annual 
Meeting  1896  at  Fargo. 

Incidents.     Early  Settlement  North  Dakota.     Old  Time  Wedding 
Festivities.     Old  Timer's  Story.     R.  M.  Probstfield.     The  Oldest 
Settler.     Edwin  Griffin.     Fort   Abercrombie  a  Place   of  Refuge. 
The  Siege.     Winship  Hotel.     Budge's  Tavern. 




By  H.  L.  Bolley. 

First  Regular  Collection.  Potato  Scab.  Results  of  Investigation. 
Formaldehyde  Treatment  of  Seed  Grain.  Bacteriological  Study. 
Tree  Planting. 


By  Prof.  J.  H.  Shepard. 

Geological  Formation.  Wonderful  Fertility.  Early  Crops.  Primi- 
tive Agricultural  Implements.  Early  Settlements.  Tests.  Crop 
Evolution.  Early  Mail  Routes.  Early  Doubters.  Convincing 
Argument.  Coming  of  the  Railroad.  Bonanza  Farms.  James 
Hole's  Experiments.  North  Dakota  Experimental  Station. 
Diversification  of  Crops.  Red  River  Valley  Potato.  Growing  of 
Tame  Grasses.  Gardening  and  Fruit  Growing.  Drainage  Benefits. 
Grain  Growers  and  Other  Associations.  Farmers'  Institute. 


By  Hon.  George  Lamphere. 

Description  of  Red  River  Valley.  Wheat  Raising  in  the  Selkirk 
Settlement.  Early  Flouring  Mills.  Grasshoppers.  First  Mail 
Route.  First  Wheat  Raising.  Pioneer  Farmers.  Early  Wheat 
Raising  near  Fort  Abercrombie.  Dalrymple  Farm.  Grandin 
Farm.  Increase  in  Population  and  Wealth.  Cause  of  Occasional 
Failures.  Railroad  Freight  Rates.  Old  and  New  Methods  of 
Wheat  Farming.  Statistical  Tables.  Charles  Cavalier's  Letters. 
Greatness  of  Minnesota  Resources. 


By  B.  G.  Skulason  and  Sveinbjorn  Johnson,  M.  A. 
Norwegians  in  the  Red  River  Valley.  Date  of  First  Settlement. 
N.  E.  Nelson  First  Norwegian  Settler  in  North  Dakota.  Nor- 
wegians the  Most  Numerous  of  the  Foreign  Born  Citizens  of  the 
Valley.  Political  Importance  of  the  Norwegians.  Icelanders  in 
the  Red  River  Valley.  Fallacy  of  Popular  Ideas  Concerning 
Iceland.  Historical  Facts.  First  Settlement  in  Wisconsin.  First 
Settlers  in  the  Red  River  Valley.  A  Progressive  People. 


By  J.  R.  Cole. 

Origin.  Different  Tribes.  What  Different  Writers  Say  About 
Them.  Religious  History.  The  Indian  Legends.  Mortality. 
Indian  as  a  Farmer.  Industrial  Schools.  Little  Fish,  Last  of 
the  Chiefs. 

CHAPTER  XII.     THE    Sioux   WAR 280 

Violation  of  Treaties  and  Thieving  Indian  Agents  Cause  of  the 
Outbreak.  Chief  Little  Crow.  Beginning  of  the  Massacre. 
Sibley's  Expedition.  Defeat  of  Chief  Little  Crow.  Alice  Nelson 
Page.  Synopsis  of  the  Indian  Case.  Losses  Not  Reimbursed. 



By  Webster  Merrifield. 

University  of  North  Dakota.  North  Dakota  Agricultural  College. 
State  Normal  Schools.  Mayville  Normal  School.  Valley  City 
Normal  School.  State  School  of  Science.  Fargo  College.  Wesley 



A  Trip  to  Black  Hills  by  Ox  Cart.  Yung  Bear's  Ox  Cart. 
Transportation  by  Sledge.  Travoise  and  Cart  Dog  Train.  Stage. 


Captain  Alexander  Griggs.  Captain  C.  B.  Thimens.  Ballad  of 
the  Red. 


Northern  Pacific  Railroad.  Great  Northern  Railroad.  The 
Steamships  Dakota  and  Minnesota. 


Passing  of  the  Selfrake  Reaper.  Red  River  Valley  Trial  Ground 
for  Harvesting  Machinery. 


By  Thomas  B.  Walker. 

The  Importance  of  Timber  Culture.  Probable  Substitutes  for 


By  James  Twamley. 

Charter  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company.  Lord  Selkirk's 
Colony.  Business  Method. 



By  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Shanley. 

Discovery  of  the  Red  River  Valley.  Catholic  Missions  in  the 
Valley.  Arrival  of  the  First  Missionary  Priests  at  Ft.  Douglas, 
1818.  Location  of  Ft.  Douglas.  Third  Destruction  of  the 
Colony  by  Grasshoppers.  Encouragement  from  Lord  Selkirk. 
Death  of  Lord  Selkirk.  Consolidation  of  Northwest  and  Hudson 
Bav  Fur  Companies.  Abandonment  of  Mission  at  Pembina. 
Great  Flood  of  1826.  Arrival  of  Fathers  Aubert  and  Tache. 
Arrival  of  Father  Belcourt.  Narrative  of  Bishop  Tache. 
Chronology  of  the  Church.  Diocese  of  North  Dakota.  Correc- 
tion of  Historical  Errors. 


By  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Cameron  Mann. 

Rev.  J.  C.  Talbot,  Missionary  Bishop  of  the  Northwest.  Per- 
sonnel of  the  Early  Missionaries  of  the  Church  of  the  Valley. 
Rev.  Cameron  Mann  Made  Bishop  in  North  Dakota.  Establish- 
ment of  the  North  Dakota  Sheaf.  Growth  and  Present  Status 
of  the  Church.  Baptist  Church.  Ordained  Baptist  Ministers  in 
the  State.  Presbyterian  Church.  Presbyterian  Church  of 

By  Rev.  Edwin  H.  Stickney. 


By  George  B.  Winship. 

First  Newspaper  Published  in  the  Red  River  Valley.  Summary 
of  Red  River  Valley  Newspapers. 


By  George  B.  Winship. 

Early  Legislation.  Railroad  Land  Grants.  Drainage.  Industrial 
and  Charitable  Institutions.  Capital  Removal.  Prohibition. 
Louisiana  Lottery.  Political  Reminiscences. 



By  Gen.  A.  P.  Peake. 


By  William  H.  White. 

Early  Settlement.  Narrative  of  George  Northrup.  Early  Per- 
manent Pioneers.  Eival  Land  Companies.  Organization  of  the 
County  Seat.  First  County  Officials.  Centralia  the  First  Post 
Office.  Growth  of  Towns  and  Cities  of  the  County. 


City  and  Origin  of  the  Name.  Location.  Organization.  Early 
Events.  Puget  Sound  Land  Company.  Quieting  of  Indian  Title. 
First  Township  Plat.  Father  Genin's  Mission  House.  Busy 
Summer  of  1872.  Organization  of  Fargo  Township.  Completion 
of  the  Courthouse.  Masonic  Temple.  Street  Eailways.  Great 
Fire  of  1893.  Names  of  Mayors.  Navigation  of  the  Eed  Eiver. 
Fargo  of  Today.  Banks  and  Banking.  Commercial  Club.  The 
Press.  Cass  County  Agricultural  Society.  State  Fair  Association. 
Educational  History.  St.  John's  Hospital.  St.  Luke's  Hospital. 
Osteopathy  Infirmary.  Commercial.  Churches.  Casselton. 
Tower  City.  Buffalo. 


By  H.  V.  Arnold. 

Historical  Outline.  Aborigines.  Mound  Builders.  Fur  Compa- 
nies. Selkirk  Colony.  Isolation  of  the  Country.  Major  Long's 
Expedition.  Old  Times  in  the  Valley.  Jean  Nicollet.  Buffalo 
Hunt.  Traders  and  Trappers.  Major  Woods.  Captain  Pope. 
Political  Eepresentation.  Grip  of  the  Fur  Trade.  Beginning  of 
Eed  Eiver  Steamboat  Era.  Episode  of  the  Freighter.  First 
Steamer  on  Eed  Eiver.  Stage  Line.  Hatche's  Battalion.  Cun- 
ningham's Expedition.  Disappearance  of  the  Buffalo.  Manitoba 
Opened  Up.  First  Settlement.  Old  Cart  Trails.  Organization 
of  the  County.  U.  S.  Land  Office.  Timber  Settlements.  North- 
wood  Settlements.  Turtle  Eiver  Township.  Bachelor's  Grove. 
Forest  Eiver  Settlement.  Old  Wagon  Trail.  Fort  Trotten  Trail. 


The  Post  Office.  City  Schools.  Churches.  Deaconess  Hospital. 
Manufacturers.  Hotels  and  Early  Boardinghouses.  Fire  Depart- 
ment. Water  Works.  Commercial. 


By  H.  V.  Arnold. 


By  John  Mahon. 

Early  History  of  1799.  Farming  Began  1810.  Joe  Eolett. 
Squatter  Settlers.  County  Organized.  Cavalier  County  Organ- 
ized. Early  Settlers.  Tragedy  of  Alga.  Natural  Scenery. 
Eeminiscenees  of  Fifty  Years. 

By  Mrs.  Cavalier. 


Location.  Physical  Aspect.  Eailroads.  Organization  of  County. 
Shipping  Point.  Valuation.  Schools.  County  Officers. 


Description  by   Walsh   County  Eecord. 


Eeminiscences  by  Early  Settlers.  Bush  of  1880  and  1881.  Be- 
ginning of  Grafton.  First  Church.  First  School.  First  News- 
paper. County  Organization.  Origin  of  Names.  First  Perma- 
nent Settlement.  Biography,  Cashel  &  Cooper. 


The  First  Claim.  First  Election.  Organization  and  County  Offi- 
cials. County  Seat  Contest.  Strong  Hold  of  Prohibition. 
Present  Members  of  Legislature.  County  Officials. 


By  William  M.  House. 

Favorable  Location.  Era  and  Drainage.  Early  Settlement. 
Organization.  First  County  Officials.  Wonderful  Growth.  Fort 


Valley  City.  The  First  Settlement.  County  Organized  as  Bur- 
bank.  County  of  Barnes  Organized.  First  Election.  First  Taxes 
Paid.  Valley  City  Incorporated.  M.  E.  Church.  Lodges.  News- 
papers. Public  Schools.  Normal  School.  Old  Settlers.  Descrip- 
tion of  the  County.  Statistics.  Villages. 


By  A.   H.  Laughlin. 

Agricultural  Possibilities.  Old  Landmarks.  Fort  Eansom. 
County  Organized.  District  Courts.  Historical.  Oswego  Colony. 
Sibley  Trail.  Fourth  of  July  on  Cheyenne.  Camp  Hayes.  Gold 
Excitement  of  1883.  Schools.  City  of  Lisbon.  Churches.  Old 
Soldiers'  Home.  Buttz  and  Colton  Contest.  Bench  and  Bar. 
Sheldon,  Enderlin  and  Other  Villages. 


From  Moorhead  Independent. 

A  Poem  in  Prose.  Geographically  Considered.  Early  Patriotism. 
Natural  Eesources.  Diversified  Farming.  School  Land.  Soil  and 
Climate.  School  System.  Minnesota  as  a  Summer  Eesort. 
Opportunities.  State  Fair. 


By  Hon.  James  H.  Sharp. 

Crossing  the  Eed  Eiver  by  the  Northern  Pacific  Eailroad.  Andrew 
Hole's  View  of  Country.  First  Sale  of  Government  Land.  Some 
Early  Settlers.  Primitive  Transportation.  Clay  County  Organ- 
ized. First  County  Officers.  Present  County  Officers.  Lively 
Times  of  1872.  Steamboat  Line.  Descriptive  Moorhead.  Fire 
Department.  Commercial  Club.  Public  Schools.  Normal  School. 
Concordia  College.  Swedish  Hospital.  Darrow  Hospital. 
Churches.  The  Press.  Banks  and  Banking.  Glyndon.  Kurtz. 
Hawley.  Sabin.  Georgetown.  Barnesville.  Ulen.  Comstock. 


Organization.  First  County  Officers.  Great  Northern  Eailroad. 
First  Grand  Jury.  Organization  of  Townships.  District  Judges. 
Some  Old  Settlers.  Public  Schools.  City  of  Warren.  Churches. 


By  Hon.   William  Watts. 

Boundaries  and  Area.  General  Character  of  Surface.  Early 
Settlement.  The  Eailroad.  Steamboat  Traffic.  Pioneer  Life. 


County  Organization.  Town  Organization.  Railway  Extension. 
Fisher's  Landing.  Some  of  the  Pioneers.  Revival  of  Immigra- 
tion. The  Railroad  Land  Grant.  Large  Farms.  The  French 
Colony.  Rapid  Settlement.  Judicial  History.  Bar  Sketches. 
United  States  Land  Office.  Sketches  of  Officials.  ^  Political 
History.  County  Division.  Farming  Methods.  Population.  Val- 
uation. Officers.  Military.  Schools.  Banks  and  Banking. 


Public  Schools.  Experiment  Farm.  School  of  Agriculture. 
Eclectic  Business  College.  Lodges.  Churches. 


By  Edward  Ballentine. 

Location.  Organization  and  Change  of  Names.  Boundary. 
Early  Water  Transportation.  First  Permanent  Settlement.  De- 
struction of  Breckenridge.  Some  Early  Settlers.  First  Farm  in 
Wilkin  County.  Building  of  the  Railroad.  Location  of  Towns. 
Blizzard  of  '79.  Railroad  Bonds.  Physical  Aspect  of  the 
County.  Drainage  Ditches.  Population.  Transportation.  Schools. 


By  Edward  Nelson. 

Origin.  Organization  of  Townships.  Churches.  Banks  and 
Banking.  County  Building.  County  Officers.  Schools.  News- 
papers. Hallock.  St.  Vincent.  Bench  and  Bar.  Lower  Red 
River  Valley.  Immigrants.  Wheat.  The  Swiss.  Transporta- 
tion. Climate.  Wild  Fruits. 


Location.  Population.  Post  Offices.  Cities  and  Villages.  In- 
dustries. Banks  and  Banking.  The  Press. 






Warren  Upham, 

Secretary  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  Formerly  Assistant 

on  the  Geological  Surveys  of  New  Hampshire,  Minnesota, 

the  United  States,  and  Canada. 

Topographic  Features. 

The  Red  River  of  the  North,  so  named  to  distinguish  it  from 
the  Red  river  of  Louisiana,  flows  through  an  exceedingly  flat 
plain,  which  descends  imperceptibly  northward,  as  also  from  each 
side  to  its  central  line.  Along  the  axial  depression  the  river 
has  cut  a  channel  twenty  to  sixty  feet  deep.  It  is  bordered  by 
only  few  and  narrow  areas  of  bottomland,  instead  of  which  its 
banks  usually  rise  steeply  on  one  side,  and  by  moderate  slopes 
on  the  other,  to  the  broad  valley  plain  which  thence  reaches 
nearly  level  ten  to  twenty-five  miles  from  the  river.  Its  tribu- 
taries cross  the  plain  in  similar  channels,  which,  as  also  the  Red 



river,  have  occasional  gullies  connected  with  them,  dry  through 
most  of  the  year,  varying  from  a  few  hundred  feet  to  a  mile  or 
more  in  length.  Between  the  drainage  lines,  areas  often  five  to 
fifteen  miles  wide  remain  unmarked  by.  any  water  courses.  The 
highest  portions  of  these  tracts  are  commonly  from  two  to  five 
feet  above  the  lowest. 

This  vast  plain,  twenty-five  to  fifty  miles  wide  and  300  miles 
long,  lying  half  in  Minnesota  and  half  in  North  Dakota,  thence 
continuing  into  Manitoba  and  so  stretching  from  Lake  Traverse 
and  Breckenridge  north  to  Lake  Winnipeg,  is  the  widely  famed 
Ked  River  valley.  The  material  of  the  lower  part  of  the  valley 
plain,  shown  in  the  banks  of  the  Red  river  and  reaching  usually 
five  to  fifteen  miles  from  it,  is  fine  clayey  silt,  horizontally  strati- 
fied ;  but  at  its  south  end,  in  Traverse  county  and  the  south  half 
of  Wilkin  county,  Minnesota,  through  the  adjoining  part  of 
Richland  county,  North  Dakota,  and  upon  large  areas  of  each 
side  of  this  plain,  it  is  mainly  unstratified  boulder  clay,  which 
differs  from  the  rolling  or  undulating  till  of  the  adjoining  region 
only  in  having  its  surface  nearly  flat.  Both  these  formations  are 
almost  impervious  to  water,  which,  therefore,  in  the  rainy  season 
fills  their  shallow  depressions,  but  none  of  these  are  so  deep  as 
to  form  permanent  lakes.  Even  sloughs  which  continue  marshy 
through  the  summer  are  infrequent,  but  where  they  do  occur,  as 
on  some  of  the  streams  tributary  to  the  Red  river,  they  cover 
large  areas,  sometimes  several  miles  in  extent. 

In  crossing  this  almost  perfectly  level  valley  on  clear  days, 
the  higher  land  at  its  sides,  and  the  groves  along  its  rivers,  are 
first  seen  in  the  distance  as  if  their  upper  edges  were  raised  a 
little  above  the  horizon,  with  a  very  narrow  strip  of  sky  below. 
The  first  appearance  of  the  tree  tops  thus  somewhat  resembles 
that  of  dense  flocks  of  birds  flying  very  low  several  miles  away. 
By  rising  a  few  feet,  as  from  the  ground  to  a  wagon,  or  by  nearer 
approach,  the  outlines  become  clearly  defined  as  a  grove,  with  a 
mere  line  of  sky  beneath  it. 

Besides  this  mirage,  the  traveler  is  also  reminded,  in  the  same 
manner  as  at  sea,  that  the  earth  is  round.  The  surface  of  the 
plain  is  seen  only  for  a  distance  of  three  or  four  miles;  houses 
and  grain  stacks  have  their  tops  visible  first,  after  which,  in 


approaching,  they  gradually  come  into  full  view;  and  the  high- 
lands, ten  or  fifteen  miles  away,  forming  the  side  of  the  valley, 
apparently  lie  beyond  a  wide  depression,  like  a  distant  high  coast. 

On  nearly  all  the  area  drained  by  the  Red  river  the  glacial 
drift  is  so  thick  that  no  exposures  of  the  underlying  rocks  have 
been  found.  Along  the  flat  valley  plain,  the  average  depth  of  the 
drift  is  from  about  100  to  200  feet.  The  prominent  topographic 
features  of  all  this  region  are  doubtless  due  to  the  form  of  the 
underlying  rock  surface,  upon  which  the  drift  is  spread  in  a  sheet 
of  somewhat  uniform  thickness.  Subaerial  denudation  and  stream 
erosion,  during  the  Tertiary  era  and  the  early  part  of  Quater- 
nary time,  preceding  the  Ice  Age,  had  sculptured  this  broad  and 
flat  valley  trough  and  the  inclosing  uplands  which  on  each  side 
gradually  rise  200  to  500  feet  above  the  valley. 

Lakes  in  northern  and  central  Becker  county,  Minnesota, 
forming  the  sources  of  Otter  Tail  river,  the  head  stream  of  the 
Red  river,  are  1,400  to  1,500  feet  above  the  sea ;  Otter  Tail  lake, 
1,315  feet;  Lake  Clitherall,  1,334;  and  the  East  and  West  Battle 
lakes,  1,328.  The  Red  river  at  Fergus  Falls  descends  about  eighty 
feet  in  three  miles,  from  1,210  to  1,130  feet;  at  Breckenridge  and 
Wahpeton  its  height  at  the  stage  of  low  water  is  943  feet;  at 
Moorhead  and  Fargo,  866  feet ;  at  Grand  Forks,  784 ;  at  St.  Vin- 
cent and  Pembina,  748;  and  at  the  city  of  Winnipeg,  724  feet 
above  the  sea. 

The  range  between  the  lowest  and  highest  stages  of  the  Red 
river  much  surpasses  that  of  any  other  river  in  Minnesota  or 
North  Dakota.  At  Breckenridge  and  Wahpeton  the  range  is 
about  fifteen  feet,  but  it  increases  rapidly  northward,  becoming 
thirty-two  feet  at  Moorhead  and  Fargo,  attaining  its  maximum 
of  fifty  feet  near  the  mouth  of  the  Sand  Hill  river  in  the  south 
part  of  Polk  county,  Minnesota,  and  continuing  nearly  at  forty 
feet  from  Grand  Forks  to  the  international  boundary  and  Winni- 
peg. Floods  rising  nearly  or  quite  to  the  high-water  line  thus 
noted  have  been  rare,  occurring  in  1826,  1852,  1860,  1861,  and 
1882.  They  are  caused  in  the  spring  by  the  melting  of  unusual 
supplies  of  snow  and  by  heavy  rains,  and  often  are  increased  by 
gorges  of  ice,  which  is  usually  broken  up  along  the  southern 
upper  portion  of  the  river  earlier  than  along  its  lower  course. 


These  floods  attain  a  height  only  a  few  feet  below  the  level  of  the 
adjoining  prairie  where  that  is  highest,  and  along  the  greater  part 
of  the  distance  between  Fargo  and  Winnipeg  the  banks  are  over- 
flowed and  the  flat  land  on  each  side  of  the  river  to  a  distance  of 
two  to  four  miles  from  it  is  covered  with  water  one  to  five  feet  or 
more  in  depth. 

The  Archean  Era. 

Granite,  syenite,  greenstone,  gneiss,  and  schists,  belonging  to 
the  Archean  or  Beginning  era,  reach  on  the  northern  boundary 
of  Minnesota  from  Gunflint  and  Saganaga  lakes  west  to  the  Lake 
of  the  Woods.  They  thence  extend  south  upon  a  large  part  of 
St.  Louis  and  Itasca  counties  to  the  Vermilion  and  Mesabi  ranges, 
famed  for  their  immense  deposits  of  iron  ore. 

A  narrow  Archean  belt  continues  from  this  great  area  south- 
ward, mostly  covered  by  the  glacial  drift,  and  expands  into  a 
second  large  area  of  these  rocks  in  central  Minnesota,  reaching 
from  Todd,  Morrison  and  Stearns  counties  northeast  to  Carlton 
county  and  south  to  New  Ulm.  The  extensive  granite  quarries 
near  St.  Cloud  and  Sauk  Eapids  are  in  this  area. 

The  same  rocks  also  underlie  a  large  district  west  of  New  Ulm, 
extending  to  the  western  boundary  of  Minnesota,  mainly  covered 
by  Cretaceous  beds  and  glacial  drift.  In  that  part  of  the  Minne- 
sota Eiver  valley,  channeled  about  150  feet  below  the  general 
level  of  the  country,  the  Archean  granites  and  gneisses  are  seen 
in  many  and  extensive  outcrops,  and  have  been  much  quarried  at 
Ortonville,  near  the  mouth  of  Big  Stone  lake. 

Archean  time,  during  which  these  oldest  rocks  were  formed, 
was  exceedingly  long,  perhaps  equalling  all  the  later  eras.  Its  early 
part  may  be  termed  azoic,  from  the  absence  of  any  evidences  that 
the  earth  or  the  sea  then  had  either  plant  or  animal  life. 

Paleozoic  Time. 

Next  after  the  Archean  was  a  very  long  era  characterized  by 
ancient  types  of  life,  as  its  name  Paleozoic  signifies.  The  chief 
divisions  of  this  era  have  been  named  by  geologists  the  Cambrian, 
Silurian,  Devonian,  Carboniferous,  and  Permian  periods,  succeed- 
ing each  other  in  this  order. 


In  journeying  from  south  to  north  along  the  Red  River  valley, 
the  first  rock  exposures  found  are  Lower  Silurian  strata,  chiefly 
magnesian  limestones,  which  outcrop  in  Manitoba  at  numerous 
localities  twelve  to  twenty  miles  north-northeast  of  Winnipeg, 
and  similar  outcrops,  probably  in  part  of  Upper  Silurian  age, 
which  rise  above  the  general  surface  of  drift  five  to  twenty  miles 
northwesterly  from  Winnipeg  and  at  about  the  same  distance 
west  of  the  river.  Farther  north,  Lower  Silurian  rocks  are  ex- 
posed on  many  of  the  islands  of  Lake  Winnipeg  and  along  its 
western  shore,  but  no  exposures  of  the  underlying  Cambrian  beds, 
which  are  penetrated  by  the  artesian  well  at  Grafton,  North 
Dakota,  have  been  found  in  this  region.  Against  the  western 
border  of  the  folded  and  eroded  Archean  rocks  the  Lower  Silu- 
rian formations  repose  with  nearly  horizontal  stratification.  Their 
general  dip,  varying  from  a  few  feet  to  ten  feet  or  more  per  mile, 
is  westward,  at  right  angles  with  the  axis  of  Lake  Winnipeg  and 
the  line  of  junction  of  the  Archean  and  Paleozoic  rocks. 

West  of  these  Lower  Silurian  strata,  rocks  of  Devonian  age, 
mostly  pale-gray  or  bluff  magnesian  limestones,  occur  on  Lakes 
Manitoba  and  Winnipegosis,  as  reported  in  1884  by  Dr.  George 
M.  Dawson;  ''and  it  is  probable,"  he  wrote,  "that  the  intervening 
formations  will  be  found  to  be  extensively  developed  in  the  Lake 
Winnipeg  region  as  it  is  more  fully  examined." 

Subsequent  exploration  of  this  region  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Tyrrell 
resulted  in  the  discovery  of  Upper  Silurian  strata,  containing 
fossils  characteristic  of  the  Niagara  formation,  on  the  lower  part 
of  the  Saskatchewan  river  and  on  the  east  side  of  Lakes  Mani- 
toba and  Winnipegosis.  All  the  Paleozoic  formations  in  the  lake 
region  of  Manitoba,  from  the  St.  Peter  sandstone  to  the  highest 
Devonian  beds  exposed,  are  stated  by  Mr.  Tyrrell  to  be  "practi- 
cally conformable  and  almost  undisturbed  throughout." 

This  region  has  no  Carboniferous  nor  Permian  strata,  belong- 
ing to  the  closing  periods  of  Paleozoic  time.  If  any  sediments 
were  then  laid  down  here,  they  have  since  been  eroded  and  re- 
moved during  long  ensuing  ages,  when  the  basin  of  the  Red  river 
was  a  land  surface.  Probably  it  stood  above  the  sea,  receiving  no 
marine  nor  estuarine  deposits,  but  undergoing  slow  erosion  by 


rains,  rills,  and  rivers,  bearing  sediments  away,  during  the  Car- 
boniferous period  and  onward  until  the  Cretaceous  period. 

Mesozoic  Time. 

Through  the  early  and  greater  part  of  the  Mesozoic  era,  so 
named  from  its  intermediate  types  of  plants  and  animals,  this 
river  basin  appears  to  have  been  a  land  area,  receiving  therefore 
no  additions  to  its  rock  formations.  The  floras  and  faunas  of 
this  time  were  gradually  changed  from  their  primitive  and  ancient 
characters,  called  Paleozoic,  but  had  not  yet  attained  to  the  rela- 
tively modern  or  new  forms  which  give  the  name  Cenozoic  to 
the  next  era. 

Toward  the  end  of  the  Cretaceous  period,  in  late  Mesozoic 
time,  this  area  was  again  mostly  depressed  beneath  the  sea.  Fre- 
quent outcrops  of  Cretaceous  shales  and  sandstone,  continuous 
from  their  great  expanse  on  the  western  plains,  occur  in  some 
parts  of  central  and  southern  Minnesota ;  and  in  numerous  other 
places,  deep  wells,  after  passing  through  the  thick  covering  of 
glacial  drift,  encounter  these  Cretaceous  strata,  which  sometimes 
are  found  to  reach  to  a  thickness  of  several  hundred  feet.  Fur- 
ther evidence  of  the  eastward  extension  of  the  Cretaceous  sea 
upon  this  state  is  afforded  in  its  northern  part  by  Horace  V.  Win- 
chell's  discoveries  of  Cretaceous  shales  in  place  on  the  Little 
Fork  of  the  Rainy  river  and  on  the  high  Mesabi  iron  range. 

During  the  following  Cenozoic  era,  when  this  was  a  land 
region  subjected  to  erosion,  its  Cretaceous  deposits  were  largely 
carried  away;  but  a  remaining  portion,  in  some  tracts  having 
considerable  depth,  probably  still  lies  beneath  the  drift  on  the 
greater  part  of  the  western  four-fifths  of  Minnesota.  Concerning 
its  eastern  limit,  Professor  N.  H.  Winchell  writes:  "A  line 
drawn  from  the  west  end  of  Hunter's  Island,  on  the  Canadian 
boundary  line,  southward  to  Minneapolis,  and  thence  southeast- 
wardly  through  Rochester  to  the  Iowa  state  line,  would,  in  gen- 
eral, separate  that  part  of  the  state  in  which  the  Cretaceous  is 
not  known  to  exist  from  that  in  which  it  does.  It  is  not  here 
intended  to  convey  the  idea  that  the  whole  state  west  of  this  line 
is  spread  over  with  the  Cretaceous,  because  there  are  many  places 
where  the  drift  lies  directly  on  the  Silurian  or  earlier  rocks ;  but 


throughout  this  part  of  the  state  the  Cretaceous  exists  at  least 
in  patches,  and  perhaps  once  existed  continuously." 

Farther  north,  along  the  west  line  of  the  lower  part  of  the 
Red  River  valley  and  of  Lakes  Manitoba  and  Winnipegosis,  Cre- 
taceous beds  rest  upon  the  Lower  and  Upper  Silurian  and  Devo- 
nian strata  that  form  the  floor  of  this  broad,  flat  valley,  beneath 
its  glacial,  lacustrine,  and  fluvial  deposits.  Thence  northwest- 
ward to  the  Mackenzie  river  and  the  Arctic  ocean,  Cretaceous 
formations  border  and  overlie  the  west  part  of  the  Silurian  and 
Devonian  belt.  West  from  the  Red  river,  the  Cretaceous  area  in 
North  Dakota  and  Montana,  and  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  has 
a  width  of  600  to  700  miles,  including  the  entire  region  of  the 
elevated  plains,  and  terminating  at  the  east  base  of  the  Rocky 

Cenozoic  Time. 

Ever  since  the  uplift  of  the  Red  River  basin  from  the  Creta- 
ceous sea,  it  has  stood  above  the  sea  level  and  has  received  no 
marine  sediments.  It  was  instead  being  slowly  sculptured  by 
rains  and  streams  through  the  long  periods  of  the  Tertiary  era; 
and  during  a  part  of  the  relatively  short  Quaternary  era  it  was 
deeply  covered  by  snow  and  ice  similar  to  the  ice-sheets  that  now 
envelop  the  interior  of  Greenland  and  the  Antarctic  continent. 

These  two  eras,  or  principal  divisions  of  geologic  history,  may 
be  here  classed  together  as  a  single  Cenozoic  era,  distinguished 
by  the  evolutionary  creation  of  new  and  present  types  of  life. 
Nearly  all  the  plants  and  animals  of  the  preceding  eras  have  dis- 
appeared, as  also  many  that  lived  in  the  early  Cenozoic  periods, 
while  new  species  succeeding  them  make  up  the  present  floras 
and  faunas. 

The  creation  of  man,  his  dispersion  over  the  earth,  and  his 
development  in  the  white,  black,  yellow,  and  red  races,  took  place 
during  the  later  part  of  Cenozoic  time,  which  is  often  called  the 
Pleistocene  (meaning  the  newest)  period  or  the  Quaternary  era. 
Finally  the  dominance  of  mankind  in  the  history  of  the  earth, 
with  utilization  of  its  vast  resources,  forms  another  grand  time 
division  which  has  been  called  the  Psychozoic  era,  distinguished 
by  the  higher  life  and  dominion  of  the  mind  or  soul.  Thus  the 


Tertiary,  Quaternary,  and  Psychozoic  divisions  of  time  are  suc- 
cessive parts  of  the  Cenozoic  era,  continuing  to  the  present  day. 

Kains,  rills  and  rivulets,  creeks  and  rivers,  have  been  slowly 
but  constantly  wearing  away  the  Cretaceous  formations  of  the 
Northwest  since  their  elevation  above  the  sea  and  the  drainage 
of  the  immense  Laramie  lake,  which  for  a  long  period  covered 
much  of  their  area.  When  these  marine  and  lacustrine  deposits 
were  first  raised  to  be  dry  land,  they  had  a  monotonously  flat 
surface ;  and  they  probably  extended  east,  as  we  have  seen,  over 
the  entire  basin  of  the  Bed  Eiver  of  the  North  and  of  the  great 
lakes  of  Manitoba,  from  which  they  now  reach  to  the  Rocky 
mountains.  The  greater  part  of  the  present  Cretaceous  area, 
though  eroded  far  below  its  original  surface,  is  flat,  undulating, 
or  only  moderately  rolling,  and  constitutes  a  broad  expanse 
of  plains  with  very  slow  ascent  westward.  But  here  and  there 
isolated  areas  of  much  higher  hilly  land,  as  the  Turtle  mountain, 
consist  of  remnants  of  horizontal  Cretaceous  strata  which  else- 
where have  suffered  denudation  over  all  the  surrounding  country. 
The  plains  have  been  formed  by  the  erosion  of  this  vast  area  to  a 
uniform  base-level,  excepting  only  the  isolated  hilly  tracts  of  com- 
paratively small  extent,  which  serve  to  show  that  on  the  eastern 
part  of  the  plains,  in  North  Dakota  and  southwestern  Manitoba, 
a  thickness  of  not  less  than  500  to  1,000  feet  of  the  Laramie,  Fox 
Hills,  and  Fort  Pierre  formations  has  been  carried  away. 

When  the  depth  and  great  extent  of  this  denudation  are 
compared  with  those  of  the  subsequent  erosion  which  formed 
the  Eed  River  valley  and  the  lowland  adjoining  the  Manitoba 
lakes  by  the  removal  of  the  former  eastern  part  of  the  Creta- 
ceous plains  to  the  limit  of  the  great  escarpment  west  of  this 
valley,  the  early  base-leveling  seems  probably  to  have  occupied 
the  Eocene  and  Miocene  periods,  with  nearly  all  of  the  Pliocene, 
comprising  nine-tenths  or  a  longer  portion  of  the  whole  Ter- 
tiary era. 

At  the  time  of  the  later  uplifting  of  the  plains  near  the  end 
of  the  Pliocene  period,  this  great  base-leveled  region  appears  to 
have  stretched  from  the  Rocky  mountains  to  the  Archean  hills 
of  northern  Minnesota,  and  to  have  included  also  the  expanse 
of  flat  or  only  moderately  undulating  country  which  slowly  falls 


from  Lake  Winnipeg  and  the  upper  part  of  the  Nelson  river 
toward  Hudson  bay. 

The  eastern  margin  of  these  plains  was  then  subjected  to 
renewed  erosion,  removing  the  mostly  soft  Cretaceous  strata  upon 
a  width  of  a  hundred  miles  or  more  and  to  a  depth  westward  of 
several  hundred  feet.  Previous  to  this  new  cycle  of  active  work 
by  the  streams,  Riding  and  Duck  mountains  in  Manitoba  stood 
above  the  general  level,  like  Turtle  mountain  and  other  isolated 
high  areas  farther  west;  and  the  maximum  depth  of  the  late 
stream-cutting  by  which  the  trough  of  the  Red  River  valley  was 
formed  is  approximately  measured  by  the  height  of  the  Pembina 
Mountain  escarpment,  which  rises  300  to  400  feet  from  its  base 
to  its  crest  along  its  extent  of  about  80  miles.  The  greater  part 
of  this  erosion  we  must  attribute  to  the  probably  long  time  of 
elevation  preceding,  and  finally  at  its  climax  producing,  the  ice- 
sheet  of  the  Glacial  period.  So  far  as  can  be  discerned,  the  entire 
hydrographic  basin  of  the  Red  river  may  have  continued,  through 
all  these  vicissitudes  of  changes  of  level,  excepting  when  it  was 
wholly  or  partially  ice-covered,  to  be  drained  in  the  same  north 
and  northeast  direction  as  during  the  Tertiary  era  and  at  the 
present  day. 

Tertiary  and  early  Quaternary  erosion  had  sculptured  the 
grand  features  of  this  river  basin,  and  its  whole  extent  probably 
had  approximately  the  same  contour  immediately  before  the  accu- 
mulation of  the  ice-sheet  as  at  the  present  time.  The  surface 
of  the  feldspathic  Archean  rocks  was  doubtless  in  many  places 
decomposed  and  kaolinized  as  it  is  now  seen  where  they  are 
uncovered  in  the  Minnesota  River  valley,  and  as  such  rocks  are 
frequently  changed  to  a  considerable  depth  in  regions  that  have 
not  been  glaciated.  On  these  and  all  the  other  rock  formations 
the  ordinary  disintegrating  and  eroding  agencies  of  rain  and 
frost  had  been  acting  through  long  ages.  Much  of  the  loose 
material  thus  supplied  had  been  carried  by  streams  to  the  sea, 
but  certainly  much  remained  and  was  spread  in  general  with 
considerable  evenness  over  the  surface,  collecting  to  the  greatest 
depth  in  valleys,  while  on  ridges  or  hilltops  it  would  be  thin  or 
entirely  washed  away.  Except  where  it  had  been  transported 
by  streams  and  consequently  formed  stratified  deposits,  the  only 


fragments  of  rock  held  in  this  mass  would  be  from  underlying 
or  adjoining  rocks.  The  surface  then  probably  had  more  small 
inequalities  than  now,  due  to  the  irregular  action  of  the  processes 
of  weathering  and  denudation,  which  are  apt  to  spare  here  and 
there  isolated  cliffs,  ridges,  and  hillocks ;  but  most  of  these  minor 
features  of  the  topography  have  been  obliterated  by  glacial 
erosion  or  buried  under  the  thick  mantle  of  the  drift. 

The  Ice  Age. 

The  last  among  the  completed  periods  of  geology  was  the  Ice 
age,  most  marvelous  in  its  strange  contrast  with  the  present  time, 
and  also  unlike  any  other  period  during  the  almost  inconceivably 
long,  uniformly  warm  or  temperate  eras  which  had  preceded. 
The  northern  half  of  North  America  and  northern  Europe  then 
became  enveloped  with  thick  sheets  of  snow  and  ice,  probably 
caused  chiefly  by  uplifts  of  the  land  as  extensive  high  plateaus, 
receiving  snowfall  throughout  the  year.  But  in  other  parts  of 
the  world,  and  especially  in  its  lower  temperate  and  tropical 
regions,  all  the  climatic  conditions  were  doubtless  then  nearly  as 
now,  permitting  plants  and  animals  to  survive  and  nourish  until 
the  departure  of  the  ice-sheets  gave  them  again  opportunity  to 
spread  over  the  northern  lands. 

High  preglacial  elevation  of  the  drift-bearing  regions  is  known 
by  the  depths  of  fjords  and  submerged  continuations  of  river 
valleys,  which  on  the  Atlantic,  Arctic,  and  Pacific  coasts  of  the 
north  part  of  North  America  show  the  land  to  have  been  elevated 
at  least  2,000  to  3,000  feet  higher  than  now.  In  Norway  the 
bottom  of  the  Sogne  fjord,  the  longest  and  deepest  of  the  many 
fjords  of  that  coast,  is  4,000  feet  below  the  sea  level.  Previous 
to  the  Glacial  period  or  Ice  age,  and  doubtless  causing  its  abun- 
dant snowfall,  so  high  uplift  of  these  countries  had  taken  place 
that  streams  flowed  along  the  bottoms  of  the  fjords,  channelling 
them  as  very  deep  gorges  on  the  borders  of  the  land  areas. 

Under  the  vast  weight  of  the  ice-sheets,  however,  the  lands 
sank  to  their  present  level,  or  mostly  somewhat  lower,  whereby 
the  temperate  climate,  with  hot  summers,  properly  belonging  to 
the  southern  portions  of  the  ice-clad  regions,  was  restored.  The 
ice-sheets  were  then  rapidly  melted  away,  though  with  numerous 



pauses  or  sometimes  slight  readvances  of  the  mainly  receding 
glacial  boundary. 

On  certain  belts  the  drift  was  left  in  hills  and  ridges,  accu- 
mulated during  this  closing  stage  of  the  Glacial  period  along 
the  margin  of  the  ice  wherever  it  halted  in  its  general  retreat  or 
temporarily  readvanced.  Upon  the  greater  part  of  Minnesota  and 
North  Dakota  the  only  hills  are  formed  of  this  morainic  drift, 
ranging  in  height  commonly  from  25  to  75  to  100  feet,  but  occa- 
sionally attaining  much  greater  altitude,  as  in  the  Leaf  hills  of 
Otter  Tail  county,  Minnesota,  which  rise  from  100  to  350  feet 
above  the  moderately  undulating  country  on  each  side. 

Unstratified  glacial  drift,  called  till  or  boulder  clay,  which 
was  laid  down  by  the  ice-sheet  without  modification  by  water 
transportation,  assorting,  and  deposition  in  beds,  forms  the  sur- 
face of  probably  two-thirds,  or  a  larger  part,  of  these  states  and 
of  Manitoba.  It  consists  of  boulders,  gravel,  sand,  and  clay, 
mingled  indiscriminately  together  in  a  very  hard  and  compact 
formation,  which  therefore  is  frequently  called  "hardpan."  The 
boulders  of  the  till  are  usually  so  plentiful  that  they  are  sprinkled 
somewhat  numerously  on  its  surface ;  yet  there  are  seldom  more, 
on  the  large  portions  of  the  country  which  are  adapted  for  agri- 
culture, than  the  farmer  needs  to  use,  after  clearing  them  from 
his  fields,  for  the  foundations  of  buildings  and  for  walling  up  his 
cellar  and  well.  They  are  rarely  abundant  enough  to  make  walls 
for  the  inclosure  of  fields,  as  in  New  England. 

The  moraine  belts  of  knolly  and  hilly  till  have  far  more  abun- 
dant boulders  than  are  found  on  its  more  extensive  comparatively 
smooth  tracts.  Wherever  the  vicissitudes  of  the  wavering  climate 
caused  the  chiefly  waning  border  of  the  ice-sheet  to  remain  nearly 
stationary  during  several  years,  the  outflow  toward  the  melting 
steep  frontal  slope  brought  much  drift  which  had  been  contained 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  ice,  heaping  it  finally  in  hills  and  ridges 
along  the  ice  margin.  Twelve  of  these  marginal  belts  of  drift 
knolls  and  hills  have  been  traced  in  irregularly  looped  courses 
across  Minnesota,  as  described  and  mapped  in  the  reports  of  that 
state ;  and  west  of  the  Red  River  valley  these  knolly  drift  belts 
continue  through  the  northeastern  half  of  North  Dakota,  and 
onward  across  the  international  boundary. 


About  a  third  part  of  the  entire  mantle  of  drift  consists  of  the 
deposits  called  modified  drift,  being  waterworn  and  stratified 
gravel,  sand,  and  clay  or  silt,  which  were  washed  away  from  the 
drift  upon  and  beneath  the  retreating  ice-sheet  by  the  streams 
due  to  its  melting  and  to  accompanying  rains.  Hillocks  and 
ridges  of  gravel  and  sand  (called  kames  and  eskers),  sand  pla- 
teaus and  plains,  and  the  valley  drift  (varying  from  very  coarse 
gravel  to  very  fine  clay,  often  eroded  so  that  its  remnants  form 
terraces),  are  the  principal  phases  of  the  modified  drift.  In  being 
derived  directly  from  the  ice-sheet,  these  deposits  had  the  same 
origin  as  the  glacial  drift  forming  the  common  till  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  marginal  moraines ;  but  they  were  modified, 
large  boulders  being  not  included,  while  the  gravel  and  finer 
portions  were  brought,  further  pulverized  or  rounded,  and 
assorted  in  layers,  by  water. 

Glacial  Lake  Agassiz. 

When  the  departing  ice-sheet,  in  its  melting  off  the  land  from 
south  to  north,  receded  beyond  the  watershed  dividing  the  basin 
of  the  Minnesota  river  from  that  of  the  Red  river,  a  lake,  fed 
by  the  glacial  melting,  stood  at  the  foot  of  the  ice  fields,  and 
extended  northward  as  they  withdrew  along  the  valley  of  the 
Red  river  to  Lake  Winnipeg,  filling  this  broad  valley  to  the  height 
of  the  lowest  point  over  which  an  outlet  could  be  found.  Until 
the  ice  barrier  was  melted  on  the  area  now  crossed  by  the  Nelson 
river,  thereby  draining  this  glacial  lake,  its  outlet  was  along  the 
present  course  of  the  Minnesota  river.  At  first  its  overflow  was 
on  the  nearly  level  undulating  surface  of  the  drift,  1,100  to  1,125 
feet  above  the  sea,  at  the  west  side  of  Traverse  and  Big  Stone 
counties;  but  in  the  process  of  time  this  cut  a  channel  there, 
called  Brown's  Valley,  100  to  150  feet  deep  and  about  a  mile 
wide,  the  highest  point  of  which,  on  the  present  water  divide 
between  the  Mississippi  and  Nelson  basins,  is  975  feet  above  the 
sea  level.  From  this  outlet  the  valley  plain  of  the  Red  river 
extends  315  miles  north  to  Lake  Winnipeg,  which  is  710  feet 
above  the  sea.  Along  this  entire  distance  there  is  a  very  uniform 
continuous  descent  of  a  little  less  than  one  foot  per  mile. 

The  farmers  and  other  residents  of  this  fertile  plain  are  well 


aware  that  they  live  on  the  area  once  occupied  by  a  great  lake, 
for  its  beaches,  having  the  form  of  smoothly  rounded  ridges  of 
gravel  and  sand,  a  few  feet  high,  with  a  width  of  several  rods, 
are  observable  extending  horizontally  long  distances  upon  each 
of  the  slopes  which  rise  east  and  west  of  the  valley  plain.  Hun- 
dreds of  farmers  have  located  their  buildings  on  these  beach 
ridges  as  the  most  dry  and  sightly  spots  on  their  land,  affording 
opportunity  for  perfectly  drained  cellars  even  in  the  most  wet 
spring  seasons,  and  also  yielding  to  wells,  dug  through  this  sand 
and  gravel,  better  water  than  is  usually  obtainable  in  wells  on 
the  adjacent  clay  areas.  While  each  of  these  farmers — in  fact, 
everyone  living  in  the  Red  River  valley — recognizes  that  it  is  an 
old  lake  bed,  few  probably  know  that  it  has  become  for  this 
reason  a  district  of  special  interest  to  geologists,  who  have  traced 
and  mapped  its  upper  shore  along  a  distance  of  about  800  miles. 
Numerous  explorers  of  this  region,  from  Long  and  Keating 
in  1823,  to  General  G.  K.  Warren  in  1868  and  Professor  N.  H. 
Winchell  in  1872,  recognized  the  lacustrine  features  of  this  val- 
ley ;  and  the  last-named  geologist  first  gave  what  is  now  generally 
accepted  as  the  true  explanation  of  the  lake's  existence,  namely, 
that  it  was  produced  in  the  closing  stage  of  the  Glacial  period 
by  the  dam  of  the  continental  ice-sheet  at  the  time  of  its  final 
melting  away.  As  the  border  of  the  ice-sheet  retreated  north- 
ward along  the  Red  River  valley,  drainage  from  that  area  could 
not  flow,  as  now,  freely  to  the  north  through  Lake  Winnipeg 
and  into  the  ocean  at  Hudson  bay,  but  was  turned  by  the  ice 
barrier  to  the  south  across  the  lowest  place  on  the  watershed, 
which  was  found,  as  before  noted,  at  Brown's  Valley,  on  the  west 
boundary  of  Minnesota. 

Detailed  exploration  of  the  shore  lines  and  area  of  this  lake 
was  begun  by  the  present  writer  for  the  Minnesota  Geological 
Survey  in  the  years  1879  to  1881.  In  subsequent  years  I  was 
employed  also  in  tracing  the  lake  shores  through  North  Dakota 
for  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  and  through  southern 
Manitoba,  to  the  distance  of  100  miles  north  from  the  inter- 
national boundary,  for  the  Geological  Survey  of  Canada.  For 
the  last-named  survey,  also,  Mr,  J.  B.  Tyrrell  extended  the  explo- 
ration of  the  shore  lines,  more  or  less  completely,  about  200  miles 


farther  north,  along  the  Riding  and  Duck  mountains  and  the 
Porcupine  and  Pasquia,  hills,  west  of  Lakes  Manitoba  and  Winni- 
pegosis,  to  the  Saskatchewan  river. 

This  glacial  lake  was  named  by  the  present  writer  in  the 
eighth  annual  report  of  the  Minnesota  Geological  Survey,  for 
the  year  1879,  in  honor  of  Louis  Agassiz,  the  first  prominent 
advocate  of  the  theory  of  the  formation  of  the  drift  by  land  ice. 
Its  overflowing  river,  whose  channel  is  now  occupied  by  Lakes 
Traverse  and  Big  Stone  and  Brown's  Valley,  was  also  named 
by  me,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  American  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science,  at  its  Minneapolis  meeting  in  1883,  as 
the  River  Warren,  in  commemoration  of  General  Warren's  ad- 
mirable work  in  the  United  States  Engineering  Corps,  in  publish- 
ing maps  and  reports  of  the  Minnesota  and  Mississippi  river 
surveys.  Descriptions  of  Lake  Agassiz  and  the  River  Warren 
were  somewhat  fully  given  in  the  eighth  and  eleventh  annual 
reports  of  the  Minnesota  Geological  Survey,  and  in  the  first, 
second  and  fourth  volumes  of  its  final  report;  and  more  complete 
descriptions  and  maps  of  the  whole  lake,  in  Minnesota,  North 
Dakota  and  Manitoba,  were  published  in  1895  as  Monograph 
XXV  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey. 

Several  successive  levels  of  Lake  Agassiz  are  recorded  by 
distinct  and  approximately  parallel  beaches  of  gravel  and  sand, 
due  to  the  gradual  lowering  of  the  outlet  by  the  erosion  of  the 
channel  at  Brown's  Valley,  and  these  are  named  principally  from 
stations  on  the  Breckenridge  and  Wahpeton  line  of  the  Great 
Northern  railway,  in  their  descending  order,  the  Herman,  Nor- 
cross,  Tintah,  Campbell,  and  McCauleyville  beaches,  because  they 
pass  through  or  near  these  stations  and  towns.  The  highest  or 
Herman  beach  is  traced  in  Minnesota  from  the  northern  end  of 
Lake  Traverse  eastward  to  Herman,  and  thence  northward,  pass- 
ing a  few  miles  east  of  Barnesville,  through  Muskoda,  on  the 
Northern  Pacific  railway,  and  around  the  west  and  north  sides 
of  Maple  lake,  which  lies  about  twenty  miles  east-southeast  of 
Crookston,  beyond  which  it  goes  eastward  to  the  south  side  of 
Red  and  Rainy  lakes.  In  North  Dakota  the  Herman  shore  lies 
about  four  miles  west  of  Wheatland,  on  the  Northern  Pacific 
railway,  and  the  same  distance  west  of  Larimore,  on  the  Pacific 


line  of  the  Great  Northern  railway.  On  the  international  boun- 
dary, in  passing  from  North  Dakota  into  Manitoba,  this  shore 
coincides  with  the  escarpment  or  front  of  the  Pembina  Mountain 
plateau;  and  beyond  passes  northwest  to  Brandon  on  the  Assini- 
boine,  and  thence  northeast  to  the  Riding  mountain. 

Leveling  along  the  upper  beach  shows  that  Lake  Agassiz,  in  its 
earliest  and  highest  stage,  was  nearly  200  feet  deep  above  Moor- 
head  and  Fargo;  a  little  more  than  300  feet  deep  above  Grand 
Forks  and  Crookston ;  about  450  feet  above  Pembina,  St.  Vincent, 
and  Emerson :  and  about  500  and  600  feet,  respectively,  above 
Lakes  Manitoba  and  Winnipeg.  The  length  of  Lake  Agassiz  is 
estimated  to  have  been  nearly  700  miles,  and  its  area  not  less  than 
110,000  square  miles,  exceeding  the  combined  areas  of  the  five 
great  lakes  tributary  to  the  St.  Lawrence. 

After  the  ice  border  was  so  far  melted  back  as  to  give  outlets 
northeastward  lower  than  the  River  "Warren,  numerous  other 
beaches  marking  these  lower  levels  of  the  glacial  lake  were 
formed ;  and  finally,  by  the  full  departure  of  the  ice,  Lake  Agassiz 
was  drained  away  to  its  present  representative,  Lake  Winnipeg. 

While  the  outflow  passed  southward,  seventeen  successive 
shore  lines,  marked  by  distinct  beach  ridges,  were  made  by  the 
gradually  falling  northern  part  of  this  lake ;  but  all  these,  when 
traced  southward,  are  united  into  the  five  beaches  before  noted 
for  the  southern  part  of  the  lake.  During  its  stages  of  north- 
eastern outflow,  a  lower  series  of  fourteen  shore  lines  were  made. 
Thus  Lake  Agassiz  had,  in  total,  thirty-one  successive  stages  of 
gradual  decline  in  height  and  decrease  in  area. 

The  earliest  Herman  beach  has  a  northward  ascent  of  about 
a  foot  per  mile,  but  the  lowest  and  latest  beaches  differ  only 
very  slightly  from  perfect  horizontality.  It  is  thus  known  that 
a  moderate  uplift  of  this  area,  increasing  in  amount  from  south 
to  north,  was  in  progress  and  was  nearly  or  quite  completed 
while  the  ice-sheet  was  melting  away.  Before  the  Glacial  period, 
all  the  northern  half  of  our  continent  had  been  greatly  elevated, 
producing  at  last  the  cold  and  snowy  climate  and  the  thick  ice- 
sheet  ;  in  a  late  part  of  that  period  the  land  was  depressed  under 
the  weight  of  the  ice,  which  in  consequence  melted  away;  and 
latest,  at  the  same  time  with  the  departure  of  the  ice-sheet,  the 


unburdened  land  rose  a  few  hundred  feet,  the  uplift  having  a 
gradual  increase  toward  the  central  part  of  the  country  formerly 

In  comparison  with  the  immensely  long  and  ancient  geologic 
periods  that  had  preceded,  the  final  melting  of  the  ice-sheet,  the 
deposition  of  its  marginal  moraines  and  other  drift  formations, 
its  fringing  glacial  lakes,  and  the  attendant  uplifting  of  the  land, 
occupied  little  time  and  were  very  recent.  The  entire  duration 
of  Lake  Agassiz,  estimated  from  the  amount  of  its  wave  action 
in  erosion  and  in  the  accumulation  of  beach  gravel  and  sand, 
appears  to  have  been  only  about  1,000  years,  and  the  time  of  its 
existence  is  thought  to  have  been  somewhere  between  6,000  and 
10,000  years  ago. 

Length  of  Time  Since  the  Ice  Age. 

In  various  localities  we  are  able  to  measure  the  present  rate 
of  erosion  of  gorges  below  waterfalls,  and  the  length  of  the  post- 
glacial gorge  divided  by  the  rate  of  recession  of  the  falls  gives 
approximately  the  time  since  the  end  of  the  Ice  Age,  and  since 
the  geologically  brief  existence  of  this  great  glacial  lake.  Such 
measurements  of  the  gorge  and  Falls  of  St.  Anthony  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi river  at  Minneapolis  by  Professor  N.  H.  Winchell  show 
the  length  of  the  Postglacial  or  Recent  period  to  have  been  about 
8,000  years;  and  from  the  surveys  of  Niagara  Falls,  Professor 
G.  F.  Wright  and  the  present  writer  believe  it  to  have  been  7,000 
years,  more  or  less.  From  the  rates  of  wave-cutting  along  the 
sides  of  Lake  Michigan  and  the  consequent  accumulation  of  sand 
around  the  south  end  of  the  lake,  Dr.  E.  Andrews  estimates  that 
the  land  there  became  uncovered  from  its  ice-sheet  not  more 
than  7,500  years  ago.  Professor  "Wright  obtains  a  similar  result 
from  the  rate  of  filling  of  kettle-holes  among  gravel  knolls  and 
ridges,  and  likewise  from  the  erosion  of  valleys  by  streams  tribu- 
tary to  Lake  Erie;  and  Professor  B.  K.  Emerson,  from  the  rate 
of  deposition  of  modified  drift  in  the  Connecticut  valley  at  North- 
ampton, Mass.,  thinks  that  the  time  since  the  Glacial  period  can- 
not exceed  10,000  years.  An  equally  small  estimate  is  also  indi- 
cated by  the  studies  of  Gilbert  and  Russell  for  the  time  since  the 
highest  rise  of  the  Quaternary  lakes,  Bonneville  and  Lahontan. 


lying  in  Utah  and  Nevada,  within  the  Great  Basin  of  interior 
drainage,  which  are  believed  to  have  been  contemporaneous  with 
the  great  extension  of  ice-sheets  upon  the  northern  part  of  our 

Professor  James  Geikie  maintains  that  the  use  of  paleolithic 
implements  in  the  Stone  Age  had  ceased,  and  that  early  man  in 
Europe  made  neolithic  (polished)  implements,  before  the  reces- 
sion of  the  ice-sheet  from  Scotland,  Denmark,  and  the  Scandi- 
navian peninsula ;  and  Prestwich  suggests  that  the  dawn  of  civili- 
zation in  Egypt,  China,  and  India  may  have  been  coeval  with  the 
glaciation  of  northwestern  Europe.  In  Wales  and  Yorkshire  the 
amount  of  denudation  of  limestone  rocks  on  which  boulders  lie 
has  been  regarded  as  proof  that  a  period  of  not  more  than  6,000 
years  has  elapsed  since  the  boulders  were  left  in  their  positions. 
The  vertical  extent  of  this  denudation,  averaging  about  six  inches, 
is  nearly  the  same  with  that  observed  in  the  southwest  part  of 
the  province  of  Quebec  by  Sir  William  Logan  and  Dr.  Eobert 
Bell,  where  veins  of  quartz  worn  by  glaciation  stand  out  to 
various  heights  not  exceeding  one  foot  above  the  weathered 
surface  of  the  inclosing  limestone. 

From  this  wide  range  of  concurrent  but  independent  testi- 
monies, we  may  accept  it  as  practically  demonstrated  that  the 
period  since  the  ice-sheets  disappeared  from  North  America  and 
Europe,  and  also  since  Lake  Agassiz  existed  in  the  Red  Eiver 
valley,  measures  some  6,000  to  10,000  years.  Within  this  period 
are  comprised  the  successive  stages  of  man's  development  of  the 
arts,  from  the  time  when  his  best  implements  were  polished  stone, 
through  ages  of  bronze,  iron,  and  finally  steel,  to  the  present  time, 
when  steel,  steam,  and  electricity  bring  all  nations  into  close 


E.  J.  Babcock, 

Dean,  College  of  Mining  Engineering,  State  University, 
North  Dakota. 

The  topography  of  the  Red  River  valley  cannot  be  fully  con- 
sidered apart  from  that  of  the  state  as  a  whole,  since  the  topog- 
raphy of  the  eastern  part  of  the  state  blends  into  and  forms  a 
part  of  that  of  the  central  and  western  portion  of  the  state.  In 
common  with  most  of  the  great  prairie  districts  west  of  the 
Mississippi  river,  the  Red  River  valley,  and,  indeed,  North  Dakota 
as  a  whole,  presents  no  great  extremes  of  altitude  and  no  very 
marked  feature  of  topography.  Like  a  large  part  of  the  Great 
Plains,  it  is  principally  characterized  by  the  vast  expanse  of 
nearly  level  or  rolling  prairies.  In  the  main  the  land  is  well 
supplied  with  surface  water  by  several  river  systems  and  numer- 
ous small  lakes.  The  four  most  important  rivers  are  the  Red 
River  of  the  North,  along  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  state,  the 
Missouri  river  in  the  western  part,  and  the  Sheyenne  and  James 
rivers  in  the  central  portion  of  the  state.  Nearly  all  the  streams 
within  the  limits  of  North  Dakota  are  sluggish,  rather  shallow, 
and  often  muddy.  As  might  be  expected  from  the  geology,  they 
lack  the  falls  and  cataracts  and  the  sparkling  character  of  the 
streams  of  a  more  rugged  and  rocky  country. 

The  state,  however,  is  not  without  a  modest  variety  of  surface 
features,  for  there  is  not  only  the  very  level  plain  of  the  valley 
of  the  Red  River  of  the  North  and  the  districts  west  and  south- 



west,  but  there  is  much  beautiful  rolling  prairie,  especially  be- 
tween the  Pembina  and  Turtle  mountains  on  the  north  and 
Sheyenne  river  on  the  south.  Along  the  Souris  and  Missouri 
rivers,  toward  the  northwest,  are  undulating  plateaus,  and  in  the 
southwestern  portion  of  the  state  are  the  more  extensively  eroded 
surfaces,  which  in  some  localities  present  in  miniature  the  wild- 
ness  and  picturesqueness  of  the  Grand  Canyon  district  of  the 
Colorado.  While  no  very  marked  natural  divisions  can  be  traced, 
the  surface  may  in  a  general  way  be  classified  topographically  as 
follows:  Red  River  valley,  Pembina  and  Turtle  Mountain  high- 
land, central  rolling  prairie,  and  the  western  coteau  of  the 

The  Red  River  valley  lies  along  the  eastern  boundary  of  North 
Dakota  and  comprises  a  tract  from  twenty-five  to  seventy  miles 
wide,  extending  across  the  state  from  south  to  north.  This  whole 
area  is  very  nearly  a  level  plain,  rising  slightly  on  both  sides 
of  the  stream  which  gives  its  name.  The  river  flows  somewhat 
east  of  the  central  portion  of  this  flat  bottom  in  a  general  course 
from  south  to  north.  Its  channel  is  winding,  as  is  common  to 
streams  flowing  slowly  through  clay  and  other  easily  eroded 
material.  The  banks  of  the  stream,  which  are  mostly  of  fine  silt 
and  clay,  rise  rapidly  on  both  sides  to  from  fifteen  to  forty-five 
feet  above  the  water.  Most  of  the  tributaries  are  small  and  cross 
the  plain  in  similar  channels,  which  frequently  widen  out  in  the 
spring  into  little  ponds,  that  nearly  always  become  dry  by  early 
summer.  The  drainage  is  gotten  principally  by  these  tributary 
gullies,  which,  though  small,  are  of  great  advantage  in  carrying 
the  spring  floods  and,  later  in  the  season,  in  furnishing  good 
pasture  land. 

The  valley  has  a  very  uniform  descent  toward  the  north,  but 
so  slight  as  to  be  entirely  imperceptible  to  the  eye.  The  inclina- 
tion usually  ranges  from  about  six  inches  to  two  feet  to  the  mile. 

At  Wahpeton  the  surface  is  about  960  feet  above  the  sea  level ; 
near  Fargo,  900  feet;  near  Grand  Forks,  about  830  feet;  and  at 
the  international  boundary,  about  790  feet.  Toward  the  west 
the  ascent  from  the  river  is  somewhat  more  rapid,  averaging 
from  50  to  75  feet  to  the  mile  for  the  first  25  miles.  Near  the 
boundary  line  a  distance  of  30  miles  west  of  the  river  brings  one 


to  the  edge  of  the  valley  at  the  Pembina  mountains,  which  rise 
from  300  to  350  feet  above  the  surface.  West  of  the  river  from 
25  to  50  miles  the  ascent  becomes  quite  rapid  as  the  various  ridges 
of  the  glacial  deposits  are  passed,  until,  going  beyond  the  Red 
River  valley,  the  central  portion  of  the  state  is  reached. 

The  Red  River  valley  is  immediately  underlain  by  alluvial 
clays,  modified  drift,  sand  and  gravel.  With  this  remarkably 
strong  subsoil  and  equally  remarkable  deep  and  rich  upper  soil, 
there  is  good  reason  for  the  fertility  which  has  characterized  this 
region.  A  large  variety  of  prairie  grasses  grow  with  great  luxu- 
riance in  this  valley,  but  it  is  especially  noted  for  its  large  yield 
of  superior  quality  of  wheat.  There  is  considerable  timber  skirt- 
ing the  banks  of  the  Red  river,  but  very  little  away  from  the 

Going  west  about  thirty  miles  from  the  Red  River  of  the 
North  near  the  international  boundary,  one  reaches  an  area  rising 
abruptly  from  the  gentle  inclination  of  the  valley  to  a  height 
from  400  to  600  feet  above  the  Red  river.  This  elevated  land 
stretches  many  miles  northward  into  Canada,  and  southward 
forms  a  gradually  descending  plain  far  into  the  central  part  of 
the  state.  In  its  northeastern  portion  this  elevated  tract  is 
known  as  the  Pembina  mountains.  Toward  the  west  the  eleva- 
tion increases  slightly,  occasionally  interrupted  by  low  land,  until 
it  practically  unites  with  the  Turtle  Mountain  highland  west  of 
the  Pembina  mountains.  Topographically,  as  well  as  geologically, 
these  two  elevations  should  be  considered  together. 

Along  the  northern  part  of  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Pembina 
mountains  the  elevation  presents  the  appearance  of  a  prominent 
wooded  bluff,  rising  from  250  to  350  feet  above  the  surrounding 
level,  and  extending  in  a  nearly  direct  line  toward  the  south. 
This  ridge  gradually  decreases  in  elevation,  until  at  its  south- 
eastern extremity  it  is  scarcely  more  than  fifty  feet  above  the 
country  around,  and  then  it  is  lost  in  the  rolling  prairie.  Along 
the  eastern  edge  of  the  escarpment  the  elevation  above  the  sea 
ranges  from  about  1,100  feet  in  the  eastern  part  to  1,500  feet  in 
the  northwestern. 

The  eastern  face  of  this  escarpment  is  frequently  scarred  by 
deep  transverse  ravines  running  back  from  the  edge  of  the  hills 


from  one  to  fifteen  miles  toward  the  west.  Nearly  all  of  these 
valleys  are  covered  with  small  timber,  and  in  the  spring  contain 
small  streams,  which  in  most  cases  become  nearly  dry  in  summer. 
Along  the  sides  of  these  gullies  are  numerous  springs  of  good 
water  (usually  slightly  impregnated  with  sulphur  and  lime).  In 
summer  these  springs  become  the  main  supplies  which  keep  up 
the  brooks.  There  are  only  three  or  four  streams  worthy  of 
mention  along  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Pembina  mountains.  In 
the  northern  part  the  Little  Pembina  has  cut  a  channel  through 
the  drift  and  clay  from  50  to  350  feet  in  depth.  This  stream 
flows  about  ten  miles  east  and  from  four  to  six  miles  north  into 
the  Big  Pembina  river  near  the  international  boundary  line.  For 
most  of  its  way  the  stream  occupies  a  very  narrow,  winding  bed 
in  a  valley  from  one-quarter  to  one-half  mile  wide,  and  usually 
300  feet  or  more  deep.  The  stream  is  fed  for  a  large  part  of  the 
year  by  numerous  springs.  The  ravine  through  which  it  passes 
is  well  supplied  with  small  timber  (cottonwood,  poplar,  and  oak). 
There  are  many  charming  views  along  this  stream. 

A  few  miles  south  of  the  Little  Pembina  river  is  the  Tongue 
river,  which  presents  general  characteristics  much  like  the  Little 
Pembina,  but  which  flows  a  much  shorter  distance  through  the 
Pembina  highland.  Ten  or  twelve  miles  south  of  the  Tongue  river 
is  the  north  branch  of  the  Park  river.  The  three  branches  of  the 
Park  flow  through  the  descending  southern  portion  of  this  eleva- 
tion and,  as  would  be  expected,  have  shallower  and  narrower 
banks  and  much  slower  currents.  The  banks  have  but  few  trees. 

The  most  important  stream  of  this  region  is  the  Pembina  river, 
which  flows  through  the  mountains  near  the  international  boun- 
dary line.  This  river  rises  far  to  the  west,  near  the  Turtle  moun- 
tains, and  flows  in  an  easterly  direction,  through  Manitoba  and 
North  Dakota,  into  the  Red  river  near  the  town  of  Pembina. 
In  a  direct  line  this  distance  is  probably  120  miles  or  more,  but 
by  the  actual  length  of  the  stream  it  is  much  greater,  since  its 
course  is  quite  circuitous.  A  large  portion  of  its  channel  has 
been  cut  through  the  Turtle  and  Pembina  Mountain  highland. 
Its  banks  are  from  50  to  350  feet  high,  and  the  valley  varies  in 
width  from  a  few  rods  to  nearly  a  mile.  Along  the  deepest  part 
of  the  valley,  toward  the  eastern  part  of  the  Pembina  mountains, 


the  banks  are  high  and  rugged  and  well  covered  with  small  trees. 
At  Walhalla  the  river  flows  out  of  the  higher  part  of  this  eleva- 
tion, through  a  low  ridge  of  drift  and  clay,  into  the  Red  River 
valley.  From  Walhalla  back  several  miles  to  what  is  known  as 
the  ''Fish  Trap"  the  river  has  a  very  rapid  current.  At  the  latter 
place  there  is  a  good  water-power,  and  at  Walhalla  a  small  part 
of  the  power  is  utilized  for  milling.  From  its  source  to  Walhalla 
the  river  falls  about  700  feet,  and  from  Walhalla  to  the  mouth, 
about  185  feet. 

From  the  ravines  of  the  streams  along  the  eastern  edge,  bor- 
dering the  Red  river,  the  crest  of  the  Pembina  mountains  forms 
a  treeless,  rolling  plateau  stretching  away  toward  the  west.  Over 
most  of  this  tract,  between  the  Pembina  and  the  Turtle  moun- 
tains, a  distance  of  about  100  miles,  there  is  very  little  to  note 
except  that  it  is  a  high  prairie.  There  are  but  few  streams  and 
lakes,  or  other  marked  surface  features.  This  whole  region  is 
usually  productive  of  good  crops  of  small  grain.  This  section  is 
well  supplied  with  a  variety  of  excellent  prairie  grasses.  Toward 
the  western  edge  of  this  belt  there  is  a  gradual  elevation  ap- 
proaching the  Turtle  mountains,  and  a  slight  descent  toward 
the  south.  The  .southern  slope  shows  a  very  gentle  drainage 
system,  beginning  near  the  base  of  the  Turtle  mountains,  and 
becoming  more  pronounced  as  it  extends  farther  into  the  Devils 
Lake  basin.  In  fact,  this  basin  is  the  natural  drainage  reservoir 
for  the  waters  of  the  larger  part  of  the  northern  highland  just 
discussed.  There  are  no  streams  worthy  of  mention  along  the 
western  part  of  this  district,  except  those  which,  like  the  Pembina 
river,  have  their  sources  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Turtle  moun- 
tains in  Canada.  While  there  is  no  river  drainage  to  the  south 
worth  mentioning,  there  is  certainly  a  great  surface  and  sub- 
surface drainage  toward  the  south.  Doubtless  much  water  slowly 
percolates  through  the  drift  and  upon  and  in  the  cretaceous 
clays  from  this  elevation  toward  the  basin  in  which  Devils  Lake 
is  situated. 

The  Turtle  mountains  proper  form  a  high  rolling  plateau 
about  forty  miles  long  by  thirty  miles  wide,  its  longer  axis  being 
east  and  west.  The  surface  rises  gradually  from  all  sides,  but 
within  one  or  two  miles  the  elevation  suddenly  increases  until  it 


reaches  a  height  of  300  to  400  feet  above  the  surrounding  country. 
The  sides  of  the  hills  are  nearly  treeless,  but  among  the  hilltops 
there  is  a  good  deal  of  small  timber.  The  Turtle  mountains  pre- 
sent a  very  broken  outline  on  account  of  the  large  number  of 
subordinate  hills  and  ridges.  The  highest  of  the  buttes  reaches 
an  elevation  of  perhaps  2,000  feet  above  the  sea,  or  600  feet 
above  the  surrounding  country.  The  top  of  the  mountains  has  a 
beautifully  rolling  surface  covered  with  trees  and  dotted  with 
lakes  and  ponds.  Many  fine  farms  are  located  here.  Near  the 
central  part  of  these  hills  is  the  attractive  little  Lake  Metigoshe. 

The  Turtle  mountains  consist  of  a  mass  of  Cretaceous  and 
Laramie  slates  and  clays  which  have  escaped  erosion  and  are 
covered  with  a  thin  layer  of  drift  material.  This  material  is, 
however,  somewhat  cut  out  on  top  of  the  plateau,  and  thus  is 
formed  a  great  gathering  reservoir.  No  doubt  a  large  amount 
of  the  water  flowing  in  the  brooks  and  from  the  numerous  springs 
has  gradually  seeped  through  the  clays  and  sand  to  the  hillside, 
where  it  emerges  as  springs.  The  Turtle  Mountains  district  cer- 
tainly is  to  a  greater  or  less  degree  connected  with  the  under- 
ground water  supply  of  the  prairies  to  the  south. 

Looking  toward  the  south  from  the  heights  of  the  Turtle 
mountains,  one  has  spread  out,  400  feet  or  more  below  him,  a 
beautiful  view  of  a  gently  rolling  prairie  region  dotted  with  small 
farm-houses  surrounded  occasionally  by  planted  groves.  As  far 
as  the  eye  can  reach,  this  undulating  surface  extends,  gradually 
decreasing  in  elevation  as  it  approaches  Devils  Lake.  From 
points  farther  east,  toward  the  Pembina  mountains,  a  similar 
though  less  marked  descent  toward  the  south  is  noticeable.  So, 
as  has  been  said,  the  Devils  Lake  region  becomes  the  natural 
gathering  basin  for  this  northern  highland  district.  This  basin 
has  flowing  into  it  only  small  streams,  for  the  most  part  coulees, 
which  often  become  dry  in  the  summer.  There  are  very  many 
of  these  shallow  water  courses,  now  mostly  dry,  which  were 
doubtless  at  one  time  very  important  factors  in  draining  the 
northern  district  and  in  maintaining  the  supply  of  surface  water 
in  and  about  Devils  Lake.  When  the  land  was  thickly  covered 
with  prairie  grass,  the  latter  apparently  served  as  a  thatch,  which 
prevented  the  water  from  soaking  into  the  soil.  This,  of  course, 


allowed  more  water  to  accumulate  in  the  coulees,  and  eventually 
in  the  lake  basin.  As  the  land  was  put  under  the  plow,  more 
of  the  water  which  fell  as  rain  percolated  through  the  soil,  and  a 
smaller  proportion  ran  away  as  surface  water.  Thus  there  seems 
to  be  good  reason  for  the  noticeable  decrease  in  the  quantity  of 
water  in  the  lakes  and  ponds  of  this  region. 

Many  of  the  coulees  originate  in  the  Turtle  mountains  and 
flow  toward  the  south,  but  their  course  is  generally  very  winding. 
They  vary  in  size  from  wide  sags  only  two  or  three  feet  deep,  to 
narrow  channels  50  to  100  feet  wide  and  with  banks  25  feet  high. 
When  water  is  not  flowing  through  them,  small  ponds  are  fre- 
quently left.  The  wider  portions  usually  make  valuable  hay  and 
pasture  lands. 

In  the  northern  and  northeastern  part  of  this  region  the 
streams  cut  through  a  rich  and  rather  clayey  soil  and  a  strong 
blue-clay  subsoil  which  is  largely  mixed  with  drift  material. 
Toward  the  west,  from  Cando  to  Eugby,  and  for  some  distance 
west  and  south  of  Eugby,  the  surface  is  somewhat  more  rolling, 
and  the  soil  has  a  larger  proportion  of  sand.  The  natural  drain- 
age of  this  region  is  toward  the  southeast,  and  from  Eugby  there 
is  a  well-marked  drainage  to  the  Sheyenne  and  James  rivers. 
This  old  tributary  to  these  rivers  is  now  usually  dry.  There  are, 
however,  a  few  ponds  and  lakes  left,  notable  among  which  is  the 
Girard  Lake,  a  body  of  water  perhaps  three  miles  long  and  from 
one  mile  to  two  miles  wide. 

Girard  Lake  and  several  smaller  lakes,  which  were  evidently 
at  one  time  parts  of  it,  show  in  many  places,  by  their  marked 
shore  lines  and  deposits,  a  period  when  the  water  was  from  ten 
to  thirty  or  forty  feet  higher  and  spread  over  an  area  several 
times  as  great  as  that  now  occupied.  This  old  lake  had  a  very 
irregular  shore  line ;  its  length  was  probably  greatest  from  north- 
west to  southeast.  In  many  places  now  several  feet  above  the 
water  level  are  two  or  three  lines  of  boulders  and  gravel,  and 
occasional  stumps  of  silicified  wood.  There  is  no  doubt  that  this 
lake  had  its  outlet  to  the  Sheyenne  river  and  upper  feeders  of 
the  James  river.  That  these  conditions  remained  nearly  constant 
for  some  time  is  evident  from  the  character  of  the  old  shore 
deposits  as  well  as  from  the  banks  of  the  upper  Sheyenne  river. 


By  far  the  most  characteristic  feature  of  this  part  of  the  state 
is  Devils  Lake  and  surrounding  country.  The  lake  lies  along 
Ramsey  and  Benson  counties,  with  its  length  extending  east  and 
west.  Taking  the  lake  with  its  arms,  some  of  which  are  nearly 
dry  or  separated  by  portions  of  land,  but  which  properly  belong 
to  the  lake,  the  length  would  be  about  twenty-four  miles  and  the 
width  average  perhaps  between  four  and  seven  miles.  There  was 
unquestionably  a  time,  early  in  the  history  of  the  lake,  when  it 
occupied  two  or  three  times  its  present  area.  The  old  shore  lines 
indicate  that  its  water  level  must  have  been  from  twenty  to  forty 
feet  above  that  of  today.  Now  the  water  is  from  twenty-five  to 
thirty  feet  deep,  away  from  the  shore,  as  indicated  by  a  number 
of  soundings.  The  southern  shore  of  the  lake,  which  is  often 
thickly  strewn  with  large  boulders,  rises  rather  rapidly  into  a 
high,  rolling  country  whose  surface  is  broken  by  numerous  steep 
knobs,  some  of  them  200  to  275  feet  above  the  water  level.  The 
western  part  of  this  tract  is  included  in  the  Sioux  Indian  reserva- 
tion. The  northern,  western,  and  eastern  shores  rise  gradually 
from  the  water's  edge,  for  several  miles  back  from  the  lake.  The 
old  lake  extended  much  farther  north  and  west,  as  may  well  be 
seen  by  the  old  bays  which  are  now  dry  or  are  only  moist  enough 
for  good  meadows.  The  lake  is  now  fed  by  the  immediate  sur- 
face drainage,  which  is  usually  carried  by  a  few  coulees.  A  large 
part  of  the  water  which  formerly  drained  into  the  lake  from  a 
distance  has  been  cut  off  by  the  cultivation  of  the  prairie  land. 
As  a  result,  the  shallower  parts  of  the  lake  have,  within  the  last 
fifteen  years,  dried  up,  and  the  water  area  has  thus  been  very 
much  reduced.  It  does  not  seem  probable,  however,  that  a  pro- 
portional decrease  will  follow  within  the  next  fifteen  years. 

The  central  portion  of  the  state  south  of  Devils  Lake  is 
drained  by  the  Sheyenne  and  James  rivers.  The  Sheyenne  rises 
about  thirty  miles  west  of  Devils  Lake  and  flows  in  a  very  wind- 
ing channel  for  about  900  miles  toward  the  east ;  then  it  takes  a 
course  nearly  due  south  for  about  100  miles,  until,  twenty  miles 
or  so  from  the  southeastern  limit  of  the  state,  it  turns  north- 
easterly into  the  Red  River  valley  and  empties  into  the  Red  river 
a  short  distance  above  Fargo.  It  will  thus  appear  that  the  Devils 
Lake  region  has  in  a  way  its  ultimate  drainage  into  the  Red  River 


valley.  For  the  greater  part  of  its  course  the  stream  is  narrow, 
its  channel  being  cut  through  yellow  and  blue  clay.  Often  the 
banks  are  strewn  high  up  on  the  sides  with  glacial  debris.  They 
vary  greatly  in  height,  from  a  few  feet  near  the  mouth,  to  eighty 
or  ninety  feet  near  the  upper  waters.  Along  parts  of  the  river 
course  there  are  well-marked  terraces,  wrhich  were  doubtless 
formed  when  the  stream  was  an  outlet  for  the  glacial  lake  region 
to  the  north.  The  western  part  of  the  country  drained  by  the 
Sheyenne  river  is  a  high,  rolling  prairie,  often  from  1,300  to  1,600 
feet  above  the  sea.  The  soil  is  very  rich  and,  when  there  is  a  fair 
amount  of  rainfall,  produces  an  abundant  crop. 

Some  of  the  small  streams  which  form  the  headwaters  of  the 
James  river  are  southwest  of  Devils  Lake  and  within  a  few  miles 
of  the  source  of  the  Sheyenne.  At  this  place  the  two  rivers  are 
separated  by  a  ridge  several  miles  wide.  The  country  around  the 
western  tributaries  of  this  river  is  much  the  same  as  that  about 
the  Sheyenne  river.  The  two  rivers  doubtless  joined  in  the  work 
of  draining  the  early  glacial  lakes.  The  James  river  flows  for 
about  150  miles  in  a  southeasterly  direction  until  it  crosses  the 
state  line  into  South  Dakota.  The  general  character  of  the  stream 
and  of  the  surrounding  country  is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the 
Sheyenne  river.  The  surface  to  the  south  is  rather  more  level  and 
of  much  lower  altitude.  The  channel  is  cut  through  clay  and 
drift,  but  the  soil  and  subsoil  have  a  larger  proportion  of  sand 
than  is  found  farther  north. 

Any  one  who  will  thoroughly  consider  the  surface  appear- 
ance presented  over  nearly  all  the  eastern  part  of  North  Dakota 
will  be  impressed  with  the  fact  that  some  widely  operative  and 
powerful  agency,  within  a  comparatively  recent  geologic  period, 
has  been  shaping  surface  features  and  accumulating,  mingling 
and  distributing  over  large  areas  the  immense  amount  of  uncon- 
solidated  foreign  material  which  covers  to  a  considerable  thick- 
ness earlier  stratified  formations. 

One  of  the  most  characteristic  deposits  within  North  Dakota 
is  the  drift  which  is  spread  over  a  large,  part  of  the  state  east 
of  the  Missouri  river.  This  deposit  is  made  up  largely  of  sand 
and  clay  mingled  with  gravel  and  boulders,  presenting  a  hetero- 


geneous  mass  totally  unlike  the  sedimentary  formations  upon 
which  it  lies. 

The  embedding  material  is  usually  thick  sheets  of  blue  and 
yellow  clay,  sometimes  alternating  with  beds  of  sand  and  gravel, 
in  both  of  which  are  scattered  large  blocks  of  various  kinds  of 
rocks,  sometimes  weighing  several  thousand  pounds.  These  boul- 
ders are  frequently  smoothed  and  scored  with  fine  parallel 
scratches.  A  knowledge  of  the  character  of  these  rock  masses, 
and  a  familiarity  with  some  of  the  rocks  outcropping  farther 
north  in  Canada,  leads  us  to  believe  that  the  debris  was  trans- 
ported from  northern  regions.  Much  of  the  limestone  found  in 
the  drift  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state  was  undoubtedly  taken 
from  the  beds  which  outcrop  about  Lake  Winnipeg.  A  study  of 
well  excavations  and  the  channels  eroded  by  streams  shows  that 
this  drift  material  has  covered  an  old  land  surface.  In  some 
places  in  the  Red  River  valley,  drift  and  alluvial  deposits  reach 
to  a  depth  of  300  to  350  feet.  In  the  northern  and  western  part 
of  the  state  the  thickness  is  commonly  from  30  to  100  feet. 

The  agent  which  accomplished  this  gigantic  work  must  have 
been  a  great,  slowly  moving  ice-sheet  similar  to  that  which  now 
covers  a  large  part  of  Greenland.  This  vast  ice-sheet,  which  in  its 
northern  portions,  at  least,  must  have  been  very  deep,  tore  away 
exposed  rock  ledges  and  enveloped  and  bore  along  with  it  the 
loose  material  with  which  it  came  in  contact.  This  debris  was 
frozen  into  the  ice  and,  under  the  enormous  weight  above  it, 
became  a  mighty  grinding  power,  and  as  it  moved  slowly  but 
irresistibly  onward  from  the  north,  the  enclosed  rock  masses 
were  worn  away  to  smaller  fragments,  pebbles,  sand  and  clay, 
and  all  mixed  with  surface  clay  and  soils.  Thus  was  formed, 
during  the  long  ages  of  the  Glacial  period,  an  enormous  amount 
of  this  rock  refuse,  which,  with  the  return  of  a  warmer  climate 
and  the  melting  of  the  ice-sheet,  was  intermingled  and  spread  far 
and  wide.  This  material,  by  reason  of  its  variety  of  composition 
and  depth  of  deposit,  is  well  calculated  to  become  the  foundation 
of  the  rich  soil  so  characteristic  of  the  eastern  and  central  part  of 
North  Dakota. 

The  drift  deposit  is  sometimes  divided  into  till  or  boulder 
clay  and  stratified  drift.  The  till  is  naturally  lower,  and  consists 


of  a  heterogeneous  mass  of  clay,  sand,  pebbles,  and  even  large 
rock  masses.  The  larger  rocks  are  usually  more  angular  than 
those  in  the  upper  stratified  material,  and  frequently  show  glacial 
marks.  The  till  is  probably  derived  from  the  material  which  was 
frozen  into  the  lower  portion  of  the  ice-sheet  and  was  dropped 
as  the  ice  melted.  No  doubt  large  floating  icebergs  which  had 
stranded  and  melted  frequently  dropped  their  loads  of  rock 
material  over  a  partly  stratified  drift.  In  the  central  part  of  the 
state,  in  the  Devils  Lake  region,  the  till  is  found  commonly  at  a 
depth  of  fifteen  to  thirty  feet,  and  usually  continues  for  fifty  feet 
or  more.  A  great  number  of  shallow  wells  derive  their  supply  of 
water  from  this  deposit. 

The  stratified  drift  is  found  immediately  overlying  the  till. 
It  is  composed  usually  of  fine  blue  and  yellow  clay,  which  in 
many  places  is  quite  free  from  pebbles  or  boulders,  and  shows 
unmistakable  evidence  of  stratification.  This  material  forms  a 
thick  deposit  immediately  under  the  soil  in  the  Red  River  valley, 
along  valleys  of  several  other  streams  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
state,  and  over  many  portions  of  the  Devils  Lake  drainage  basin. 
The  boulders  and  pebbles  which  are  found  in  this  upper  modified 
drift  show  clearly,  by  their  smooth  and  rounded  surface,  that 
they  have  been  water-worn.  The  stratification  probably  took 
place  after  the  retreat  of  the  ice-sheet,  when  the  water  from  the 
melting  ice  had  formed  great  lakes  which  filled  the  river  valleys 
and  lower  ground  and  spread  out  over  large  tracts  of  nearly 
level  land. 

The  various  drift  deposits  which  have  just  been  mentioned 
indicate  that  a  very  large  area  in  North  Dakota  was  at  a  late 
geological  period  covered  by  a  great  sheet  of  ice  which  stretched 
far  away  to  the  north  into  Canada.  With  a  change  in  climatic 
conditions,  the  ice  began  to  melt  along  its  southern  border,  and 
the  water,  being  banked  on  the  north  by  the  great  ice  barrier, 
gradually  formed  a  glacial  lake  on  the  southern  boundary  of  the 
sheet.  As  the  glacier  continued  its  retreat  to  the  north,  the  extent 
and  depth  of  the  lake  increased,  the  water  spreading  out  over 
the  Red  River  valley,  and,  finding  no  other  outlet  open,  at  last 
overflowed  the  height  of  land  near  Lake  Traverse,  making  its 
way  through  that  lake  and  Big  Stone  Lake  into  the  Minnesota 


river,  and  thence  into  the  Mississippi.  Finally,  however,  the  ice 
melted  far  enough  toward  the  north  to  open  a  natural  outlet 
through  Lake  Winnipeg  and  Hudson  bay,  when  it  began  forming 
the  present  valley  of  the  Red  river.  The  total  area  covered  by 
this  great  lake,  known  as  Lake  Agassiz,  has  been  estimated  by 
Warren  Upham  at  110,000  square  miles,  over  which  the  water 
often  reached  a  depth  of  500  to  700  feet.  The  area  covered  in 
North  Dakota  was  about  6,000  to  7,000  square  miles.  After  the 
opening  of  the  northern  outlet,  Lake  Agassiz  was  rapidly  drained. 
In  the  low  land  of  the  Winnipeg  basin,  however,  a  large  body 
of  water  was  left,  a  portion  of  which  forms  the  present  Lake 

The  former  presence  of  this  body  of  water  is  recorded  in  three 
ways — i.  e.,  by  lacustrine  sediments,  by  extensive  alluvial  and 
delta  deposits,  and  by  corresponding  extensive  erosion.  The  fine 
silt  and  clay  which  are  so  characteristic  of  the  Red  River  valley 
were  undoubtedly  deposited  from  the  sediment  of  Lake  Agassiz 
and  the  many  glacial  rivers  which  brought  debris  into  this  basin 
from  the  surrounding  higher  land.  The  water  of  the  glacial  Red 
river  gradually  narrowed,  but  being  much  deeper  in  the  central 
portion  of  the  valley,  it  remained  there  a  longer  time,  and  thus 
gave  opportunity  for  a  thicker  deposit  of  sediment  than  is  found 
along  the  old  lake  margin.  Mr.  Warren  Upham  has  traced  a 
series  of  beaches  marking  clearly  the  extent  of  Lake  Agassiz  at 
its  various  stages.  The  streams  which  flow  through  the  lacustrine 
sediments  usually  have  narrow  and  shallow  banks,  but  the  valleys 
of  those  streams  which  flow  into  the  basin  of  Lake  Agassiz  are 
commonly  deep  and  wide,  showing  much  erosion.  This  is  par- 
ticularly noticeable  of  the  streams  flowing  from  the  Little  Pem- 
bina  and  Pembina  rivers.  Along  the  eastern  escarpment  of  the 
Pembina  mountains  the  erosive  action  of  the  old  lake  is  clearly 
seen  in  the  almost  cliff-like  ascent  of  the  Cretaceous  tablelands. 

But  Lake  Agassiz  was  not  the  only  glacial  lake  by  which  the 
surface  of  the  level  prairie  of  North  Dakota  was  modified.  In 
the  central  part  of  the  state  there  were  probably  several  lakes  at 
various  periods  following  the  glacial  epoch,  which  were  formed 
from  the  melting  of  arms  of  the  ice-sheet.  One  of  the  most  impor- 
tant of  these  was  glacial  Lake  Souris.  Devils  Lake  and  its  imme- 


diate  drainage  basin  is  doubtless  a  remnant  of  one  of  these  lakes. 
The  Sheyenne  and  James  rivers  were  probably  started,  and  high 
bluffs  along  the  western  portion  of  these  streams  washed  out, 
during  the  time  when  districts  to  the  north,  about  Devils  Lake, 
and  to  the  west,  being  flooded  by  the  melting  ice,  were  drained 
of  great  quantities  of  water  by  these  rivers.  All  through  the 
eastern  and  central  portion  of  the  state,  the  ice-sheet,  the  lakes, 
and  the  river  torrents  formed  by  the  melting  ice,  exerted  a 
powerful  influence  in  giving  fertility  to  the  soil  and  final  shape 
to  the  surface  of  our  North  Dakota  prairies. 


The  admission  of  Minnesota  in  the  Union  in  1858  left  out  Pem- 
bina  county,  embracing  the  Red  River  valley,  afterwards  part 
of  North  Dakota,  and  which  formerly  belonged  to  Minnesota 
when  it  was  a  territory.  Pembina  had  been  for  some  years  repre- 
sented in  the  Minnesota  territorial  government,  and  the  county 
of  Big  Sioux,  embracing  the  Sioux  Falls  region,  had  been  organ- 
ized by  the  same  authority.  In  1849  there  were  in  Pembina 
county  295  males  and  342  females,  as  reported  by  Major  Wood 
and  Captain  Pope,  of  the  United  States  Army,  who  established 
the  military  post  at  Pembina  at  that  time.  In  1856  the  Indian 
title  to  25,000  square  miles,  embracing  the  Big  Sioux  country, 
having  been  extinguished,  and  that  immense  tract  of  land  opened 
to  settlement,  there  was  a  rush  of  settlers  to  that  locality  from 
1857  on  to  1862,  from  Minnesota  and  Iowa,  principally. 

Election  Notice. 

"At  a  mass  convention  of  the  people  of  Dakota  territory, 
held  in  the  town  of  Sioux  Falls,  in  the  county  of  Big  Sioux,  on 
Saturday,  September  18,  1858,  all  portions  of  the  territory  being 
represented,  it  was  resolved  and  ordered  that  an  election  should 
be  held  for  members  to  compose  a  territorial  legislature. 

"Dated  at ,  this  twentieth  day  of  September,  A.  D.,  1858." 

In  accordance  with  the  notice  the  election  was  held  for  mem- 
bers of  the  provisional  legislature  and  delegate  to  congress.  A.  G. 
Fuller  was  chosen  to  fill  the  last  named  office.  The  legislature 
thus  elected  met  at  Sioux  Falls  in  the  winter  of  1858-59  and 
organized  by  the  choice  of  Henry  Masters  as  president  of  the 
council  and  ex-  officio  governor,  and  S.  J.  Albright  as  speaker  of 



the  house.  The  session  lasted  but  a  few  days.  Governor  Masters 
died  a  short  time  after  this,  and  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  white 
man  to  die  in  the  valley. 

In  the  meantime  the  settlers  in  the  southern  part  of  the  coun- 
try called  a  convention  to  meet  at  Yankton,  which  assembled  at 
the  at  that  time  uncompleted  store  of  D.  T.  Bramble,  November  8, 
1858.  Mr.  Bramble  was  chosen  chairman  and  M.  K.  Armstrong 
secretary  of  the  meeting.  Captain  J.  B.  S.  Todd,  Obed  Foote  and 
Thomas  Frek  were  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  set  of  reso- 
lutions. It  was  determined  to  memorialize  congress  for  authority 
to  organize  as  a  territory,  and  for  this  purpose  a  committee 
consisting  of  Captain  J.  B.  S.  Todd,  G.  D.  Fiske  and  J.  M.  Stone 
was  appointed  to  draw  up  the  petition.  The  next  day  a  similar 
meeting  was  held  at  Vermillion,  of  which  J.  A.  Denton  was  chair- 
man and  James  McHenry  secretary.  Captain  J.  B.  S.  Todd  was. 
appointed  by  the  people  in  mass  meeting  assembled,  at  both 
places,  to  carry  their  petition  to  Washington  and  lay  before  the 
congress  of  the  nation  the  wishes  of  the  people.  In  response  to 
their  desires  a  bill  looking  to  the  organization  of  the  territory  of 
Dakota  was  introduced  in  the  senate,  but  no  action  was  taken 
upon  the  matter  at  that  session. 

In  the  fall  of  1859  another  attempt  was  made  toward  terri- 
torial organization,  and  another  legislature  chosen.  J.  P.  Kidder 
was  elected  delegate  to  congress;  S.  J.  Albright  was  elected 
governor,  but  was  returned  as  a  member  of  the  legislature,  of 
which  body  he  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  house;  "W.  W.  Brook- 
ings,  elected  president  of  the  council,  was  declared  ex-officio 
governor.  Memorials  to  congress  were  again  prepared  and  given 
to  Mr.  Kidder  to  lay  before  that  body.  On  his  arrival  in  Wash- 
ington, and  claiming  admission  to  that  congress  as  a  delegate, 
it  was  denied  him,  he  failing  of  securing  his  seat  by  but  a  few 
votes,  however.  At  that  time  politics  ran  high  and  the  strife 
between  the  parties  was  intense  in  this  country,  then  just  on  the 
eve  of  the  most  stupendous  civil  war  in  the  history  of  nations. 
Everything  in  our  national  council  was  more  or  less  subservient 
to  the  main  question,  slavery,  its  extension  or  non-extension.  The 
Republican  members  of  congress  insisted  upon  the  insertion  in 
the  organic  act  instituting  the  new  territory  of  Dakota,  a  clause 


prohibiting  the  introduction  of  slaves,  as  such,  into  the  territory. 
That  aroused  the  southern  members,  whose  solid  opposition  nulli- 
fied the  wishes  of  the  people  of  Dakota. 

Territorial  Government  Granted. 

The  now  thoroughly  aroused  settlers  again  made  a  strong 
effort  to  force  recognition  from  the  federal  government.  Decem- 
ber 27,  1860,  a  representative  convention  assembled  at  Yankton 
to  take  action  in  the  matter.  On  the  15th  of  January,  1861,  a 
lengthy  and  earnest  appeal  to  the  government  was  adopted 
by  this  body,  to  which  was  appended  the  names  of  578  citizens 
of  the  wished-for  territory.  Copies  were  forwarded  to  |the 
seat  of  federal  government  at  Washington  and  laid  before  both 
houses  of  congress.  At  the  most  stormy  session  of  the  national 
council,  a  bill  organizing  the  territory  of  Dakota  was  intro- 
duced, and  most  of  the  members  from  the  southern  states 
having  in  the  meantime  withdrawn  on  the  eve  of  rebellion, 
opposition  to  the  bill  ceased  and  it  passed  both  houses. 
On  the  2nd  of  March,  1861,  President  Buchanan  signed  the 
act,  and  the  territory  of  Dakota  at  last  entered  upon  its 
legal  existence.  The  bill  organizing  the  same  was  passed  by 
the  senate  February  26,  and  the  house  March  1.  Dakota  at  that 
time  embraced  an  area  of  over  350,000  square  miles,  and  included 
all  of  Montana,  "Wyoming,  and  part  of  Idaho.  These  were  subse- 
quently detached,  the  last  change  of  boundaries  being  made  in 
1873  in  readjusting  the  line  between  Dakota  and  Montana. 

Territorial  Officers. 

No  officers  were  appointed  by  the  outgoing  administration, 
but  in  May,  1861,  President  Abraham  Lincoln  commissioned 
William  Jayne,  of  Illinois,  first  governor.  About  the  same  time 
the  following  territorial  officers  were  appointed:  John  Hutchin- 
son,  of  Minnesota,  secretary;  Philemon  Bliss,  of  Ohio,  chief  jus- 
tice ;  Lorenzo  P.  Williston,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Joseph  L.  Will- 
iams, of  Tennessee,  associate  justices ;  William  E.  Gleason,  United 
States  district  attorney;  William  T.  Shaffer,  of  Illinois,  United 
States  marshal;  and  George  D.  Hill,  of  Michigan,  surveyor- 


W.  A.  Burleigh  was  appointed  agent  at  the  Yankton  Indian 
reservation,  and  H.  W.  Gregory  to  that  of  Ponca. 

Governor  Jayne  was  a  resident  of  Springfield,  111.,  at  the  time 
of  his  appointment,  and  was  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  prof  es- 
-sion,  medicine.  He  enjoyed  the  intimate  friendship  of  Abraham 
Lincoln,  who  esteemed  him  highly  and  thus  sought  to  honor. 

Governor  Jayne  and  his  secretary  arrived  at  Yankton,  May  27, 
1861,  that  having  been  designated  as  the  territorial  capital,  and 
opened  the  executive  office  in  a  log  cabin  opposite  Ash's  tavern. 
The  surveyor-general's  office  was  located  at  first  in  Bramble's 
building.  The  first  official  act  of  the  new  governor  was  the 
.appointment  of  agents  to  take  a  census  of  the  new  territory 
upon  which  to  base  the  apportionment  for  representation  in  the 
general  assembly,  and  the  following  were  named:  Andrew  J. 
Harlan,  for  the  district  east  of  the  Yermillion  river  and  south  of 
Sioux  Falls ;  W.  W.  Brookings,  for  the  Sioux  Falls  district ;  Obed 
Foote,  for  the  Kankton  district,  which  extended  westerly  from 
the  Vermillion  river  to  Yankton ;  George  M.  Pinney,  for  the  Bon 
Homme  district;  J.  D.  Morse,  for  the  country  on  the  Missouri 
river  north  of  the  Niobrara  river;  and  Henry  D.  Betts  for  the 
country  of  the  Red  River  valley.  These  gentlemen  made  a  report, 
according  to  one  account,  showing  a  population  in  what  is  now 
North  Dakota,  entire  whites,  76;  of  mixed  breeds,  514,  making 
a  total  of  590.  In  what  is  now  South  Dakota  the  same  authority 
gives  as  the  population:  Whites,  1,140;  half-breeds,  46;  or  a 
population  for  the  entire  territory,  excluding  Indians,  of  1,775. 
Other  accounts  place  the  whole  number  of  people  in  the  entire 
territory  at  that  time  at  2,879,  and  the  commissioner  of  immigra- 
tion, in  his  report  for  1887,  places  it  for  the  year  1860  at  4,837, 
basing  his  figures  upon  the  census  report  of  the  general  govern- 
ment for  the  year  mentioned. 

On  the  13th  of  July,  following  his  installation  into  office,  the 
governor  made  an  apportionment  of  the  territory  into  three  judi- 
cial districts,  as  follows :  All  that  part  of  the  territory  of  Dakota 
lying  east  of  the  line  between  ranges  53  and  54  west  of  the  fifth 
principal  meridian,  should  be  known  as  the  first  judicial  district, 
and  should  be  presided  over  by  Hon.  L.  W.  Williston;  all  that 
part  of  the  territory  lying  between  the  line  dividing  ranges  53 


and  54  and  the  line  dividing  ranges  57  and  58,  was  designated 
as  the  second  district,  and  Hon.  Philemon  Bliss  assigned  to  pre- 
side over  its  judicial  functions.  The  third  district  was  consti- 
tuted of  the  west  part  of  the  territory  and  presided  over  by 
Judge  Joseph  L.  Williams.  By  a  proclamation  dated  July  29, 
1861,  the  governor  established  legislative  districts  throughout  the 
territory  and  apportioned  the  representation  as  follows: 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  lying  between  the  Mis- 
souri and  Bix  Sioux  rivers,  and  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  range 
line  dividing  ranges  50  and  51  west  and  that  portion  of  Dakota 
territory  lying  west  of  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  and  including 
the  settlement  at  and  adjacent  to  Pembina  and  St.  Joseph,  shall 
comprise  the  first  council  district,  and  be  entitled  to  two 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  by  the  Ver- 
million  river  on  the  west  and  on  the  east  by  the  line  dividing 
ranges  50  and  51,  shall  compose  the  second  council  district,  and 
be  entitled  to  two  councilmen. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  by  the  Ver- 
million  river  on  the  east,  on  the  west  by  the  line  dividing  ranges 
53  and  54  west,  shall  compose  the  third  council  district,  and  be 
entitled  to  one  councilman. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  on  the  east  by 
the  line  dividing  ranges  53  and  54,  and  on  the  west  by  the  line 
dividing  ranges  57  and  58  west,  shall  compose  the  fourth  council 
district,  and  be  entitled  to  two  councilmen. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  on  the  east  by 
Choteau  creek  and  on  the  west  by  a  line  west  of  and  including 
that  settlement  known  as  the  Hamilton  settlement,  and  also  that 
portion  of  Dakota  situated  between  the  Missouri  and  Niobrara 
rivers,  shall  compose  the  sixth  council  district  and  be  entitled 
to  one  councilman. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  situated  between  the 
Missouri  and  Big  Sioux  rivers  and  bounded  on  the  west  by  the 
line  dividing  ranges  50  and  51  west,  and  bounded  on  the  north 
by  the  line  dividing  townships  94  and  95  north,  shall  compose 
the  first  representative  district,  and  shall  be  entitled  to  two 


''All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  lying  west  of  the  Big 
Sioux  river  and  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  line  dividing  town- 
ships 94  and  95,  and  on  the  west  by  the  line  dividing  ranges  50 
and  51,  and  on  the  north  by  a  line  drawn  due  east  and  west  from 
the  south  end  of  Lake  Preston,  shall  constitute  the  second  repre- 
sentative district,  and  be  entitled  to  one  representative. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  lying  on  the  Red  River 
of  the  North,  including  the  settlements  at  St.  Joseph  and  Pem- 
bina,  shall  compose  the  third  representative  district,  and  be 
entitled  to  one  representative. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  by  the  Ver- 
million  river  on  the  west,  and  on  the  east  by  the  line  dividing 
ranges  50  and  51,  shall  compose  the  fourth  representative  district, 
and  be  entitled  to  two  representatives. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  by  the  Ver- 
million  river  on  the  east  and  on  the  west  by  the  line  dividing 
ranges  53  and  54,  shall  compose  the  fifth  representative  district, 
and  be  entitled  to  two  representatives. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  on  the  east  by 
the  line  dividing  ranges  53  and  54,  and  on  the  west  by  the  line 
dividing  ranges  57  and  58,  shall  compose  the  sixth  representative 
district,  and  be  entitled  to  two  representatives. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  on  the  east 
by  the  line  dividing  ranges  57  and  58  west,  on  the  west  by 
Choteau  creek,  shall  compose  the  seventh  representative  district, 
and  be  entitled  to  two  representatives. 

"All  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  bounded  on  the  east  by 
Choteau  creek,  and  on  the  west  by  a  line  drawn  west  of  and  to 
include  the  settlement  known  as  the  Hamilton  settlement;  and, 
also,  that  portion  of  Dakota  territory  situated  between  the  Mis- 
souri and  the  Niobrara  rivers,  shall  compose  the  eighth  repre- 
sentative district  and  be  entitled  to  one  representative." 

In  the  same  proclamation  the  new  executive  appointed  the 
following  polling  places  for  the  use  of  the  citizens  in  the  various 
parts  of  the  territory.  To  quote  his  own  words : 

"I  do  hereby  establish  in  the  aforesaid  districts  the  following 
places  for  voting: 

"In  the  first  representative  district,  at  the  dwelling  house  of 


Thomas  Maloney,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  of  election  thereat 
William  Matthews,  James  Somers  and  Thomas  Maloney;  and 
also  at  the  hotel  of  Eli  Wilson,  in  Elk  Point,  and  do  appoint  as 
judges  thereat  Sherman  Clyde,  William  Frisbie  and  K.  P.  Ronne. 
In  the  second  representative  district,  at  the  house  of  William 
Amidon,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  G.  P.  Waldron,  Barney  Fowler 
and  John  Kelts.  In  the  third  representative  district  at  the  house 
of  Charles  Le  May,  in  the  town  of  Pembina,  and  do  appoint  as 
judges  Charles  Le  May,  James  McFetridge  and  H.  Donelson; 
and  also  at  the  house  of  Baptiste  Shorette,  in  the  town  of  St. 
Joseph,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  Baptiste  Shorette,  Charles 
Bottineau  and  Antoine  Zangreau. 

"In  the  fourth  representative  district,  at  the  house  of  James 
McHenry,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  A.  J.  Harlan,  Ole  Anderson 
and  A.  Eckles.  In  the  fifth  representative  district,  at  the  house 
of  Bly  Wood,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  Ole  Olson,  Bly  Wood  and 
Ole  Bottolfson.  In  the  sixth  representative  district,  at  the  office 
of  Todd  &  Frost,  and  do  appoint  as  judges  M.  K.  Armstrong,  F. 
Chapel  and  J.  S.  Presho.  In  the  seventh  representative  district, 
at  Herrick's  hotel,  in  Bon  Homme,  and  do  appoint  as  judges 
Daniel  Gifford,  George  M.  Pinney  and  George  Falkenburg.  And 
in  the  eighth  district,  at  the  house  of  F.  D.  Pease,  and  do  appoint 
as  judges  J.  V.  Hamilton,  Benjamin  Estes  and  Joseph  Ellis,  and 
also  at  Gregory's  store,  and  appoint  as  judges  Charles  Young, 
James  Tufts  and  Thomas  Small." 

About  this  time  the  various  candidates  for  the  position  of 
delegate  to  congress  began  to  come  forward  and  make  efforts  to 
capture  that  office. 

Prominent  among  the  settlers  at  that  time  was  Captain  John 
B.  S.  Todd,  an  ex-army  officer  and  a  relative  of  Mrs.  Lincoln's, 
a  man  who  was  a  leader  in  the  movement  toward  organization, 
and  filled  a  foremost  place  in  the  opinions  of  his  friends  and 
neighbors ;  he  was  the  leading  candidate.  The  opposition  to  him 
crystallized  and  settled  upon  A.  J.  Bell  as  their  choice.  Later 
Charles  P.  Booge,  then  in  business  at  Sioux  City,  but  who  claimed 
a  residence  within  the  territory,  announced  himself  as  a  candidate 
for  the  same  office. 

The  election,  which  was  held  Monday,  September  16,  1361, 


resulted  in  the  election  of  Mr.  Todd,  who. received  397  votes.  A. 
J.  Bell  received  78  votes  and  Charles  P.  Booge  110. 

The  first  territorial  legislature,  which  was  chosen  at  this 
election,  met  at  Yankton,  March  17,  1862,  and  continued  in  ses- 
sion until  May  15,  following.  The  membership  was  as  follows : 

Council— John  H.  Shober,  H.  D.  Betts,  el.  W.  Boyle,  D.  T. 
Bramble,  W.  W.  Brookings,  A.  Cole,  Jacob  Deuel,  J.  S.  Gregory 
and  Enos  Stutsman. 

House — George  M.  Pinney,  Moses  K.  Armstrong,  Lyman  Bur- 
gess, J.  A.  Jacobson,  John  C.  McBride,  Christopher  Maloney,  A. 
W.  Puett,  John  Stanage,  John  L.  Tiernan,  Hugh  S.  Donaldson, 
Reuben  Wallace,  George  P.  Waldron  and  B.  E.  "Wood. 

On  their  organization  the  council  chose  the  following  officers : 
J.  H.  Shober,  president;  James  Tufts,  secretary;  E.  M.  Bond, 
assistant  secretary;  W.  R.  Goodfellow,  engrossing  and  enrolling 
clerk;  S.  W.  Ingham,  chaplain;  Charles  F.  Picotte,  sergeant-at- 
arms;  E.  B.  Wixon,  messenger,  and  W.  "W.  Warford,  fireman. 
The  house,  on  organization,  selected  as  their  officers :  George  M. 
Pinney,  speaker ;  J.  R.  Hanson,  chief  clerk ;  J.  M.  Allen,  assistant 
clerk ;  D.  Gifford,  enrolling  clerk ;  B.  M.  Smith,  engrossing  clerk ; 
M.  D.  Metcalf,  chaplain;  James  or  M.  H.  Somers,  sergeant-at- 
arms;  A.  B.  Smith,  messenger;  and  Ole  Anderson,  fireman. 

The  second  general  election  was  held  September  1,  1862,  and 
in  some  parts  of  the  territory  considerable  excitement  prevailed. 
The  board  of  canvassers  gave  the  rival  candidates  for  the  posi- 
tion of  delegate  to  congress,  William  Jayne  and  J.  B.  S.  Todd, 
237  and  221  votes  respectively,  they  for  some  reason  throwing 
out  the  vote  of  Bon  Homme  and  Charles  Mix  counties.  The  Red 
river  valley  apparently  made  no  returns  of  this  election.  Gov- 
ernor Jayne  was  declared  elected  to  congress,  but  a  contest  for 
the  seat  was  instituted  by  Captain  Todd  before  congress,  and 
the  latter,  proving  his  case,  was  given  the  place. 

Captain  Todd  served  in  the  capacity  of  delegate  to  the 
national  house  of  representatives  during  the  years  1861  and 
1863.  He  was  succeeded  by  W.  F.  Burleigh,  whose  term  of 
service  was  from  1864  to  1869 ;  S.  L.  Spink,  1869-71 ;  Moses  K. 
Armstrong,  1871-75;  J.  P.  Kidder,  1875-79;  G.  G.  Bennett, 
1879-81;  R.  F.  Pettigrew,  1881-83:  J.  B.  Raymond,  1883-85; 


Oscar  S.  Gifford,  1885-88;  and  George  A.  Matthews,  1888-89, 
successively  filled  this  high  office. 

Dr.  William  Jayne,  the  first  governor  of  Dakota  territory, 
occupied  the  position  of  first  magistrate  for  two  years,  being 
succeeded  in  1863  by  Newton  Edmunds.  In  1866  Andrew  J. 
Faulk  was  appointed  governor,  and  remained  in  that  office  until 
1869,  when  he  gave  way  for  John  A.  Burbank.  The  latter 's  term 
of  service  was  from  1869  to  1874.  John  L.  Pennington,  the  next 
incumbent,  served  until  1878.  His  successor,  William  A.  Howard, 
was  appointed  and  qualified  for  the  office.  Governor  Howard 
died  April  10,  1880,  while  still  in  the  gubernatorial  chair,  and 
Nehemiah  G.  Ordway,  of  New  Hampshire,  was  appointed  to  fill 
the  vacancy.  The  latter 's  term  of  service  expired  in  1884.  Gil- 
bert A.  Pierce,  the  next  appointee,  filled  the  position  from  1884 
till  1887,  when  he,  in  turn,  made  way  for  his  successor,  Louis 
K.  Church.  In  1889  Arthur  C.  Mellette  became  governor  of  the 
territory  by  appointment,  and  was  the  first  governor  of  the  state 
of  South  Dakota  by  election. 

Of  the  secretaries  of  the  territory  of  Dakota  the  first  one 
appointed  was  John  L.  Hutehinson,  who  continued  in  office  from 
1861  until  1865 ;  he  was  succeeded  by  S.  L.  Spink.  The  latter 
held  the  position  until  1869.  During  the  latter  year  Turney  M. 
Wilkins  was  appointed  and  held  the  office  until  the  following 
year,  when  George  A.  Batchelder  was  appointed  to  the  place. 
Edwin  S.  McCook  was  appointed  in  1872.  He  was  assassinated 
by  Peter  P.  Wintermute  in  September,  1873.  The  next  to  fill 
the  position  was  Oscar  Whitney,  who  held  the  same  from  the 
date  of  his  predecessor's  death  until  the  appointment  of  his  suc- 
cessor, George  H.  Hand,  in  1874.  The  latter  remained  in  office 
until  1883,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  J.  M.  Teller.  In  1886 
Michael  McCormack  was  appointed  Mr.  Teller's  successor,  and 
was  succeeded,  in  1889,  by  L.  B.  Richardson,  who  was  the  last 
to  be  appointed  to  that  office. 

Presidential  appointees  who  filled  the  important  office  of  chief 
justice  during  territorial  days  were :  Philemon  Bliss,  1861-64 ; 
Ara  Bartlett,  1865-69;  George  W.  French,  1869-73;  Peter  C. 
Shannon,  1873-81 ;  A.  J.  Edgerton,  1881-85,  and  Bartlett  Tripp, 


Of  those  who  acted  as  associate  justices  while  the  territory 
was  in  existence,  the  following  is  a  list,  with  the  date  of  their 
services.  Many  of  them  will  be  recognized  as  prominent  mem- 
bers of  the  Dakota  bar  before  and  after  their  terms  upon  the 
bench,  and  others  occupied  more  exalted  positions.  They  were: 
S.  P.  Williston,  1861-65;  J.  S.  Williams,  1861-64;  Ara  Bartlett, 
1864-65 ;  W.  E.  Gleason,  1865-66 ;  J.  P.  Kidder,  1865-75 ;  J.  W. 
Boyle,  1864-69 ;  W.  W.  Brookings,  1869-73 ;  A.  H.  Barnes,  1873-81 ; 
G.  G.  Bennett,  1875-79;  G.  C.  Moody,  1878-83;  J.  P.  Kidder, 
1878-83;  C.  S.  Palmer,  1883-87;  S.  A.  Hudson,  1881-85;  William 
E.  Church,  1883-86;  Louis  K.  Church,  1885-87;  Seward  Smith, 
1884;  W.  H.  Francis,  1884-88 ;  John  E.  Garland,  1887-89 ;  William 
B.  McConnell,  1885-88;  Charles  M.  Thomas,  1886-89;  James 
Spencer,  1887-89 ;  Roderick  Rose,  1888-89 ;  L.  W.  Crofoot,  1888-89 ; 
Frank  R.  Aikens,  1889.  Of  these  Judge  J.  P.  Kidder  died  while 
in  office  in  1883,  and  was  succeeded  by  C.  S.  Palmer,  of  Vermont. 

Of  those  who  filled  the  important  position  of  United  States 
district  attorney  during  the  twenty-eight  years  of  Dakota's  ter- 
ritorial government  the  following  is  the  roll,  together  with  the 
years  of  their  services :  William  E.  Gleason,  1861-64 ;  George  H. 
Hand,  1866-69 ;  Warren  Coles,  1869-73 ;  William  Pond,  1873-77 ; 
Hugh  J.  Campbell,  1877-85 ;  John  E.  Carland,  1885-88 ;  William 
E.  Purcell,  1888-89,  and  John  Murphy,  1889.  William  Pond  died 
while  in  office  in  1877. 

During  the  same  time  the  office  of  United  States  marshal  was 
filled  by  the  following  parties :  William  F.  Shaffer,  1861 ;  G.  M. 
Pinney,  1861-65;  L.  W.  Litchfield,  1865-72;  J.  H.  Burdick, 
1872-77 ;  J.  B.  Raymond,  1877-81 ;  Harrison  Allen,  1881-85,  and 
Daniel  Maratta,  1885-89. 

The  office  of  commissioner  of  railroads  of  the  territory  was 
held  successively  by  the  following  named:  William  M.  Evens, 
chairman ;  Alexander  Griggs  and  W.  H.  McVay,  in  1886 ;  Alex- 
ander Griggs,  chairman,  A.  Boynton  and  N.  T.  Smith,  in  1887; 
Judson  LaMoure,  chairman,  John  H.  King  and  Harvey  J.  Rice. 
The  latter  were  the  last  board  prior  to  the  admission  of  Dakota 
to  a  place  in  the  federal  union  as  a  state. 

The  surveyor- generals  during  the  same  time  were:  George 
D.  Hill,  1861-65;  William  Tripp,  1865-69;  W.  H.  H.  Beadle, 


1869-73 ;  William  P.  Dewey,  1873-77 ;  Henry  Experson,  1877-81 ; 
Cortez  Fessenden,  1881-85;  Maris  Taylor,  1885-89,  and  B.  H. 
Sullivan,  1889. 

The  second  legislature  met  at  Yankton,  December  1,  1862, 
and  continued  in  service  until  January  9,  1863.  Its  membership 
was  as  follows: 

Council — Enos  Stutsman,  president ;  W.  W.  Brookings,  Austin 
Cole,  John  W.  Boyle,  Jacob  Deuel,  D.  T.  Bramble,  J.  McFetridge, 
John  H.  Shober,  J.  Shaw  Gregory  and  H.  D.  Betts. 

House — A.  J.  Harlan,  the  speaker,  who  resigned  December 
16,  and  was  succeeded  by  Moses  K.  Armstrong;  L.  Bothun,  J.  Y. 
Buckman,  H.  S.  Donaldson,  M.  H.  Somers,  Edward  Gifford,  J.  A. 
Jacobson,  R.  M.  Johnson,  G.  P.  Waldron,  Knud  Larson,  F.  D. 
Pease,  A.  W.  Puett  and  N.  J.  Wallace. 

The  third  session  of  the  territorial  legislature  was  convened 
at  the  capital,  December  7,  1863,  and  continued  to  transact  public 
business  until  January  15,  1864.  Its  membership  was  made  up 
of  the  following  named : 

Council — Enos  Stutsman,  president;  J.  M.  Stone,  G.  W. 
Kingsbury,  J.  0.  Taylor,  M.  M.  Rich,  John  Mathers,  Lasse  Bothun, 
Hugh  Compton,  Franklin  Taylor,  D.  P.  Bradford,  J.  Shaw  Greg- 
ory and  John  J.  Thompson. 

House — A.  W.  Puett,  speaker;  L.  Burgess,  Ole  Bottolfson, 
E.  M.  Bond,  William  Shriner,  0.  L.  Pratt,  John  Lawrence,  Henry 
Brooks,  L.  A.  Litchfield,  W.  W.  Brookings,  Knud  Larson,  Wash- 
ington Reid,  P.  H.  Risling,  E.  W.  Wall,  Jesse  Wherry,  Peter 
Keegan,  N.  G.  Curtis,  Asa  Mattison,  B.  A.  Hill,  Duncan  Ross  and 
Albert  Gore. 

The  fourth  legislature  commenced  its  existence  at  Yankton, 
December  5,  1864,  and  remained  in  session  until  January  13, 
1865.  The  following  named  were  borne  on  its  roll  of  membership : 

Council — Enos  Stutsman,  president ;  J.  M.  Stone,  G.  W.  Kings- 
bury,  J.  0.  Taylor,  M.  M.  Rich,  John  Mathers,  Lasse  Bothun,  Hugh 
Compton,  Franklin  Taylor,  D.  P.  Bradford,  J.  Shaw  Gregory  and 
John  J.  Thompson. 

House — W.  W.  Brookings,  speaker;  L.  Burgess,  L  P.  Burg- 
man,  A.  Christy,  B.  W.  Collar,  Felicia  Fallis,  J.  R.  Hanson,  Peter 
Keegan,  George  W.  Kellogg,  P.  Lemonges,  John  Lawrence,  M. 


M.  Mattheinsen,  Helge  Matthews,  Francis  McCarthy,  John  W. 
Owens,  G.  W.  Pratt,  "Washington  Reid,  John  Rouse,  William 
Shriner,  George  Stickney,  John  W.  Turney  and  E.  W.  Wall. 

The  fifth  session  of  the  Dakota  territorial  legislature  convened 
at  Yankton  December  4,  1865,  and  adjourned  the  12th  of  the 
following  month.  It  had  as  members : 

Council — George  Stickney,  president ;  M.  K.  Armstrong,  Aus- 
tin Cole,  G.  W.  Kingsbury,  Charles  LaBreeche,  Nathaniel  Ross, 
Enos  Stutsman,  0.  F.  Stevens,  John  J.  Thompson,  John  W.  Tur- 
ner, A.  L.  Van  Osdel  and  Knud  Weeks. 

House— G.  B.  Bigelow,  speaker;  T.  C.  Watson,  E.  C.  Collins, 
William  Walter,  Michael  Curry,  Michael  Ryan,  James  Whitehorn, 
H.  J.  Austin,  Amos  Hampton,  Frank  Taylor,  James  McHenry, 
Joseph  Ellis,  A.  M.  English,  Jacob  Brauch,  H.  C.  Ash,  S.  C.  Fargo, 
W.  W.  Brookings,  Jonathan  Brown,  J.  A.  Lewis,  Charles  H.  Mc- 
Carthy, William  Stevens,  Edward  Lent,  George  W.  Kellogg  and 
Charles  Cooper. 

The  sixth  session  convened  December  4,  1866,  and  adjourned 
January  12,  1867.  Its  membership  was  as  follows : 

Council — Moses  K.  Armstrong,  president;  Austin  Cole,  A.  G. 
Fuller,  G.  W.  Kingsbury,  Charles  LaBreeche,  J.  A.  Lewis,  D.  M. 
Mills,  Nathaniel  Ross,  0.  F.  Stevens,  John  J.  Thompson,  John  W. 
Turner,  A.  L.  Van  Osdel  and  Knud  Weeks. 

House — J.  B.  S.  Todd,  speaker;  H.  C.  Ash,  Horace  J.  Austin, 
D.  T.  Bramble,  W.  N.  Collamer,  Michael  Curry,  Hugh  Fraley, 
Thomas  Frick,  I.  T.  Gore,  William  Gray,  Hans  Gunderson,  M.  U. 
Hoyt,  Daniel  Hodgden,  Amon  Hanson,  R.  M.  Johnson,  George 
W.  Kellogg,  Vincent  LaBelle,  Charles  H.  McCarthy,  N.  C.  Stevens, 
William  Stevens,  John  Trumbo,  Franklin  Taylor,  Eli  B.  Wixon 
and  Kirwin  Wilson. 

The  seventh  legislature  was  convened  December  2,  1867,  and 
adjourned  January  10,  1868.  The  following  were  the  members: 

Council — Horace  J.  Austin,  president;  W.  W.  Brookings,  W. 
W.  Benedict,  Aaron  Carpenter,  R.  J.  Thomas,  Hugh  Fraley,  R.  R. 
Green,  A.  H.  Hampton,  George  W.  Kellogg,  J.  A.  Lewis,  Charles 
H.  Mclntyre,  D.  M.  Mills  and  C.  F.  Rossteucher. 

House — Enos  Stutsman,  speaker;  William  Blair,  William 
Brady,  F.  Bronson,  Jacob  Brauch,  Jonathan  Brown,  Caleb  Cum- 


mings,  Michael  Cimy,  F.  J.  DeWitt,  Martin  V.  Farris,  Felicia 
Fallas,  I.  T.  Gore,  Hans  Gunderson,  Amos  Hanson,  M.  U.  Hoyt, 
John  L.  Jolley,  James  Keegan,  G.  C.  Moody,  T.  Nelson,  Michael 
Ryan,  Calvin  G.  Shaw,  John  J.  Thompson,  J.  D.  Tucker  and 
Thomas  C.  Watson. 

The  eighth  legislature  met  in  session  at  Yankton,  December 
7,  1868,  and  adjourned  January  15  following.  The  roll  of  mem- 
bership was  as  follows : 

Council — N.  J.  Wallace,  president;  Horace  J.  Austin,  W.  W. 
Benedict,  W.  W.  Brookings,  Aaron  Carpenter,  Hugh  Fraley,  R. 
R.  Green,  A;  H.  Hampton,  George  W.  Kellogg,  J.  A.  Lewis, 
Charles  H.  Mclntyre,  C.  P.  Rossteuscher  and  B.  E.  Wood. 

House — G.  C.  Moody,  speaker;  Alfred  Abbott,  C.  D.  Bradley 
G.  G.  Bennett,  Calvin  M.  Brooks,  Jacob  Brauch,  John  Clementson,, 
N.  G.  Curtis,  J.  M.  Eves,  J.  Shaw  Gregory,  J.  T.  Hewlett,  0.  T. 
Hagin,  John  L.  Jolley,  A.  W.  Jameson,  Hiram  Keith,  James  Kee- 
gan, Lewis  Larson,  Knud  Larson,  J.  LaRoche,  Joseph  Moulin, 
Charles  Ricker,  Enos  Stutsman,  M.  H.  Somers  and  R.  T.  Vinson. 

The  ninth  session  of  the  territorial  legislature  was  convened 
at  Yankton,  December  5,  1870.  It  continued  until  January  13, 
1871.  Its  members  were : 

Council — Emory  Morris,  president;  M.  K.  Armstrong,  Joseph 
Brauch,  W.  W.  Cuppett,  Hugh  Fraley,  Silas  W.  Kidder,  Nelson 
Miner,  Charles  H.  Mclntyre,  J.  C.  Kennedy,  W.  T.  McKay,  James 
M.  Stone  and  John  W.  Turner. 

House — George  H.  Hand,  speaker;  Charles  Allen,  V.  R.  L. 
Barnes,  F.  J.  Cross,  C.  P.  Dow,  A.  P.  Hammond,  John  Hancock, 
William  Holbrough,  0.  B.  Iverson,  H.  A.  Jerauld,  James  Keegan, 
J.  LaRoche,  Nelson  Learned,  A.  J.  Mills,  E.  Miner,  Noah  Wherry, 
R.  Mostow,  S.  L.  Parker,  Amos  F.  Shaw,  Philip  Sherman,  John 
C.  Sinclair,  Ole  Sampson  and  E.  W.  Wall. 

The  tenth  legislature  of  the  territory  convened  in  regular  ses- 
sion at  Yankton,  December  2,  1872,  and  adjourned  January  10, 
1873.  The  following  named  constituted  the  membership : 

Council — Alexander  Hughes,  president;  D.  T.  Bramble,  E.  B. 
Crew,  H.  P.  Cooley,  J.  Flick,  John  Lawrence,  Nelson  Miner, 
Joseph  Mason,  J.  Gehon,  Charles  II.  Mclntyre,  0.  F.  Stevens^ 
Enos  Stutsman  and  Henry  Smith. 


House— A.  J.  Mills,  speaker ;  Samuel  Ashmore,  Ole  Bottolf son, 
John  Becker,  Jacob  Brauch,  Newton  Clark,  N.  B.  Campbell, 
Michael  Glynn,  William  Hamilton,  James  Hyde,  Cyrus  Knapp, 
T.  A.  Kingsbury,  Judson  La  Moure,  E.  A.  Williams,  Ephraim 
Miner,  George  Norbeck,  Joseph  Roberts,  A.  B.  Wheelock,  0.  C. 
Peterson,  Jens  Peterson,  Silas  Rohr,  Martin  Trygstadt,  J.  W. 
Turner,  John  Thompson,  B.  E.  Wood  and  W.  P.  Lyman. 

The  eleventh  legislature  convened  at  Yankton,  December  7, 
1874,  and  remained  in  session  until  January  15,  1875,  when  it 
adjourned.  The  members  were : 

Council — John  L.  Jolley,  president;  A.  J.  Austin,  Jacob 
Brauch,  Philip  Chandler,  Benton  Fraley,  W.  G.  Harlan,  John 
Lawrence,  A.  McHench,  M.  Pace,  N.  W.  Sheafe,  0.  F.  Stevens, 
Clark  S.  West  and  E.  A.  Williams. 

House — G.  C.  Moody,  speaker;  H.  0.  Anderson,  George  Bos- 
worth,  Hector  Bruce,  J.  L.  Berry,  L.  Bothun,  Michael  Curry, 
Desire  Chausse,  J.  M.  Cleland,  Patrick  Hand,  John  H.  Haas,  Knud 
Larson,  Joseph  Zitka,  H.  N.  Luce,  W.  T.  McKay,  Henry  Reifsny- 
der,  Amos  F.  Shaw,  C.  H.  Stearns,  Ira  Ellis,  L.  Sampson,  S. 
Sevenson,  A.  L.  Van  Osdel,  M.  M.  Williams,  Scott  Wright,  James 
M.  Wohl  and  0.  B.  Larson. 

January  9,  1877,  at  Yankton,  the  twelfth  legislature  of  the 
territory  met  in  session  and  continued  to  transact  the  public 
business  until  February  17,  following.  As  the  country  was  rap- 
idly filling  up  the  number  of  members  increased  and  the  amount 
of  business  became  of  larger  volume.  This  general  assembly 
was  composed  of  the  following  named  gentlemen : 

Council— W.  A.  Burleigh,  president;  Henry  S.  Back,  M.  W. 
Bailey,  William  Duncan,  Hans  Gunderson,  Judson  LaMoure,  Nel- 
son Miner,  A.  J.  Mills,  Robert  Wilson,  R.  F.  Pettigrew,  J.  A. 
Potter,  C.  B.  Valentine  and  J.  A.  Wallace. 

House— D.  C.  Hagle,  speaker ;  J.  M.  Adams,  A.  L.  Boe,  H.  A. 
Burke,  J.  Q.  Burbank  (who  was  awarded  the  seat  held  by  D.  M. 
Kelleher,  during  the  session),  W.  H.  H.  Beadle,  T.  S.  Clarkson, 
G.  S.  S.  Codington,  W.  F.  Durham,  A.  G.  Hopkins,  M.  0.  Hexom, 
E.  Hackett,  D.  M.  Inman,  Erick  Iverson,  Charles  Maywold,  F.  M. 
Ziebach,  Hans  Myron,  John  Shellberg,  John  Falde,  D,  Stewart, 


Asa  Sargent,  John  Tucker,  Franklin  Taylor,  John  Thompson,  C. 
H.  Van  Tassel  and  S.  Soderstrom. 

The  thirteenth  legislature  held  its  session  at  Yankton,  from 
January  14,  1879,  until  February  following.  The  roll  of  mem- 
bers was  as  follows : 

Council — George  II.  Walsh,  president;  "William  M.  Cuppert, 
M.  H.  Day,  Ira  Ellis,  Newton  Edmunds,  W.  L.  Kuykendall,  Nel- 
son Miner,  Robert  Macnider,  R.  F.  Pettigrew,  S.  G.  Roberts,  Silas 
Rohr,  C.  B.  Valentine  and  H.  B.  Wynn. 

House — John  R.  Jackson,  speaker;  Alfred  Brown,  J.  Q.  Bur- 
bank,  P.  N.  Cross,  D.  W.  Flick,  A.  B.  Tockler,  John  R.  Gamble, 
Ansley  Gray,  Hans  Gunderson,  P.  J.  Hoyer,  Ole  A.  Helvig,  0.  I. 
Hoseboe,  A.  Hoyt,  S.  A.  Johnson,  John  Langness,  A.  Manksch,  J. 
M.  Peterson,  Nathaniel  Whitfield,  Michael  Shely,  A.  Simonson, 
James  H.  Stephens,  D.  Stewart,  Martin  M.  Trygstadt,  E.  C.  Wal- 
ton, J.  F.  Webber  and  Canute  Weeks. 

The  fourteenth  legislature  held  its  session  from  January  11 
to  March,  1881,  at  Yankton,  with  the  following  list  of  members  : 

Council — George  H.  Walsh,  president;  M.  H.  Day,  Ira  W. 
Fisher,  John  R.  Gamble,  John  L.  Jolley,  J.  A.  J.  Martin,  J.  O'B. 
Scobey,  Amos  F.  Shaw,  J.  F.  Wallace,  John  Walsh,  G.  W.  Wiggin 
and  John  R.  Wilson. 

House — J.  A.  Harding,  speaker;  James  Baynes,  F.  J.  Cross, 
G.  H.  Dickey,  L.  B.  French,  C.  B.  Kennedy,  P.  Landman,  J.  H. 
Miller,  Knud  Nomland,  V.  P.  Thielman,  A.  Thorne,  P.  Warner, 
S.  A.  Boyles,  W.  H.  Donaldson,  E.  Ellefson,  John  D.  Hale,  D.  M. 
Inman,  Judson  LaMoure,  S.  McBratney,  I.  Moore,  S.  Rohr,  D. 
Thompson,  A.  L.  Van  Osdel  and  E.  P.  Wells. 

On  the  organization  of  Dakota  as  a  territory  in  1861,  Yankton 
was  designated  as  the  territorial  capital  and  the  seat  of  the 
executive  and  legislative  branches  of  the  government.  There 
the  legislature  had  up  to  this  time  held  their  sessions,  but  the 
fifteenth  general  assembly  which  met  at  Yankton,  January  9, 
1883,  and  remained  convened  until  March  9,  following,  was  the 
last  to  do  so.  The  members  of  this  general  assembly  were  the 
following : 

Council — J.  O'B.  Scobey,  president;  F.  N.  Burdick,  J.  R.  Jack- 
son, F.  M.  Ziebach,  F.  J.  Washabaugh,  S.  G.  Roberts,  H.  J. 


Jerauld,  William  P.  Dewey,  E.  H.  Mclntosh,  G.  H.  Walsh,  J. 
Nickeus  and  E.  McCauley. 

House — E.  A.  Williams,  speaker;  Ira  Ellis,  M.  C.  Tychsen, 
John  Thompson,  W.  B.  Robinson,  R,  C.  McAllister,  F.  P.  Phillips, 
G.  W.  Sterling,  W.  A.  Reinhart,  E.  M.  Bowman,  G.  P.  Harvey, 
D.  M.  Inman,  H.  VanWoert,  J.  B.  Wynn,  B.  R.  Wagner,  John 
C.  Pyatt,  George  Rice,  W.  H.  Lamb,  J.  W.  Nowlin,  A.  A.  Choteau, 
0.  M.  Towner,  B.  W.  Benson,  L.  J.  Allred  and  N.  E.  Nelson.  This 
legislature  had  before  them  a  bill  authorizing  the  changing  the 
seat  of  government  of  the  territory  to  some  more  central  and 
convenient  point.  This  bill  was  passed  by  which  was  created  a 
commission  for  the  purpose  of  selecting  and  locating  the  new  cap- 
ital. This  committee  was  composed  of  the  following  named  gen- 
tlemen: Alexander  McKenzie,  Milo  W.  Scott,  Burleigh  F. 
Spaulding,  Charles  H.  Myers,  George  A.  Matthews,  Alexander 
Hughes,  Henry  M.  DeLong,  John  P.  Belding  and  M.  D.  Thompson. 

The  commission  was  convened  in  a  session  at  the  city  of  Fargo 
during  the  summer  of  1883,  to  hear  the  different  advantages  of 
site  as  put  forth  by  the  various  claimants  for  the  capitalship. 
Excitement  was  rife,  but  after  a  long  and  patient  hearing  the 
board  reached  a  conclusion,  and  June  2,  1883,  located  the  future 
territorial  capital  at  the,  then,  rising  city  of  Bismarck. 

According  to  the  act  of  the  legislature  passed  at  the  last  ses- 
sion, as  above  narrated,  and  the  action  of  the  committee  then 
appointed,  the  sixteenth  assembly  was  convened  at  Bismarck, 
January  13,  1885,  and  continued  in  session  in  that  city  until 
March  13  following.  A  list  of  its  members  is  as  follows : 

Council — J.  H.  Westover,  president;  A.  C.  Huetson,  William 
Duncan,  John  R.  Gamble,  A.  S.  Jones,  B.  R.  Wagner,  A.  M. 
Bowdle,  R,  F.  Pettigrew,  George  R.  Farmer,  H.  H.  Natwick,  C. 
H.  Cameron,  J.  P.  Day,  A.  B.  Smedley,  V.  P.  Kennedy,  F.  J. 
Washabaugh,  S.  P.  Wells,  Charles  Richardson,  J.  Nickeus,  C.  D. 
Austin,  D.  H.  Twomey,  G.  H.  Walsh,  John  Flittie,  Judson  La- 
Moure  and  P.  J.  McLaughlin. 

House— George  Rice,  speaker;  Ole  Helvig,  John  Larson,  Eli 
Dawson,  Hans  Myron,  A.  L.  Van  Osdel,  Hugh  Langan,  J.  P. 
Ward,  J.  H.  Swanton,  A.  J.  Parshall,  Mark  Ward,  C.  E.  Huston, 
H.  M.  Clark,  P.  L.  Runkel,  J.  M.  Bayard,  H.  W.  Smith,  W.  H. 


Biddell,  John  Hobart,  J.  C.  Southwick,  V.  V.  Barnes,  J.  A. 
Pickler,  J.  T.  Blakemore,  G.  W.  Pierce,  M.  L.  Miller,  G.  H.  John- 
son, M.  T.  DeWoody,  E.  Huntington,  F.  A.  Eldredge,  A.  L. 
Sprague,  E.  W.  Martin,  H.  M.  Gregg,  A.  McCall,  E.  A.  Williams, 
W.  F.  Steele,  Henry  W.  Coe,  J.  Stevens,  S.  E.  Stebbins,  P.  J. 
McCumber,  H.  S.  Oliver,  T.  M.  Pugh,  E.  T.  Hutchinson,  W.  N. 
Roach,  C.  W.  Morgan,  J.  W.  Scott,  D.  Stewart,  H.  Stong,  H.  H. 
Ruger,  P.  McHugh. 

The  seventeenth  legislature,  composed  of  the  following  named, 
was  in  session  from  January  11  until  March  11,  1887 : 

Council — George  A.  Mathews,  president ;  Roger  Allin,  William 
T.  Collins,  John  Cain,  W.  E.  Dodge,  E.  W.  Foster,  Melvin  Grigsby, 
Alexander  Hughes,  T.  M.  Martin,  P.  J.  McCumber,  C.  H.  Sheldon, 
E.  G.  Smith,  J.  S.  Weiser,  T.  O.  Bogart,  A.  W.  Campbell,  P.  C. 
Donovan,  E.  C.  Erickson,  H.  Galloway,  G.  A.  Harstad,  J.  D. 
Lawler,  C.  D.  Mead,  E.  T.  Sheldon,  F.  J.  Washabaugh  and  S.  P. 

House — George  G.  Crose,  speaker ;  Fred  H.  Adams,  John  Bid- 
lake,  J.  W.  Burnham,  D.  S.  Dodds,  Thomas  M.  Elliott,  D.  W. 
Ensign,  J.  H.  Fletcher,  F.  Greene,  A.  A.  Harkins,  C.  B.  Hubbard, 
J.  G.  Jones,  James  M.  Moore,  T.  F.  Mentzer,  C.  I.  Miltimore, 
John  D.  Patton,  D.  F.  Royer,  J.  Schnaidt,  F.  M.  Shook,  D. 
Stewart,  E.  W.  Terrill,  J.  V.  White,  Wilson  Wise,  L.  0.  Wyman, 
Frank  R.  Aikens,  W.  N.  Berry,  A.  M.  Cook,  M.  H.  Cooper,  John 
R,  Dutch,  John  A.  Ely,  William  H.  Fellows,  J.  T.  Gilbert,  William 
Glendenning,  W.  J.  Hawk,  John  Hobart,  R.  McDonell,  F.  A. 
Morris,  H.  J.  Mallorey,  J.  H.  Patton,  A.  J.  Pruitt,  W.  R.  Ruggles, 
D.  W.  Sprague,  A.  S.  Steward,  B.  H.  Sullivan,  C.  B.  Williams, 
James  P.  Ward,  E.  A.  Williams  and  John  Woltzmuth. 

The  eighteenth  and  last  territorial  legislature  was  convened 
at  the  capital,  Bismarck,  January  8,  1889,  and  remained  in  ses- 
sion until  March  9.  It  enacted  one  hundred  and  twenty  general 
laws,  including  thirty-four  amendments  and  two  repeals.  Also 
nineteen  joint  resolutions  and  memorials.  The  membership  rolls 
bore  the  following  names : 

Council — Smith  Stimmel,  president ;  R.  Allin,  Irenus  Atkinson, 
Peter  Cameron,  A.  W.  Campbell,  M.  H.  Cooper,  C.  I.  Crawford, 
Robert  Dollard,  E.  C.  Erickson,  S.  L.  Glaspell,  James  Halley,  G. 


A.  Harstad,  Alexander  Hughes,  Eobert  Lowry,  Hugh  McDonald, 
John  Miller,  J.  H.  Patten,  David  W.  Poindexter,  Joseph  C.  Eyan, 
C.  A.  Soderberg,  G.  H.  Walsh,  F.  J.  Washabaugh,  James  A. 
Woolheiser  and  A.  L.  Van  Osdel. 

House — Hosmer  H.  Keith,  speaker;  F.  H.  Adams,  Frank  E. 
Aikens,  Joseph  Allen,  C.  H.  Baldwin,  E.  L.  Bennett,  E.  H.  Berg- 
man, B.  F.  Bixter,  J.  W.  Burnham,  A.  D.  Clark,  J.  B.  Cook,  T.  A. 
Douglas,  Thomas  Elliott,  J.  H.  Fletcher,  J.  M.  Greene,  A.  J. 
Gronna,  S.  P.  Howell,  Harry  F.  Hunter,  J.  G.  Jones,  I.  S.  Lamp- 
man,  W.  S.  Logan,  Frank  Lillibridge,  H.  J.  Mallory,  P.  McHugh, 
Edwin  McNeil,  C.  J.  Miller,  F.  A.  Morris,  C.  C.  Newman,  P.  P. 
Palmer,  A.  L.  Patridge,  H.  S.  Parkin,  John  D.  Patten,  0.  C. 
Potter,  D.  M.  Powell,  M.  M.  Price,  William  Eamsdell,  D.  F. 
Eoyer,  G.  W.  Eyan,  H.  H.  Sheets,  J.  0.  Smith,  W.  E.  Swanston, 
C.  J.  Tfude,  John  Turnbull,  N.  Upham,  0.  E.  Van  Etten,  J.  B. 
Wellcome,  D.  E.  Wellman,  J.  V.  White. 

North  Dakota  as  a  State. 

The  first  legislature  to  meet  at  Bismarck,  the  capital  of  the 
territory  of  Dakota,  was  in  1885,  from  January  13  to  March  13. 
The  last  legislature  of  the  territory  assembled  January  8,  1889, 
and  adjourned  on  the  9th  of  March,  1889.  ''An  act  to  provide 
for  the  division  of  Dakota  into  two  states  and  to  enable  the  people 
of  North  and  South  Dakota,  Montana  and  Washington  to  form 
constitutions  and  state  governments  and  to  be  admitted  into 
the  Union  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  states,"  came  in 
under  the  omnibus  bill  of  February  22,  1889,  which  embodies  the 
several  measures  introduced  for  the  admission  of  the  northwest 
territories.  Constitutional  conventions  were  accordingly  held  at 
Sioux  Falls  and  Bismarck,  assembling  July  4,  1887.  The  officials 
for  North  Dakota  were  as  follows : 

President,  F.  B.  Fancher,  Jamestown;  chief  clerk,  John  G. 
Hamilton,  Grand  Forks;  enrolling  and  engrossing  clerk,  C.  C. 
Bowsfield,  Ellendale. 

The  roll  of  membership  of  this  constitutional  convention  was 
the  following,  together  with  the  county  they  represented: 

Eoger  Allin,  of  Walsh ;  John  Magnus  Almen,  of  Walsh ; 
Albert  Francis  Appleton,  of  Pembina;  Therow  W.  Bean,  of  Nel- 



son;  James  Bell,  of  Walsh;  Richard  Bennett,  of  Grand  Forks; 
Lorenzo  D.  Bartlett,  of  Dickey ;  David  Bartlett,  of  Griggs ;  Wil- 
liam D.  Best,  of  Pembina ;  Charles  V.  Brown,  of  Wells ;  Andrew 
Blewett,  of  Stutsman;  William  Budge,  of  Grand  Forks;  Edgar 
W.  Camp,  of  Stutsman;  Eben  Whitney  Chaffee,  of  Cass;  John 
Emmett  Garland,  of  Burleigh;  Charles  Carothers,  of  Grand 
Forks;  Horace  M.  Clark,  of  Eddy;  William  J.  Clapp,  of  Cass; 
Joseph  L.  Colton,  of  Ward ;  James  A.  Douglas,  of  Walsh ;  Elmer 
E.  Elliott,  of  Barnes ;  Frederick  B.  Fancher,  of  Stutsman ;  George 
H.  Fay,  of  Mclntosh;  Alexander  D.  Flemington,  of  Dickey; 
James  Bennett  Gayton,  of  Emmons;  Benjamin  Bush  Glick,  of 
Cavalier ;  Enos  Gray,  of  Cass ;  Alexander  Griggs,  of  Grand  Forks ; 
Harvey  Harris,  of  Burleigh;  Arne  P.  Haugen,  of  Grand  Forks; 
Marthinus  F.  Hegge,  of  Traill;  Herbert  L.  Holmes,  of  Pembina; 
Albert  W.  Hoyt,  of  Morton;  Martin  N.  Johnson,  of  Nelson; 
William  S.  Lauder,  of  Richland ;  Addison  Leech,  of  Cass ;  Martin 
V.  Linwell,  of  Grand  Forks;  Jacob  Lowell,  of  Cass;  Edward  H. 
Lohnes,  of  Ramsey;  Michael  K.  Marriman,  of  Walsh;  J.  H. 
Mathews,  of  Grand  Forks;  Olney  G.  Meecham,  of  Foster;  John 
McBride,  of  Cavalier;  Henry  Foster  Miller,  of  Cass;  Samuel  H. 
Moer,  of  La  Moure;  James  D.  McKenzie,  of  Sargent;  Patrick 
McHuh,  of  Cavalier;  Virgil  B.  Noble,  of  Bottineau;  Knud  J. 
Nomland,  of  Traill;  James  F.  O'Brien,  of  Ramsey;  Curtis  P. 
Parsons,  of  Rolette ;  Albert  Samuel  Parsons,  of  Morton ;  Engebret 
M.  Paulson,  of  Traill;  Henry  M.  Peterson,  of  Cass;  Robert  M. 
Pollock,  of  Cass;  John  Powers,  of  Sargent;  Joseph  Powles,  of 
Cavalier;  William  E.  Purcell,  of  Richland;  William  Ray,  of 
Stark;  Robert  B.  Richardson,  of  Pembina;  Alexander  D.  Rob- 
ertson, of  Walsh;  Eugene  Strong  Rolfe,  of  Benson;  William  H. 
Rowe,  of  Dickey;  Andrew  Sandager,  of  Ransom;  John  Shuman, 
of  Sargent ;  John  W.  Scott,  of  Barnes ;  John  F.  Selby,  of  Traill ; 
Andrew  Sloten,  of  Richland ;  Burleigh  Folsom  Spalding,  of  Cass ; 
Reuben  N.  Stevens,  of  Ransom;  Ezra  Turner,  of  Bottineau; 
Elmer  D.  Wallace,  of  Steele;  Abram  Olin  Whipple,  of  Ramsey; 
J.  Wellwood,  of  Barnes;  and  Erastus  A.  Williams,  of  Burleigh. 
The  meeting  was  called  to  order  and  the  following  named 
made  officers  of  the  convention :  F.  B.  Fancher,  president ;  J.  G. 
Hamilton,  chief  clerk;  C.  C.  Bowsfield,  enrolling  and  engrossing 


clerk;  Fred  Falley,  sergeant-at-arms ;  J.  S.  Weiser,  watchman; 
E.  W.  Knight,  messenger;  George  Kline,  chaplain;  and  R.  M. 
Tuttle,  official  stenographer. 

The  convention  was  in  session  some  six  weeks,  adjourning 
August  17,  1889,  during  which  time  they  formed  a  constitution 
which  was  submitted  to  the  voters  of  the  new  state  for  their 
ratification  or  rejection.  The  election  for  this  purpose  and  for 
the  election  of  state  officers  took  place  upon  October  1,  1889. 
and  out  of  a  total  vote  cast  of  35,548,  those  in  favor  of  the 
adoption  of  the  constitution  were  27,441,  while  those  against  it 
were  8,107. 

Official  Vote  for  Governor. 

The  following  will  show  the  official  vote  by  counties  for  the 
•office  of  governor,  at  this,  the  first  state  election : 

John  Miller,  Roach, 

Counties —  Rep.  Dem. 

Barnes    1,191  498 

Burleigh    771  322 

Benson   467  111 

Bottineau 335  304 

Billings 45  14 

Cass   2,712  1,411 

Cavalier   647  534 

Dickey    1,087  506 

Eddy 241  161 

Emmons 391  78 

Foster 235  131 

Grand  Forks 1,929  1,263 

Griggs   346  205 

Kidder 259  88 

La  Moure 594  235 

Logan  77  13 

Morton   680  335 

McHenry 219  68 

McLean    223  41 

Mclntosh 375  20 


Mercer    70  15 

Nelson   628  260 

Oliver    28  48 

Pembina 1,553  1,241 

Pierce   181  46 

Richland 1,199  771 

Ransom 998  261 

Ramsey 779  343 

Rolette   250  238 

Stark    432  182 

Stutsman   818  603 

Steele 546  92 

Sargent   1,027  216 

Traill  , 1,524  469 

Towner 184  244 

Walsh 1,842  1,100 

Wells   186  152 

Ward  .                                                               296  114 

Total 25,365        12,733 

Majority   12,632 

Proclamation  of  Admission. 

On  November  2,  1889,  President  Harrison  issued  his  procla- 
mation reciting  the  different  provisions  in  the  act  authorizing 
the  formation  of  the  state,  and  showing  that  the  same  had  been 
duly  complied  with,  concluding:  "Now,  therefore,  I,  Benjamin 
Harrison,  president  of  the  United  States  of  America,  do,  in 
accordance  with  the  act  of  congress  aforesaid,  declare  and  pro- 
claim the  fact  that  the  conditions  imposed  by  congress  on  the 
state  of  North  Dakota  to  entitle  that  state  to  admission  into  the 
Union  have  been  ratified  and  accepted,  and  that  the  admission 
of  the  said  state  into  the  Union  is  now  complete. 

'Mn  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and 
caused  the  seal  of  the  United  States  to  be  affixed.  Done  at  the 


city  of  Washington  this  second  day  of  November,  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty-nine,  and  of 
the  independence  of  the  United  States  of  America  the  one  hun- 
dred and  fourteenth. 

"By  the  President,  Benjamin  Harrison. 

"James  G.  Blaine, 

"Secretary  of  State." 

Since  admission  the  state  of  North  Dakota  has  had  the  follow- 
ing state  officers: 


(First  state  officers  qualified  November  4,  1889.) 

John  Miller 1889-90  Frederick  B.  Fancher.  .1899-00 

Andrew  H.  Burke 1891-92      Frank  White 1901-02 

(b)  Eli  C.  D.  Shortridge  1893-94     Frank  White 1903-04 

Roger  Allin 1895-96      E.  Y.  Sarles 1905-06 

*Frank  A.  Briggs 1897-98      (b)  John  Burke 1907 

(a)  Joseph  M.  Devine.  .1898 

*Died  in  office,  July,  1898. 

(a)    Served  out  unexpired  term  of  Governor  Briggs. 

Lieutenant  Governors. 

Alfred  M.  Dickey 1889-90  Joseph  M.  Devine 1899-00 

Eoger  Allin 1891-92  David  Bartlett 1901-02 

(b)  Elmer  D.  Wallace.  .1893-94  David  Bartlett 1903-04 

John  H.  Worst 1895-96  David  Bartlett 1905-06 

Joseph  M.  Devine 1897-98  E.  S.  Lewis 1907 

Secretaries  of  State. 

John  Flittle 1889-92      E.  F.  Porter 1901-02 

Christian  M.  Dahl 1893-96      E.  F.  Porter 1903-04 

Fred  Falley 1897-98      E.  F.  Porter 1905-06 

Fred  Falley 1899-00      Alfred  Blaisdell 1907 



*John  P.  Bray 1889-92  A.  N.  Carlblom 1899-00 

(a)  Archie  Currie 1892  A.  N.  Carlblom 1901-02 

(b)  A.  W.  Porter 1893-94  H.  L.  Holmes 1903-04 

Frank  A.  Briggs 1895-96  H.  L.  Holmes 1905-06 

N.  B.  Hannum. .         .  .1897-98  H.  L.  Holmes. .  .  .1907 


(a)   Appointed  to  fill  vacancy,  September  10,  1892. 


L.  E.  Booker 1889-92  D.  H.  McMillan 1901-02 

(b)  Knud  J.  Nomland.  .1893-94  D.  H.  McMillan 1903-04 

George  E.  Nichols 1895-96  Albert  Peterson 1905-06 

George  E.  Nichols 1897-98  Albert   Peterson 1907 

D.  W.  Driscoll 1899-00 

Attorney  Generals. 

George  F.  Goodwin 1889-90  John  F.  Cowan 1899-00 

C.  A.  M.  Spencer 1891-92  0.  D.  Comstock 1901-02 

(b)  W.  H.  Standish. . .  .1893-94  C.  N.  Frich 1903-04 

John  F.  Cowan 1895-96  C.  N.  Frich 1905-06 

John  F.  Cowan. .          .  .1897-98  T.  F.  McCue. .  .  .1907 

(b)    Democrats.     All  others  republicans. 

Superintendents  of  Public  Instruction. 

*  William  Mitchell 1889-90      John  G.  Halland 1899-00 

*W.   J.   Clapp 1890  Joseph  M.  Devine 1901-02 

John  Ogden 1891-92      W.  L.  Stockwell 1903-04 

(b)  Laura  J.  Eisenhuth .  1893-94     W.  L.  Stockwell 1905-06 

Emma  B.  Bates 1895-9"6      W.  L.  Stockwell . .  .1907 

John  G.  Halland..      ..1897-98 

^William  Mitchell  died  March  10,  1890,  and  W.  J.  Clapp  was 
appointed  to  fill  the  unexpired  term. 


Commissioners  of  Agriculture  and  Labor. 

H.  T.  Helgeson 1889-92  R.  J.  Turner 1901-02 

(b)  *Nelson  Williams ..  1893-94  R.  J.  Turner 1903-04 

A.  H.  Laughlin 1895-96  W.  C.  Gilbreath 1905-06 

H.  U.  Thomas 1897-98  W.  C.  Gilbreath 1907 

H.  U.  Thomas..  ..1899-00 

*Appointed;   Adams,  who  was  elected,  failed  to  qualify. 

Commissioners  of  Insurance. 

A.  L.  Carey 1889-92  Ferdinand   Leutz 1901-02 

(b)  James  Cudhie 1893-94  Ferdinand   Leutz 1903-04 

Fred  B.  Fancher 1895-96  E.  C.  Cooper 1905-06 

Fred  B.  Fancher 1897-98  E.  C.  Cooper 1907 

George  W.  Harrison. .  .1899-00 

Commissioners  of  Railroads. 

George  S.  Montgomery .  1889-90  John    Simons 1899-00 

T.  S.  Underbill 1889-90  L.  L.  Walton 1899-00 

David  Bartlett 1889-90  Henry  Erickson 1899-00 

George  H.  Walsh ......  1891-92  J.  F.  Shea 1901-02 

George   Harmon 1891-92  J.  F.  Youngblood 1901-02 

Andrew   Slotten 1891-92  C.  J.  Lord 1901-02 

(b)  Peter  Cameron. . .  .1893-94  J.  F.  Shea 1903-04 

(b)   Ben  Stevens 1893-94  C.  J.  Lord 1903-04 

(b)  Nels  P.  Rasmussen.  1893-94  A.  Schatz 1903-04 

John  W.  Currie 1895-96  C.  S.  Deisem 1905-06 

John   Wamber g 1895-96  Erick  Staf ne 1905-06 

George  H.  Keyes 1895-96  John   Christiansen 1905-06 

George  H.  Keyes 1897-98  C.  S.  Deisem 1907 

L.  L.  Walton 1897-98  Erick  Staf  ne 1907 

J.  R.  Gibson 1897-98  Simon  Westby 1907 

(b)    Democrats.    All  others  republicans. 


Judges  of  Supreme  Court. 

At  the  first  state  election,  October,  1889,  Guy  C.  H.  Corliss, 
Alfred  Wallin  and  Joseph  M.  Bartholomew,  were  elected  judges 
of  the  supreme  court  for  terms,  respectively,  three,  five  and  seven 
years,  and  by  lot  it  was  determined  that  Judge  Corliss  should 
serve  the  three  years  term,  Judge  Bartholomew  for  five  years  and 
Judge  Wallin  for  seven  years.  Each  served  and  others  have 
been  elected  as  follows: 

Guy  C.  H.  Corliss,  of  Grand  Forks,  for  the  term  of  six  years 
commencing  December,  1893. 

J.  M.  Bartholomew,  of  LaMoure,  for  the  term  of  six  years 
commencing  December,  1895. 

Alfred  Wallin,  of  Fargo,  for  the  term  of  six  years  commenc- 
ing December,  1897. 

N.  C.  Young,  of  Fargo,  for  the  term  of  six  years  commencing 
December,  1898.  Re-elected  for  the  term  of  six  years  commencing 
December,  1904.  Resigned,  1906. 

Guy  C.  H.  Corliss  resigned  1898  and  N.  C.  Young  was  ap- 
pointed to  fill  the  unexpired  term,  and  then  elected  in  1898. 

(b)  David  Morgan,  of  Devils  Lake,  for  the  term  of  six  years 
commencing  December,  1900.  Re-elected  in  1906. 

John  M.  Cochrane,  of  Grand  Forks,  for  the  term  of  six  years 
commencing  December,  1902.  Died  July  20,  1904.  Edward 
Engerud,  of  Fargo,  was  appointed  to  fill  unexpired  term. 

Edward  Engerud,  of  Fargo,  for  the  term  of  six  years  com- 
mencing December,  1904.  Resigned,  1907. 

John  Knauf,  Jamestown,  appointed  to  succeed  N.  C.  Young, 
resigned.  Served  until  December  15,  1906. 

(b)  C.  J.  Fisk,  Grand  Forks,  elected  1906,  to  fill  unexpired 
term  of  N.  C.  Young. 

B.  F.  Spalding,  Fargo,  appointed  1907,  to  fill  unexpired  term 
of  Edward  Engerud. 

Judges  of  District  Courts.  Terms  expire 

First  District— (b)  Charles  F.  Templeton 1896 

First  District— (b)  Charles  J.  Fisk* 1908 

First  District— (b)  Charles  F.  Templeton** 1908 

Second  District— (b)  David  E.  Morgan 1900 


Second  District — John  Cowan 1908 

Third  District— (b)  Wm.  B.  McConnell 1896 

Third  District— Charles  A.  Pollock 1908 

Fourth  District— W.   S.   Lander 1906 

Fourth  District— Frank  P.  Allen 1908 

Fifth  District — (b)    Roderick  Rose 1896 

Fifth  District— S.  L.  Glaspell 1906 

Fifth  District— Edward  T.  Burke 1908 

Sixth  District— W.  H.  Winchester 1908 

Seventh  District— Q.  E.  Sauter 1900 

Seventh  District— W.  J.  Kneeshaw 1908 

Eighth  District— L.  J.  Palda 1904 

Eighth  District— E.  B.   Goss 1908 

(b)   Democrats.    All  others  republicans. 
*Appointed  judge  supreme  court,  1906. 

**Appointed  to  fill  vacancy  by  election  of  C.  J.  Fisk  to  su- 
preme court. 

First  Session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  Since  Statehood. 

Convened  November  19,  1889,  and  adjourned  March  18,  1900. 
The  membership  was  as  follows : 


Lieutenant  Governor  Alfred  Dickey,  President. 
C.  C.  Bowsfield,  Secretary. 


Judson  LaMoure,  H.  J.  Rowe, 

*A.  F.  Appleton,  *H.  R.  Hartman, 

Roger  Allin,  Andrew  Slotten, 

*  James  H.  Bell,  Andrew  Helgeson, 

J.  E.  Stevens,  Andrew  Sandager, 

*M.  L.  McCormack,  Samuel  A.  Fisher, 

George  B.  Winship,  J.  0.  Smith, 

W.  H.  Robinson,  D.  S.  Dodds, 

John  E.  Haggart,  *John  McBride, 



*R.  D.  Cowan, 

E.  L.  Yeager, 
W.  E.  Swanston, 

F.  G.  Barlow, 
Bailey  Fuller, 
H.  S.  Deisem, 

*M.  E.  Randall, 

J.  H.  Worst, 
C.  B.  Little, 
Anton  Svensrud, 
E.  H.  Belyea, 
George  Harmon, 
N.  C.  Lawrence. 

^Democrats.     All  others  republicans. 


David  B.   "Wellman,   Speaker. 
J.  G.  Hamilton,  Chief  Clerk. 


John  H.  Watt, 

R.  B.  Richardson, 
*H.  L.  Norton, 

John  Stadleman, 

John  H.  McCullough, 

A.  N.  Foss, 

John  Montgomery, 

A.  0.  Haugerud, 

Alex.  Thomson, 

Franklin  Estabrook, 

Nels  Tangberg, 

George  H.  Walsh, 
*L.  F.  Zimmer, 

A.  P.  Haugen, 

Ole  T.  Gronli, 

Roderick  J.  Johnson, 
*0.  T.  Jahr, 

J.  F.  Selby, 

H.  H.  Strom, 

E.  S.  Tyler, 

F.  J.  Thompson, 
Eli  D.  Mclntyre, 
N.  B.  Pinkham, 

John  0.  Bye, 
H.  D.  Court, 
Frank  J.  Langer, 
W.  W.  Beard, 
R.  H.  Hankinson, 
R.  N.  Ink, 
A.  0.  Heglie, 
E.  W.  Bowen, 
W.  S.  Buchanan, 
R.  N.  Stevens, 
J.  L.  Green, 
Duncan  McDonald, 

C.  J.  Christiansen, 
W.  H.  H.  Roney, 
Chris.  Balkan, 
Ole  E.  Olsgard, 

*W.  H.  Murphy, 

*F.  R.  Renaud, 
James  Brittin, 
G.  E.  Ingebretsen, 

D.  P.  Thomas, 
James  McCormick, 
C.  A.  Currier, 


D.  B.  Wellman,  W.  L.  Belden, 

Luther  L.  Walters,  E.  A.  Williams, 

George  Lutz,  George  W.  Rawlings, 

John  Milsted,  James  Reed, 

L.  A.  Ueland,  A.  C.  Nedrud, 

W.  B.  Allen,  A.  W.  Hoyt, 

A.  T.  Cole.,  P.  B.  Wickham, 

George  W.  Lilly,  C.  C.  Moore, 

*Democrats.     All  others  republicans. 




George  B.  Winship. 

The  date  of  the  permanent  settlement  of  the  Red  River 
Valley  may  properly  be  fixed  in  the  spring  of  1871,  when  with 
the  establishment. of  a  line  of  stage  coaches  by  Blakely  &  Car- 
penter, of  St.  Paul,  between  Fort  Abercrombie  and  Winnipeg, 
or  Fort  Garry,  as  the  northern  frontier  post  was  then  known, 
together  with  the  initial  trip  of  the  steamer  Selkirk,  built  at 
McCauleyville  the  previous  winter,  the  first  actual  settlers  took 
up  their  abode  here  with  the  intention  of  making  this  fertile 
valley  their  permanent  home.  It  is  true  there  were  a  few  set- 
tlers at  different  points  prior  to  1871 — notably  a  small  settlement 
at  Breckenridge,  which  place  was  surveyed  and  platted  by  real 
estate  speculators  in  1856,  who  saw  visions  of  railroad  enter- 
prises permeating  the  entire  Northwest.  These  promoters  hailed 
from  Kentucky,  and  they  had  extensive  interests  in  different 
sections  of  northern  Minnesota.  The  railroads  failed  to  mate- 
rialize, however,  and  the  development  under  their  auspices  was 
also  visionary.  R.  M.  Probstfield  and  J.  M.  Hutchinson  settled 
at  points  on  the  Red  river  north  of  the  present  city  of  Moorhead 
as  early  as  1857,  and  the  Georgetown  settlement  still  farther 
down  the  river,  which,  by  the  way,  was  but  a  trading  post  built 
by  the  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company,  is  another  point  where  white 
men  located  antedating  postoffices.  At  Pembina  and  along  the 
Pembina  river  to  St.  Joe  were  also  settlements  composed  largely 
of  half  breeds,  whose  avocation  was  principally  buffalo  hunting 



and  serving  the  Hudson  Bay,  Northwest  and  other  fur  trading 
companies  in  various  capacities.  This  northern  settlement,  with 
Pembina  as  its  base,  is  older  than  any  other  in  the  Northwest — 
along  the  border  line — as  it  began  almost  simultaneously  with 
the  Selkirk  colony  in  Manitoba  as  early  as  1800.  Practically 
from  this  date  until  1871  there  was  little  progress  made  in  the 
settlement  of  this  vast  empire. 

The  commercial  relations  of  this  new  Northwest  with  other 
sections  of  the  country  began  about  1835,  when  trips  were  made 
to  St.  Louis  by  dog  train  and  ox  cart  for  merchandise  in  ex- 
change for  furs.  Then  for  some  time  Prairie  du  Chien,  Wis., 
was  the  nearest  supply  point  and  in  the  early  50 's  St.  Paul. 
Minn.,  became  the  base  of  supplies.  The  trade  of  the  Red  River 
Valley  was  held  by  St.  Paul  for  many  years,  until  the  stage 
coach  and  steamboat  and  railroad  moved  northward  and  sup- 
plan,ted  the  dog  train  and  ox  cart  as  mediums  of  transportation. 

Brief  mention  may  be  made  at  this  point  of  a  number  of  inter- 
esting events  antedating  the  actual  beginning  of  the  permanent 
settlement  here,  but  which  nevertheless  have  some  connection 
with  the  subsequent  history.  In  1842  Joseph  Rolette  came  from 
Mendota,  Minn.,  to  Pembina,  to  look  after  the  American  Fur 
Company's  extensive  interests  which  were  for  some  time  centered 
there.  In  1843  Norman  W.  Kittson  came  from  St.  Paul  to  Pem- 
bina and  established  a  post  for  fur  trading.  Several  years  later 
Canadian  traders  set  up  a  post  two  miles  from  Pembina  and 
attempted  to  secure  some  of  the  trade  coming  there,  but  Joe 
Rolette  with  a  force  of  employes  tumbled  their  goods  out,  fired 
their  building  and  drove  them  back  across  the  boundary  line. 
For  years  there  was  much  friction  between  the  traders  of  the 
two  countries. 

In  1849  Robert  Dale  Owen  visited  the  Red  River  Valley  and 
made  several  canoe  voyages  up  and  down  the  river.  He  was 
accompanied  by  Capt.  John  Pope,  of  the  army  engineering  corps. 
Their  report  resulted  in  the  war  department  dispatching  Major 
Woods  here  a  year  later  to  select  a  site  for  a  military  post  on 
or  near  the  international  border.  A  site  was  selected  at  Pem- 
bina, but  the  actual  construction  of  the  post  was  not  undertaken 
until  ten  years  later. 



The  first  postoffice  in  North  Dakota  was  established  at  Pem- 
bina  in  1851,  with  Norman  "W.  Kittson  as  postmaster.  Charles 
Cavalier  was  during  the  same  year  appointed  deputy  collector 
of  customs  at  Pembina  and  was  assistant  postmaster  and  had 
charge  of  the  office.  Later  Cavalier  was  appointed  postmaster, 
a  position  he  held  for  nearly  half  a  century,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son,  E.  W.  Cavalier,  who  is  still  in  charge  of  the  office. 

In  1852  Kittson  removed  to  St.  Joe  and  established  a  trading 
post  there,  which  he  conducted  for  many  years  and  amassed 
large  wealth.  Kittson  was  elected  to  the  territorial  council  in 
1862.  Joe  Rolette  was  elected  to  the  lower  house  in  1863  and 
Antoine  Gingras  was  re-elected. 

The  fur  trade  of  the  Northwest  developed  to  considerable 
proportions  between  1855  and  1870  and  several  hundred  carts 
were  employed  in  the  traffic  between  Pembina,  St.  Joe  and  St. 
Paul.  In  1859  Capt.  Russell  Blakely  and  others  bought  the 
steamer  Freighter  at  St.  Paul  and  took  it  up  the  Minnesota 
river  with  the  purpose  of  transferring  it  over  to  the  headwaters 
of  the  Red  river  during  the  spring  floods.  The  effort  was  almost 
successful,  but  the  waters  receding  before  the  task  was  com- 
pleted the  boat  was  stranded  a  short  distance  from  the  river  and 
was  finally  abandoned  there.  Later  in  the  year,  however,  the 
steamer  Anson  Northurp  was  built  opposite  the  mouth  of  the 
Sheyenne  river,  and  made  the  first  steamer  trip  to  Fort  Garry 
in  Canada.  Later  the  boat  was  named  the  Pioneer. 

Fort  Abercrombie  was  established  in  1859.  It  was  abandoned 
a  year  later,  but  was  rebuilt  and  again  occupied  in  1860.  A 
Hudson  Bay  trading  post  was  established  at  Georgetown  in  1859 
with  James  McKay  in  charge.  The  steamer  International  was 
built  at  Georgetown  in  1861.  The  Sioux  outbreak  in  1862,  besides 
frightening  away  settlers  from  the  valley,  interfered  with  the 
river  traffic  for  a  few  years,  but  during  the  latter  sixties  the 
trade  between  Georgetown  and  Fort  Garry  by  means  of  steam- 
boats and  lighters  was  resumed  and  in  addition  to  the  carrying 
of  furs  from  the  north  large  quantities  of  merchandise  for  traders 
and  settlers  in  Canada  were  transported,  being  freighted  over- 
land from  St.  Paul  to  Georgetown.  At  this  time  there  were  a 
number  of  people  living  along  the  river  at  various  points,  but 


they  were  there  incidentally  to  the  river  traffic  and  the  fur  trade 
and  not  as  permanent  residents. 

Following  the  fearful  Sioux  outbreak  in  August,  1862,  the 
siege  of  Fort  Abercrombie  and  the  atrocities  committed  by  the 
Indians,  most  of  those  who  had  been  temporary  residents  of  the 
valley  took  their  departure,  evidently  not  caring  to  risk  further 
depredations  by  the  Sioux.  Several  demonstrations  were  made 
by  the  military  authorities,  besides  punishing  the  leaders  of  the 
outbreak.  Major  Hatch  with  a  detachment  from  Fort  Snelling, 
known  as  Hatch's  battalion,  traversed  the  valley  in  the  fall  of 
1863,  remaining  at  Fort  Pembina  during  the  winter,  and  returned 
to  Fort  Snelling  in  the  spring  of  1864.  Later  in  the  same  year 
Major  Cunningham  conducted  a  military  expedition  to  Devils 
Lake,  and  thence  to  the  Red  River  valley,  and  then  back  to  the 
fort.  It  was  some  years,  however,  before  the  effects  of  the  Indian 
scare  gave  place  to  returning  confidence. 

In  1867  Pembina  county  was  organized,  comprising  most  of 
the  eastern  part  of  North  Dakota.  Charles  Cavalier,  Joseph 
Rolette  and  Charles  Grant  were  the  first  commissioners.  They 
appointed  John  Harrison  as  register  of  deeds,  William  Moorhead 
as  sheriff,  James  McFetridge  judge  of  probate,  and  John  Braease 
superintendent  of  schools. 

The  mail  service  was  extended  from  Fort  Abercrombie  to 
Pembina,  carts  being  used  in  the  summer  and  dog  trains  in  the 
winter.  In  1868  Nick  Hoffman  and  August  Loon  established  a 
mail  station  near  the  present  residence  of  Judge  Corliss  in  Grand 
Forks,  and  in  1870  a  postoffice  was  established  at  "Le  Grand 
Fourche,"  with  Sanford  C.  Cady  as  postmaster,  and  the  post- 
office  was  named  Grand  Forks.  Mr.  Cady  is  still  a  resident  of 
Grand  Forks  county.  The  office  was  established  for  the  con- 
venience of  those  engaged  in  traffic  along  the  Red  and  Red  Lake 
rivers,  although  there  were  but  few  settlers  living  at  Grand 
Forks  at  that  time. 

The  movements  towards  the  settlement  of  northwestern  Can- 
ada during  the  early  seventies  was  an  .influential  factor  in  the 
development  of  the  Red  River  valley.  The  province  of  Mani- 
toba was  without  rail  connections  with  the  East,  and  the  most 
available  route  for  emigrants  who  began  pouring  into  that  coun- 


try  in  1870,  following  the  acquisition  of  title  to  the  Hudson  Bay 
Company  land  by  the  government,  was  by  rail  to  St.  Cloud,  Minn., 
thence  by  stage  to  McCauleyville,  Minn.,  and  then  down  the  Red 
River  valley  to  Fort  Garry,  or  Winnipeg,  which  came  into  exist- 
ence near  the  site  of  the  old  fort  in  1863.  The  Hudson  Bay  Com- 
pany had  discouraged  immigration  to  its  domain,  and  the  pioneer 
steamers  which  had  been  in  commission  on  the  Red  river  between 
1860  and  1870  found  comparatively  little  business  except  the 
transportation  of  supplies  for  employees  of  the  fur  company  and 
merchandise  for  its  trading-posts,  which  were  numerous  over 
northwestern  Canada.  With  the  opening  up  of  the  country  to 
settlement,  however,  the  conditions  soon  changed  and  a  very 
extensive  traffic  developed.  The  emigrants  pouring  into  the 
Canadian  domain  required  lumber  and  other  building  material, 
and  household  and  other  supplies.  These  were  shipped  to  St. 
Paul  by  rail,  and  from  the  terminus  of  the  railroad  there  were 
freighted  to  the  Red  River  valley  by  ox  carts,  and  from  Mc- 
Cauleyville to  Winnipeg  by  steamboat  and  flatboats.  During 
1870  no  less  than  forty  flatboats,  or  scows,  were  constructed  at 
McCauleyville,  with  a  carrying  capacity  of  from  ten  to  forty 
tons  each.  These  were  floated  down  the  river  to  Winnipeg, 
where  they  were  taken  apart  after  being  unloaded,  and  the  lum- 
ber in  them  sold.  The  river  presented  a  busy  scene  with  its 
numerous  fleets  of  scows  as  well  as  several  steamers  plying  up 
and  down. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  freight  en  route  from  St.  Paul  and 
other  eastern  points  to  Winnipeg,  or  Fort  Garry,  as  the  place 
was  generally  known,  passed  through  the  hands  of  James  J.  Hill, 
at  that  time  engaged  in  the  warehouse  and  forwarding  business 
in  St.  Paul.  Impressed  by  the  rapidly  growing  traffic,  with 
doubtless  some  conception  of  its  possible  magnitude  in  the  future, 
Mr.  Hill  in  the  spring  of  1870  made  a  trip  to  Winnipeg  by  dog 
train  conveyance,  and  was  so  convinced  of  the  future  of  the  traffic 
that  on  his  return  he  forthwith  undertook  the  construction  of  a 
steamboat  for  the  traffic.  He  commissioned  Captain  Alexander 
Griggs,  a  Mississippi  river  boatman,  to  build  the  steamer  Selkirk. 
Captain  Griggs  left  his  home  in  Henderson,  Minn.,  in  July,  1870, 
with  a  crew  of  boat  carpenters  and  timber  cutters,  and,  pro- 


ceeding  to  the  Otter  Tail  river,  one  of  the  headwaters  of  the  Eed, 
they  began  the  work  of  felling  the  trees  for  the  boat,  and  also 
for  a  number  of  fiatboats.  The  timber  was  rafted  down  to 
McCauleyville,  where  the  work  of  construction  of  the  steamboat 
was  commenced  early  in  the  winter.  During  the  fall  Captain 
Griggs  was  engaged  in  freighting  merchandise  down  the  Red 
river  in  flatboats.  It  was  while  he  was  engaged  in  this  work  that 
an  episode  occurred  which  had  its  bearing  on  the  future  history 
of  Grand  Forks.  The  writer  of  this  sketch  happened  to  be  tem- 
porarily engaged  at  the  same  time  in  the  river  traffic,  and  late 
in  October  loaded  two  flatboats,  one  of  ten  tons  and  the  other  of 
forty  tons  capacity,  with  merchandise  at  McCauleyville,  for 
A.  W.  Stiles,  post  trader  at  Pembina,  by  whom  he  was  employed. 
Captain  Griggs  was  at  the  same  time  loading  a  fleet  of  flatboats 
destined  for  Fort  Garry.  A  good-natured  but  nevertheless  lively 
rivalry  existed  between  the  different  crews  as  to  the  facility  with 
which  their  boats  could  be  handled.  At  this  time,  when  the 
writer's  crew  had  their  two  flatboats  finally  loaded  and  set  out  for 
Pembina,  Captain  Griggs'  crew  had  about  half  a  day's  work 
before  the  loading  of  its  fleet  could  be  completed ;  but  the  crew 
boasted,  with  more  or  less  vehemence,  that  they  would  overhaul 
the  rival  fleet  before  reaching  Pembina.  Our  fleet  met  with  no 
difficulty  in  its  passage  down  the  river  until  Goose  Rapids  were 
reached,  where,  on  account  of  low  water  and  a  rocky  channel, 
the  entire  cargo  had  to  be  reloaded  on  a  "lighter,"  which  was 
carefully  towed  over  the  rapids.  Two  days  elapsed  before  this 
work  was  accomplished.  On  the  evening  of  the  second  day  the 
shouts  of  men  were  heard  up  the  river,  and  we  knew  that  Griggs' 
fleet  had  reached  the  head  of  the  rapids.  Confident  of  main- 
taining our  lead,  and  exhausted  by  the  hard  work  of  the  past  two 
days,  we  determined  to  tie  up  for  the  night  and  enjoy  needed  rest 
and  sleep.  Before  morning  a  violent  sleet  and  snow  storm  raged. 
The  smaller  flatboat,  which  had  been  loaded  down  heavily,  filled 
with  snow  and  water,  with  the  result  that  a  portion  of  the  cargo, 
consisting,  specifically,  of  kegs  of  beer,  washed  overboard,  and 
when  daylight  dawned  the  kegs  were  floating  down  the  river  on 
their  own  account.  The  boats  started  out  and  succeeded  in 
picking  up  all  but  one  of  the  kegs,  which  escaped  observation.  It 


appears  that  the  stray  contraband  package  was  espied  by  some 
member  of  the  Griggs  expedition  following,  was  taken  on  board, 
and  a  jollification  ensued,  with  the  result  that  more  or  less  of 
the  crew  were  soon  out  of  commission,  and  Captain  Griggs  found 
it  necessary  to  tie  up  his  fleet  when  the  forks  of  the  Eed  and 
Red  Lake  rivers  were  reached,  and  wait  for  the  effects  of  the 
accident  to  be  overcome.  In  the  meantime  the  weather  turned 
cold,  and  while  the  small  fleet  was  able  to  reach  Pembina,  Cap- 
tain Griggs'  boats  were  unable  to  proceed  any  farther,  on  account 
of  the  river  freezing  over.  The  boats  were  finally  unloaded,  the 
freight  piled  on  the  shore,  and  lumber  from  the  boats  used  in 
building  a  shed  over  them.  This  occupied  several  days,  and  Cap- 
tain Griggs  appears  to  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  site 
offered  attractions  for  a  future  town.  He  took  possession  of  a 
quarter  section,  which  afterward  became  the  town  site,  by  the 
" squatter"  process,  and  began  improvements  to  the  extent  of 
partially  erecting  a  log  house.  His  chief  clerk,  Howard  R. 
Vaughan,  also  took  possession  of  a  "claim"  adjoining  Captain 
Griggs'  land  on  the  north  and  including  the  Riverside  Park  sec- 
tion of  the  present  city.  Having  done  this,  Captain  Griggs  re- 
turned to  his  home  in  Henderson,  Minn.,  leaving  Vaughan  to 
begin  the  work  of  construction  of  the  steamboat.  While  at  home 
Captain  Griggs  interested  a  number  of  other  residents  of  Hen- 
derson in  the  establishment  of  a  town  on  the  site  of  the  present 
city  of  Grand  Porks. 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  entire  history  of  the  valley  has  had 
to  do  with  the  incidental  occupation  of  various  points  along  the 
river  as  a  part  of  the  fur  traffic  and  of  the  transportation  of 
supplies  for  the  settlers  in  Canada  and  the  occupants  of  the 
various  military  and  trading  posts  of  the  Northwest.  It  is  prob- 
able that  actual  settlement  in  the  Red  River  valley  would  have 
followed  the  exploitations  of  the  Kentucky  company  in  1856 
were  it  not  for  the  great  financial  panic  of  1857  and  the  political 
agitation  which  led  to  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  in  1861.  Un- 
doubtedly this  company  intended  to  colonize  certain  localities 
in  the  Northwest  on  a  large  scale,  but  before  it  had  fully  inaugu- 
rated its  scheme  the  great  disturbance  referred  to  ensued,  the 
result  being  postponement  of  settlement  for  fifteen  years.  In 


1871  great  impetus  was  given  to  immigration  by  railroad  enter- 
prises then  under  way.  The  Northern  Pacific  railroad  was  under 
construction  from  Duluth  westward,  and  was  completed  to  the 
Red  river  at  Moorhead  late  in  the  fall  of  1871.  The  St.  Paul  & 
Pacific  road  was  also  extended  to  Breckenridge  and  a  branch 
northward  to  St.  Vincent  was  under  construction.  But  the  most 
important  factor  of  all  was  the  acquirement  by  the  Dominion  of 
Canada  of  the  governmental  rights  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company 
(in  1871)  to  the  territory  lying  on  the  northern  border,  known 
as  Prince  Rupert's  land,  which  had  a  wide  influence  on  the  early 
settlement  of  the  Red  River  valley.  The  influx  of  immigrants 
had  hardly  commenced,  however,  when  the  Jay  Cooke  failure 
in  1873  and  the  great  grasshopper  scourge  of  1874  to  1876  mate- 
rially checked  the  movement,  which  did  not  revive  in  any  great 
degree  for  several  years. 

As  has  already  been  noted,  such  settlement  as  the  Red  River 
valley  had  attained  previous  to  1870  or  1871,  was  of  a  temporary 
character  and  related  in  but  a  slight  degree  to  the  subsequent 
development.  Some  of  the  early  sojourners  here,  who  came  to 
the  valley  originally  because  of  the  river  traffic  or  fur  trade, 
remained  until  after  the  fur  trade  had  dwindled  to  insignificance 
and  the  traffic  of  the  river  boats  had  been  largely  absorbed  by 
the  railroads.  Several  of  the  stage  stations  established  along 
the  river  between  Georgetown  and  Pembina  furnished  temporary 
accommodations  for  the  settlers  coming  into  the  valley  later ;  but 
Georgetown,  Frog  Point,  Belmont,  Turtle  River,  Kelly's  Point 
and  Thirty-Mile  Point  are  but  reminders  of  the  past.  The  Grand 
Forks  stage  station  of  forty  years  ago  occupied  a  site  about  half 
a  mile  distant  from  the  commodious  caravansaries  of  the  present 
city,  and  the  site  thereof  is  occupied  by  the  palatial  residences  on 
Reeves  avenue. 

The  military  post  at  Fort  Abercrombie  was  abandoned  soon 
after  the  permanent  settlement  of  the  valley  began,  but  the  post 
at  Pembina  was  occupied  for  a  score  of  years  later,  and  the 
customs  office  at  Pembina  remains  to  this  day,  as  a  tie  binding 
the  old  settlements  to  the  new.  And  Pembina  alone  has  an 
unbroken  record  of  habitation  dating  back  more  than  forty 
years.  McAuleyville,  once  the  scene  of  great  activity  as  the 


head  of  navigation  for  an  international  highway  of  more  than 
500  miles  in  extent,  and  as  the  site  of  the  first  manufacturing 
enterprise  in  the  valley,  in  the  form  of  a  sawmill  where  material 
for  the  early  boats  and  some  of  the  early  building  structures  was 
cut,  is  now  all  but  forgotten. 

The  establishment  of  the  line  of  stages  between  Fort  Aber- 
crombie  and  Winnipeg,  already  mentioned,  furnished  temporary 
occupation  for  a  number  of  station  agents  and  attaches,  who 
remained,  entered  other  occupations  and  became  permanent  resi- 
dents; likewise  some  of  the  number  who  were  engaged  in  the 
river  traffic.  Gardens  and  fields  of  greater  or  less  extent  were 
cultivated  in  connection  with  the  stage  stations  and  military 
posts,  and  the  marvelous  fertility  of  the  valley  soil  gradually 
became  known  outside,  and  during  the  early  seventies  the  ad- 
vance guard  of  the  throng  of  actual  settlers  who  followed  a  little 
later  occupied  claims  here  and  there  along  the  river.  The  con- 
struction of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  from  Duluth  toward 
the  Red  River  valley  attracted  quite  a  number  of  settlers  to  the 
vicinity  of  Moorhead  and  Fargo  in  1871  and  1872,  the  prospective 
location  of  a  town  at  the  crossing  of  the  Red  river  by  the  railroad. 

A  number  of  families  by  the  name  of  Hicks  located  near  the 
present  village  of  Hickson,  in  Cass  county,  in  1869.  Ole  Stand- 
void  came  from  Douglass  county,  Minnesota,  and  located  in  the 
spring  of  1870.  Lars,  Paul  and  Morten  Mortenson  located  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Sheyenne  river  the  same  year,  and  D.  P.  Harris 
located  in  that  section  during  the  winter  of  1870-71.  Walter 
J.  S.  Traill  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  Hudson  Bay  company's 
interests  in  1870,  with  headquarters  at  Georgetown.  He  ap- 
pointed A.  H.  Morgan  agent  at  Belmont,  and  Asa  Sargent  was 
located  at  Caledonia  about  the  same  time. 

One  of  the  first  permanent  settlers  in  Grand  Forks  was  George 
W.  Aker,  who  is  still  a  resident  of  the  city.  Mr.  Aker  came  from 
Milwaukee  to  McCauleyville  in  September,  1870,  and  was  engaged 
in  teaming  from  that  point  during  the  fall.  In  February,  1871, 
H.  R.  Vaughn,  who  had  been  employed  during  the  winter  build- 
ing the  steamer  Selkirk  at  McCauleyville,  secured  an  appoint- 
ment in  the  custom  office  at  Pembina  and  took  his  departure  for 
that  point.  Aker  accompanied  him  as  far  as  Grand  Forks,  and 


en  route  agreed  with  Vaughn  to  hold  the  latter 's  claim,  compris- 
ing a  portion  of  the  present  city  of  Grand  Forks,  for  him.  Aker 
built  a  log  house  near  the  site  of  St.  Michael's  hospital,  which 
was  for  years  one  of  the  landmarks  of  the  city  as  the  first  per- 
manent residence  in  Grand  Forks.  Mr.  Aker  fulfilled  his  part 
of  the  agreement  with  Vaughn,  but  Vaughn  finally  turned  the 
claim  over  to  Aker  as  a  part  of  his  compensation  for  time 
employed  in  holding  the  same. 

About  the  first  of  April,  1871,  a  party  consisting  of  Thomas 
Walsh,  Burton  Haney,  James  Jenks  and  Alexander  Blair,  in 
accordance  with  an  arrangement  with  Alex  Griggs,  left  Hender- 
son, Minn.,  bound  for  Grand  Forks.  They  took  with  them  the 
equipment  for  a  small  sawmill  and  a  stock  of  general  merchan- 
dise, which  they  freighted  over  to  Georgetown.  Arriving  there, 
they  found  the  river  open  but  the  steamer  Selkirk  not  yet  in 
commission.  A  flatboat  was  hastily  constructed,  and,  loading 
their  outfit  thereon,  they  floated  down  the  river,  arriving  at 
Grand  Forks  April  15.  Putting  a  floor,  roof,  window  and  door 
on  the  cabin  partially  constructed  by  Captain  Griggs,  they  made 
it  their  temporary  abode  until  they  could  construct  other  quar- 
ters. The  sawmill  machinery  was  set  up  and  after  the  mill  was 
constructed  they  erected  several  other  buildings,  including  a 
general  store  building  which  was  occupied  by  the  firm  of  Griggs 
&  Walsh.  The  steamer  Selkirk  was  launched  April  12  and 
reached  Grand  Forks  on  the  18th,  in  command  of  Captain  Alex. 
Griggs.  The  Selkirk  brought  a  number  of  passengers,  and  among 
those  who  came  here  on  that  and  subsequent  trips  who  were 
identified  with  the  growth  of  Grand  Forks  were  James  Elton, 
D.  M.  Holmes,  M.  L.  McCormack,  Joseph  Greenwood,  D.  P. 
Reeves,  0.  S.  Freeman  and  others.  John  Stewart  took  charge  of 
the  stage  station  about  the  same  time,  and  succeeded  Sanford 
Cady  as  postmaster.  John  Fadden  located  a  claim  south  of 
Captain  Griggs'  and  was  for  a  number  of  years  in  charge  of  a 
ferry  across  the  river  just  below  the  mouth  of  the  Red  Lake  river. 
He  also  ran  the  Northwestern  hotel  for  a  while,  and  was  one 
of  the  active  men  of  the  community. 

During  the  spring  of  1871  there  was  marked  activity  in  the 
valley,  occasioned  by  the  extension  of  the  Blakely  &  Carpenter 


line  of  stage  coaches  from  Fort  Abercrombie  to  Winnipeg.  The 
suppression  of  the  Kiel  rebellion  by  the  forces  of  General  Wolse- 
ley,  the  establishment  of  stable  government  in  the  province  of 
Assiniboia,  and  the  influx  of  settlers  from  the  Canadian  mari- 
time provinces  made  speedier  and  better  communication  an  im- 
perative necessity.  Four-horse  coaches  moved  up  and  down  the 
valley  every  day.  The  roads  were  improved  and  bridges  built 
across  the  little  streams,  and  by  the  middle  of  May  the  system 
was  in  good  working  order.  The  relay  stations  erected  at  con- 
venient points  along  the  route  soon  became  centers  of  small 
settlements.  Down  the  valley  from  Abercrombie  there  was  a  sta- 
tion at  Hutchinson's  ferry,  kept  by  J.  M.  Hutchinson;  then  at 
Georgtown  (Mr.  Sterns  kept  the  hostelry)  ;  at  Elm  River  (Ned 
Griffin) ;  at  Goose  River  (Asa  Sargent)  ;  at  Frog  Point  (Howard 
Morgan) ;  at  Grand  Forks  (John  Stewart)  ;  at  Turtle  River 
(Budge  &  Winship)  ;  at  Kelley's  Point  (Andrus  &  Kelly)  ;  at 
Thirty-Mile  Point  (James  Hastings  and  Hugh  Biggerstaff)  ;  at 
Twelve-Mile  Point  (Frank  La  Rose),  and  at  Pembina  (Antoine 
Girard  and  George  F.  Potter).  For  the  first  year  or  two  these 
stations  were  of  the  crudest  and  most  primitive  construction, 
but  they  furnished  shelter  and  food  for  the  traveler,  and  were 
more  appreciated  than  are  the  comfortable,  hotels  along  the  same 
route  at  this  time.  The  Turtle  River  station,  where  the  town 
of  Manuel  is  now  located,  was  a  sample  structure.  It  was  made 
of  logs  and  roofed  with  sod  cut  from  the  virgin  prairie.  After 
the  rains  had  washed  most  of  the  sod  off,  the  thatching  process 
was  resorted  to,  long,  rank  reeds  being  cut  from  nearby  marshes 
and  muddied  on  by  the  sticky  clay  so  abundant  in  the  Red  River 
valley.  There  was  one  window  and  a  door  in  the  building,  but 
no  floor  the  first  year,  and  no  stove  or  other  household  furni- 
ture. Cooking  was  done  in  a  fireplace  made  of  clay  dobies,  and 
meals  were  served  on  an  improvised  table  constructed  from  such 
material  as  could  be  found  in  the  nearby  bush.  Notwithstanding 
their  primitivenes,  these  stations  were  comfortable  in  the  coldest 
days  of  the  winter.  Roaring  fires  in  the  fireplaces  radiated  both 
heat  and  cheer,  and  travelers  invariably  paid,  without  complaint, 
fifty  cents  per  meal,  and  the  same  amount  for  the  privilege  of 
sleeping  on  the  floor. 


During  the  year  1871  a  telegraph  line  was  constructed  from 
Fort  Abercrombie  to  "Winnipeg,  and  thus  another  progressive 
step  was  made  which  brought  the  sparsely  settled  valley  some 
nearer  the  civilized  centers  of  the  East.  During  this  same  year 
the  first  settlers  located  on  the  Red  Lake  river  opposite  Grand 
Forks,  the  Coulter  and  Fleming  families  being  among  those 
locating.  Later  "W.  C.  Nash,  the  Nesbit  brothers,  and  others 
joined  the  settlement,  and  by  1875  it  was  one  of  the  most  thriving 
communities  in  the  Northwest.  Mr.  W.  C.  Nash's  settlement  in 
the  valley  dates  from  the  early  sixties,  when  he  engaged  in  busi- 
ness both  at  Abercrombie  and  Pembina.  He  has  been  a  resident 
of  the  country  ever  since,  and  at  present  owns  one  of  the  finest 
farms  in  the  valley,  adjacent  to  the  city  of  East  Grand  Forks. 

The  nucleus  of  an  early  settlement  was  started  at  Acton,  in 
Walsh  county,  in  1878,  when  Budge,  Eshelman  &  Anderson 
opened  a  general  merchandise  store  at  that  place.  This  was  the 
gateway  to  the  Park  River  country  and  was  an  important  trade 
center  until  cut  off  by  the  completion  of  the  St.  Paul,  Minne- 
apolis &  Manitoba  road  to  Graf  ton.  Antoine  Girard,  Thomas  Parr 
and  F.  M.  Winship  were  among  the  early  settlers  of  Acton.  Mr. 
Winship  established  a  weekly  paper,  "The  Acton  News,"  in  1880, 
which  was  afterward  moved  to  Graf  ton  and  merged  with  the 
"Times"  and  now  known  as  the  "News-Times."  Among  the 
first  settlers  at  Grafton  were  Thomas  E.  Cooper,  Nathan  Upham 
and  Jacob  Reinhart,  whose  settlement  antedates  the  arrival  of  the 
iron  horse.  Farther  up  Park  river  was  a  settlement  known  as 
Kensington,  C.  H.  Honey,  E.  0.  Faulkner  and  the  Cade  brothers 
being  among  the  early  locators. 

A  judicial  district,  comprising  the  eastern  portion  of  the 
present  state  of  North  Dakota,  was  established  by  the  legislature 
of  the  territory  during  the  session  of  1870-71,  and  Pembina  was 
designated  as  the  place  of  holding  court.  The  first  session  was 
held  there  in  1871,  and  Judge  George  W.  French  presided.  George 
I.  Foster  was  clerk  of  court;  L.  H.  Litchfield  and  Judson  La 
Moure,  who  had  recently  arrived  from  the  southern  part  of  the 
territory,  were  assistant  marshals;  Warren  Cowles  was  United 
States  attorney.  This  was  the  first  court  held  in  North  Dakota. 

When  the  engineers  of  the  Northern  Pacific  railway,  early  in 


July,  1871,  finally,  after  several  feints,  located  the  crossing  of 
the  Red  river  where  the  bridge  was  later  built,  a  number  who 
had  been  holding  claims  at  points  along  the  river,  in  hopes  of 
owning  the  town  site,  abandoned  their  claims  and  moved  else- 
where. It  was  found  that  men  in  the  employ  of  the  Superior 
Land  Company  were  in  the  possession  of  nearly  every  claim  in  the 
vicinity.  The  land  company  later  withdrew  and  the  railroad  com- 
pany received  title  to  section  six,  and  section  seven  was  divided 
among  S.  G.  Roberts,  Patrick  Devitt,  A.  J.  Marwood,  Gordon  J. 
Keeney  and  Harriet  Young.  The  town  of  Moorhead  was  laid 
out.  Fargo  was  not  platted  until  a  year  later,  but  during  the 
fall  of  1871,  owing  to  the  high  prices  of  lots  in  Moorhead,  many 
moved  across  the  river  to  ''Fargo  in  the  timber"  and  squatted 
there  for  the  winter.  Terrence  Martin  opened  up  a  store  in  a 
tent,  which  was  the  first  mercantile  enterprise  in  the  state,  except 
those  connected  with  the  fur  posts,  military  posts  and  stage  sta- 
tions. It  was  discovered  that  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river  at  Fargo  was  Indian  land,  and  this  deterred  actual  settle- 
ment there  for  some  time.  It  was  not  thrown  open  to  settlement 
until  1873.  Peter  Peterson  and  Roderick  Nelson  took  squatter 
claims  in  the  country  just  north  of  Fargo  in  1871.  C.  A.  Roberts 
and  John  E.  Haggart  were  also  among  the  number  who  took 
claims  in  the  vicinity.  A.  J.  Harwood  and  G.  J.  Keeney  together 
established  in  1874  "The  Fargo  Express,"  the  first  newspaper 
in  the  valley. 

Job  Smith  located  on  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Moorhead 
about  1868  and  for  some  time  kept  a  stage  station  there.  Andrew 
Holes  came  to  the  valley  in  1869  and  was  engaged  with  the  first 
public  surveys  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  Later  he  was  em- 
ployed by  Jay  Cooke  and  others  in  locating  land  for  them,  with  a 
view  to  securing  it  on  the  advent  of  the  Northern  Pacific.  He 
made  his  headquarters  with  R.  M.  Probsfield,  who  had  located 
three  miles  north  of  Moorhead  some  years  before.  When  the 
engineers  finally  decided  On  the  crossing  which  was  adopted  by 
the  Northern  Pacific,  Holes  arranged  with  Smith  to  prove  up  on 
his  claim,  and  then  purchased  it  of  him  for  the  railroad  mag- 
nates. The  engineers  had  run  several  false  lines,  one  to  Probs- 
field's,  which  became  known  as  Oakport,  and  one  as  far  north 


as  Georgetown.  Quite  a  number  of  prospective  business  men 
of  the  crossing  town  were  watching  the  engineers'  movements, 
with  a  view  of  locating  a  claim  at  just  the  right  point.  Among 
the  number  were  Jacob  Metzger,  Peter  Goodman  and  D.  P.  Harris, 
who  had  been  engaged  in  the  fur  trade,  and  Dennis  Hanafin. 
S.  G.  Comstock  was  with  the  construction  company  of  the  rail- 
road. Alex.  Gamble,  James  Holes,  John  Kinan,  Jens  Johnson, 
Ole  Lee,  Ole  Matheson  and  others  located  along  the  west  side  of 
the  river.  Andrew  Holes  located  a  claim  where  Fargo  stands, 
and  later  bought  several  other  claims,  and  the  town  site  company 
scripped  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  comprising 
several  quarter  sections.  James  Culbertson,  0.  N.  Olsgaard,  Tver 
Johnson  and  others  located  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sheyenne  river. 
The  Puget  Sound  Land  Company  scripped  considerable  land 
in  the  vicinity  of  Fargo  and  Moorhead,  and  at  a  meeting  of  the 
company  held  in  September,  1871,  Fargo  was  named  in  honor 
of  William  G.  Fargo,  of  the  Wells-Fargo  Express  Company,  and 
Moorhead  was  named  in  honor  of  William  G.  Moorhead,  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  directory.  A  postoffice  had  been  previously 
established  at  Fargo,  by  the  name  of  Centralia,  with  G.  J.  Keeney 
as  postmaster,  but  the  name  was  afterwards  changed  to  Fargo. 
The  Fargo  town  site  was  surveyed  and  platted  in  1872.  The 
first  building  in  Fargo  was  erected  by  J.  S.  Mann  in  1871  and  was 
occupied  as  a  hotel  by  Mann  and  A.  H.  Moore.  The  Headquarters 
hotel  was  commenced  in  1871,  but  was  not  finished  and  occupied 
until  a  year  later.  It  w&s  opened  by  J.  B.  Chapin,  April  1,  1873. 
E.  Sweet  erected  the  second  building  late  in  1871  and  occupied 
it  as  a  headquarters  for  the  bridgebuilders.  The  Sherman  house 
was  erected  by  Terrance  Martin  and  opened  July  4,  1873.  Mann 
&  Maddocks  opened  the  first  store  in  Fargo,  except  the  tent  store 
of  Martin,  in  a  building  they  erected  in  the  spring  of  1872.  The 
rails  were  laid  to  Moorhead  on  the  Northern  Pacific  on  Decem- 
ber 12,  1871.  The  first  preaching  services  in  Fargo  and  Moor- 
head were  held  by  Eev.  0.  H.  Elmer  in  1872.  At  the  close  of 
the  year  1872  the  two  or  three  hotels,  a  wagon  and  blacksmith 
shop,  two  or  three  saloons,  the  engineers'  headquarters,  and 
several  tar-paper  shacks  and  tents  constituted  all  there  was  of 



Cass  county  was  organized  in  1874  and  was  named  after 
General  Lewis  Cass,  of  Michigan,  who  was  at  that  time  president 
of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad.  Construction  work  on  the  North- 
ern Pacific  moved  westward  during  1871  and  1872,  and  a  few 
settlers  located  along  the  line.  D.  D.  McFadgen  and  Richard 
McKinnon  opened  a  hotel  on  the  site  of  the  present  Valley  City 
in  1871,  and  the  town  later  was  built  up  there. 

Grand  Forks  was  in  1871  in  Pembina  county,  which  then  in- 
cluded most  of  the  eastern  portion  of  the  present  state.  The 
commissioners  of  the  county  in  1871  created  new  voting  pre- 
cincts. Grand  Forks  was  made  the  polling  place  of  a  district 
the  northern  boundary  of  which  was  the  Park  river,  the  western 
boundary  the  western  limits  of  the  county,  and  the  southern 
boundary  the  Goose  river.  Thomas  Walsh,  Sanford  Cady  and 
John  Fadden  were  appointed  judges  of  election. 

The  year  1872  was  a  somewhat  disastrous  year  to  the  valley. 
Scarcely  any  rain  fell  from  the  first  of  May  until  late  in  the  fall. 
Vegetation  dried  up  and  turned  brown  early  in  August.  Early 
in  September  prairie  fires  raged  all  over  the  valley  and  left  the 
surface  of  the  ground  blackened  and  desolate.  It  was  indeed 
little  wonder  that  General  Hazen,  who  was  sent  out  by  the  gov- 
ernment that  summer  to  investigate  the  resources  of  the  country 
through  which  the  Northern  Pacific  railway  passed,  reported 
that  it  was  a  barren  waste,  fit  only  for  Indians  and  buffalo.  The 
following  winter  there  was  a  very  heavy  snowfall,  and  a  serious 
flood  in  the  spring,  and  then  came  the  financial  panic. 

Frog  Point,  now  Belmont,  which  was  established  as  a  Hudson 
Bay  post  in  1871,  was  for  several  years  the  head  of  navigation 
and  an  important  shipping  point  for  the  river  traffic.  A.  M. 
Morgan  had  charge  of  the  post  there,  and  Asa  Sargent  was  in 
charge  at  Goose  River,  now  Caledonia.  Later,  after  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company  retired,  Caledonia  became  the  shipping  point  for 
the  settlers  coming  into  Traill  county,  and  was  at  one  time  in 
the  seventies  a  town  of  300  population.  A.  M.  Morgan  was 
engaged  in  business  there,  and  also  J.  E.  Paulson,  John  Sundt, 
M.  Shelly  and  E.  T.  Jahr.  When  the  railroad  was  built  from 
Grand  Forks  to  Fargo,  later,  Hillsboro  supplanted  Caledonia, 


and  the  most  of  the  business  men  there  moved  over  to  the  new 

The  Hudson  Bay  Company  moved  its  headquarters  from 
Georgetown  to  Grand  Forks  in  1873  and  bought  the  Griggs  & 
Walsh  store,  and  also  the  sawmill.  The  company  also  erected 
the  Northwestern  hotel.  "W.  J.  S.  Traill  was  in  charge  of  the 
company's  store,  and  Frank  Viets,  who  had  opened  a  hotel  at 
Georgetown  in  1870  in  the  post  building,  took  charge  of  the 
Northwestern  hotel. 

The  new  territorial  legislature  of  1872  passed  a  bill  creating 
several  new  counties,  among  them  Grand  Forks,  Cass,  Eichland, 
Cavalier,  Ransom,  Foster,  LaMoure,  Renville  and  Stutsman.  The 
act  was  signed  by  the  '  governor  January  4,  1873.  John  W. 
Stewart,  Ole  Thompson  and  G.  B.  Winship  were  named  as  the 
first  commissioners.  Thompson  failed  to  qualify,  and  in  July, 
Messrs.  Stewart  and  Winship  named  0.  S.  Freeman  to  fill  the 
vacancy,  and  the  board  proceeded  to  the  organization  of  the 
county.  J.  J.  Mullen  was  appointed  register  of  deeds  and  county 
clerk;  Thomas  Walsh,  judge  of  probate;  0.  S.  Freeman,  county 
attorney  and  superintendent  of  schools;  Alex.  Griggs,  treasurer, 
and  Nick  Hoffman,  sheriff.  The  organization  was  allowed  to 
lapse,  and' a  reorganization  was  effected  in  1874,  Governor  Bur- 
bank  appointing  D.  P.  Keeves,  G.  A.  Wheeler  and  Alex.  Griggs 
as  commissioners.  They  completed  the  organization  in  March, 
1875,  by  the  appointment  of  James  Elton  as  register  of  deeds; 
Nick  Hoffman,  sheriff;  Thomas  Walsh,  treasurer  and  judge  of 
probate;  George  A.  Wheeler,  superintendent  of  schools. 

The  failure  of  Jay  Cooke  in  1873  and  the  financial  crash  which 
followed  not  only  had  the  effect  of  causing  a  suspension  of  work 
on  the  extension  of  the  Northern  Pacific  through  North  Dakota, 
but  retarded,  to  a  great  extent,  immigration,  which  had  begun 
populating  the  valley ;  and  it  was  a  number  of  years  before  there 
was  again  a  movement  in  this  direction.  Grand  Forks  remained 
but  a  struggling  village  of  one  or  two  hundred  population.  Fargo 
had  not  very  much  the  better  of  it  in  this  respect,  and  the  other 
towns  of  the  valley  were  but  mere  hamlets.  A  large  proportion 
of  the  land  within  a  few  miles  of  the  Eed  river  had  been  filed 
on  by  prospective  settlers  or  speculators,  who  used  scrip,  but 



comparatively  little  farming  was  being  done  anywhere  in  the 
valley.  There  was  no  market  here  for  grain,  and  no  railroad 
near  enough  to  haul  out  grain  if  it  had  been  marketed.  Some 
small  areas  farther  south  in  the  vicinity  of  Fargo  were  being 
cultivated  and  the  surplus  products  shipped  out  over  the  North- 
ern Pacific.  In  1876  Frank  Viets  erected  in  Grand  Forks  a 
hotel,  for  years  known  as  the  Viets  house,  and  now  the  Hotel 
Hall.  He  also  erected  a  flour  mill,  and  this  gave  some  little 
impetus  to  the  cultivation  of  wheat,  but  it  was  some  years  before 
the  tributary  population  became  numerous  enough  to  keep  the 
wheels  grinding  steadily,  although  the  capacity  was  but  fifty 
barrels  at  first. 

The  river  traffic  developed  to  considerable  proportions  be- 
tween 1875  and  1880.  A  boat  yard  was  established  in  Grand 
Forks  by  D.  P.  Reeves,  and  the  steamer  Sheyenne  was  built  here, 
and  later  other  steamers.  The  steamers  Minnesota  and  Manitoba 
were  built  at  Moorhead  in  1875.  About  the  same  time  N.  W. 
Kittson  and  others  organized  the  Red  River  Transportation  Com- 
pany, which  has  been  in  business  and  navigating  the  river  con- 
tinuously ever  since.  The  steamer  Alpha  was  built  by  the  com- 
pany at  McCauleyville,  and  later  the  steamer  Alsop  was  built  by 
H.  W.  Alsop,  of  Fargo.  He  also  bought  the  steamer  Pluck,  at- 
Brainerd,  transported  it  by  rail  to  Moorhead,  where  it  was 
lengthened  and  again  launched.  These  boats  were  later  bought 
by  the  Red  River  Transportation  Company,  and  subsequently  the 
same  company  constructed  the  steamer  Grand  Forks  and  numer- 
ous barges.  In  addition  to  the  steamboats  plying  the  river, 
numerous  flatboats  were  in  commission  hauling  north-bound 
freight,  the  boats  being  taken  apart  and  the  lumber  sold  at  the 
end  of  the  trip. 

In  1872-73  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad,  which  had  built  a 
line  to  Breckenridge,  constructed  a  line  from  Glyndon,  on  the 
Northern  Pacific,  extending  south  to  Barnesville  and  north  a 
few  miles  to  Crookston.  Then  the  enterprise  lagged,  as  a  result 
of  the  financial  troubles,  and  nothing  more  was  done  for  several 
years.  In  the  meantime  the  Canadian  Pacific  road  was  being 
built  in  detached  sections,  and  the  contractor  who  had  charge 
of  the  building  of  a  division  extending  east  from  Winnipeg- 


arranged  to  have  the  rails  and  other  supplies  shipped  over  the 
Northern  Pacific  to  Moorhead  and  thence  down  the  river  to 
Winnipeg  on  flatboats.  Large  quantities  were  shipped  in  this 
way  during  1875  and  1876.  In  1877,  owing  to  trouble  encoun- 
tered during  low  water  in  getting  over  the  bar  at  Goose  Rapids, 
arrangements  were  made  with  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  road,  and  a 
spur  track  was  built  from  Crookston  to  Fisher's  Landing,  which 
has  since  become  Fisher,  and  the  rails  and  other  supplies  were 
loaded  on  barges  there  instead  of  at  Moorhead.  The  new  shipping 
point  became  the  head  of  navigation  for  a  number  of  years,  a 
large  volume  of  traffic  being  handled  in  that  way,  the  steamboats 
also  taking  Canadian-bound  passengers  from  the  railroad  at  that 
point.  Thousands  of  settlers,  both  those  who  located  in  north- 
western Canada  and  those  stopping  in  North  Dakota,  came  in  by 
way  of  Fisher's  Landing. 

This  story  at  this  point  makes  Grand  Forks  perhaps  unduly 
conspicuous,  but  the  history  of  the  valley  during  these  years 
was  mostly  made  up  of  events  at  Grand  Forks,  at  the  Fargo  and 
Moorhead  settlements,  and  at  Pembina,  which  was  then  the  base 
of  the  fur  trade  and  of  military  operations,  as  well  as  the  customs 
service.  Grand  Forks  at  the  end  of  its  first  five  years'  existence 
was  a  town  of  less  than  200  population.  (The  accompanying 
engraving,  made  from  a  sketch  by  Thomas  Lawson  in  1874, 
shows,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  all  there  was  of  the  town,  except  a 
few  scattered  log  cabins  along  the  timber  here  and  there.) 

The  United  States  land  office  was  opened  at  Pembina  in  1874, 
and  during  the  same  year  the  government  land  adjacent  to  Grand 
Forks  was  opened  to  settlement.  Among  the  first  entries  of 
land  made  in  this  vicinity  were  the  filings  of  Alexander  Griggs, 
0.  S.  Freeman,  John  Fadden,  Sr.,  and  J.  S.  Eshelman.  The  first 
school  in  this  section  was  opened  in  Grand  Forks  in  a  log  shack 
late  in  1874,  with  Miss  Hattie  Richmond  as  teacher.  The  teacher 
was  paid  by  private  contributions.  Early  in  1875  a  school 
building  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $500,  and  Rev.  William  Curie,  a 
Methodist  minister  sent  here  from  the  Iowa  conference,  was 
placed  in  charge.  There  were  not  over  a  dozen  pupils  at  that 
time.  "The  Grand  Forks  Plaindealer"  was  established  in  July, 


1875,  by  George  H.  Walsh,  and  was  for  some  years  published 

The  first  church  building  in  Grand  Forks,  and  one  of  the  first 
in  the  territory,  except  a  number  of  Catholic  mission  chapels 
established  for  the  Indians  earlier,  was  that  of  the  Methodist 
denomination.  It  was  a  small  frame  building  and  stood  near 
the  site  of  the  present  Methodist  church.  The  first  religious 
service  here  of  which  there  is  a  record  was  held  in  Captain  Alex. 
Griggs '  house,  February  11,  1872,  by  Rev.  0.  H.  Elmer,  in  charge 
of  the  Presbyterian  mission  at  Moorhead. 

During  the  early  seventies,  settlers  from  Iowa,  a  large  pro- 
portion of  whom  were  Scandinavians  or  of  Scandinavian  descent, 
began  coming  into  the  territory  and  locating  mainly  along  the 
streams  tributary  to  the  Red  river,  the  Goose,  Sheyenne  and 
others,  and  beginning  operations  on  a  small  scale  in  the  way  of 
opening  farms.  So  well  satisfied  were  these  pioneer  settlers,  in 
the  main,  that  their  neighbors  and  countrymen  whom  they  had 
left  behind  profited  by  their  advice  and  came  also  in  steadily 
increasing  numbers.  John  Lindstrom  came  from  Northwood, 
Iowa,  in  the  fall  of  1870,  locating  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sheyenne. 
His  nearest  neighbor  was  at  that  time  sixteen  miles  down  the 
river.  In  1873,  with  his  brother  Lars,  he  located  near  North- 
wood,  in  Grand  Forks  county.  Halvor  Solem,  Nels  Korsmo, 
and  others  located  in  that  vicinity  in  1874.  In  1876,  Peter 
Thinglestad,  Hans  Thinglestad,  Paul  Johnson,  Andrew  Nelson, 
and  others,  all  from  the  vicinity  of  Northwood,  Iowa,  located  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  present  village  of  Northwood,  in  this  state, 
in  1875  and  1876.  These  early  pioneers  hauled  the  surplus  grain 
they  raised  to  Caledonia  or  Grand  Forks  for  shipment.  Ox  teams 
were  largely  the  motive  power  used,  and  farming  under  such 
circumstances  had  its  drawbacks.  The  fertility  of  the  soil  asserted 
itself,  however,  and  the  further  fact  that  here  was  an  empire  of 
the  richest  soil  to  be  found  anywhere,  and  all  ready  for  the 
plow,  awaiting  occupation  as  a  gift  from  Uncle  Sam.  The  effect 
of  the  financial  panic  was  disappearing,  and  railroad  construc- 
tion towards  North  Dakota  had  been  commenced  again.  These 
and  other  results  attracted  a  large  immigration  into  the  terri- 
tory during  1878  and  1879  and  the  following  years.  New  towns 


and  villages  came  into  existence,  and  the  Red  River  valley,  after 
lying  dormant,  as  it  were,  so  long,  began  to  take  on  new  life. 

The  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad,  which  had  been  built  from 
St.  Paul  to  Melrose  before  the  panic  of  1873,  was  extended  in 

1878  to  Barnesville  and  connection  made  there  with  the  branch 
extending  up  the  east  side  of  the  Red  river  to  St.  Vincent.  During 
the  same  year  James  J.  Hill  became  the  general  manager.     In 

1879  the  road  was  reorganized  as  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  & 
Manitoba.     The  spur  which  had  been  extended  from  Crookston 
to  Fisher's  Landing  was  extended  to  East  Grand  Forks,   and 
during  the  following  winter  the  river  was  bridged  and  Grand 
Forks  became  connected  by  rail  with  the  outside  world.     The 
north  line  was  also  extended  to  St.  Vincent,  at  the  international 
boundary  line.     The  line  was  built  south  from  Grand  Forks  as 
far  as  Hillsboro.     The  Northern   Pacific  was   extended  to   the 
western  boundary  of  the  territory,  and  other  lines  were  being 
surveyed.     In  1880  Fargo  and  Grand  Forks  were  connected  by 
rail,  and  Hillsboro,  Reynolds,  Buxton,  and  other  thriving  towns 
located  between,  were  growing.     The  United 'States  land  office 
was  opened  in  Grand  Forks,  April  20,  1880,  with  B.  C.  Tiffany 
register  and  W.  J.  Anderson  receiver,  and  this  place  became  the 
headquarters  and  fitting-out  point  for  settlers   locating  to  the 
west  and  north  of  Grand  Forks.    In  1881  the  work  of  the  exten- 
sion of  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  railway  west  and 
also  north  from  Grand  Forks  was  begun.    Settlers  were  pushing 
out  beyond  the  railroads,  however,  and  more  were  coming  in  by 
every  train.    Fargo  and  Gand  Forks,  as  well  as  the  younger  cities 
of  the.  valley,  were  growing  rapidly,  and  new  towns  were  appear- 
ing here  and  there  over  the  rapidly  settling  territory.     Grand 
Forks  was  incorporated  as  a  city  in  1881,  with  W.  H.  Brown 
as  the  first  mayor.    The  census  that  year  gave  the  place  a  popu- 
lation of  1,700.     Many  of  the  settlers   coming  into  the  valley 
found  temporary  quarters  in  the  city,  and  it  was  almost  impos- 
sible to  build  hotels  and  boarding-houses  fast  enough  to  accom- 
modate the  incoming  settlers.     Large  quantities  of  merchandise 
in  the  way  of  settlers'  supplies  were  required,  and  the  business 
of  the  railroad  towns  doubled  and  quadrupled  during  these  years. 

In  1881  the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  road  was  ex- 


tended  northward  from  Grand  Forks  to  Grafton,  and  the  west 
line  was  extended  to  Bartlett,  in  Nelson  county.  Still  another 
line  was  extended  north  from  Wahpeton  to  Larimore,  and  the 
Northern  Pacific  built  from  Casselton  north  to  Mayville.  Graf- 
ton,  Mayville,  Lakota  and  other  towns  became  supply  points,  and 
settlers  from  Iowa,  Illinois,  Missouri,  Minnesota,  Wisconsin  and 
other  states,  and  from  Ontario,  came  into  the  valley  and  pushed 
out  into  the  unoccupied  territory.  In  1882  the  railroad  lines  were 
extended  north  to  the  boundary  line  at  Neche,  and  west  to  Devils 
Lake,  bringing  more  thriving  towns  into  existence. 

As  the  settlement  of  the  valley  proceeded,  it  became  notice- 
able that  arrivals  from  different  sections  were  locating  in  settle- 
ments together  to  a  large  extent.  In  addition  to  the  numerous 
immigrants  from  Scandinavian  countries  and  from  Ontario,  which 
were  scattered  throughout  the  valley,  there  might  be  seen  here 
and  there  groups  of  settlers  coming  from  widely  separated  cor- 
ners of  the  earth.  In  western  Grand  Forks  county  were  large 
numbers  of  farmers  from  the  vicinity  of  Niagara,  New  York,  and 
naturally  North  Dakota  soon  had  a  Niagara  of  its  own.  In  west- 
ern Walsh  county  a  large  number  of  settlers  from  Bohemia 
were  found.  In  eastern  Walsh  county  was  a  large  settlement  of 
French.  Over  in  Pembina  was  a  large  colony,  of  settlers  from 
Iceland,  and  in  other  sections  settlements  of  Germans,  Scotch  and 
other  nationalities  were  represented. 

S.  G.  Comstock  and  A.  A.  White  made  an  arrangement  with 
the  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  railway  to  handle  the  town 
sites  along  the  extensions,  and  platted  a  large  number  of  the 
towns  along  its  various  lines. 

Hillsboro,  which  was  platted  in  1880,  was  made  the  county 
seat  of  Traill  county.  In  September,  1880,  A:  H.  Morgan  and 
James  Rogers  erected  the  first  store  building  there,  and  A.  H. 
Morgan  and  J.  E.  Paulson  were  the  first  to  engage  in  business. 
The  place  was  first  named  Hill  City,  in  honor  of  James  J.  Hill. 

Grafton  was  platted  in  1881  and  was  named  after  Grafton, 
N.  Y.,  by  Thomas  E.  Cooper,  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers  of  Park 
river.  It  was  made  the  county  seat  of  Walsh  county.  The  county 
was  named  after  George  H.  Walsh,  who  was  at  that  time  speaker 
of  the  house  of  representatives. 


In  1882  the  Northern  Pacific  and  Mr.  James  J.  Hill  arrived  at 
an  understanding  as  to  the  territory  of  the  two  systems,  and  as  a 
result  the  Northern  Pacific  relinquished  its  branch  extending 
north  from  Casselton  and  discontinued  construction  northward 
from  Portland  in  Traill  county,  and  for  years  Mr.  Hill's  lines  kept 
out  of  Northern  Pacific  territory  west. 

By  the  close  of  1883  practically  all  of  the  arable  land  in  the 
valley  had  been  taken  by  settlers,  and  a  large  part  of  the  terri- 
tory was  under  cultivation.  The  surplus  of  settlers  was  pouring 
on  westward  into  the  upland  counties  and  going  out  farther  and 
farther  from  the  railroad  lines. 

The  first  rush  of  the  claim  shanty  period  over,  the  settlers 
on  the  prairie  lands  set  themselves  about  their  chosen  occupation 
of  farming.  The  temporary  settlers,  consisting  of  clerks  and 
mechanics,  merchants,  teachers,  professional  men  and  others,  who 
had  taken  "claims"  because  of  possible  quick  pecuniary  returns 
rather  than  with  any  intention  of  engaging  in  actual  farming 
themselves,  relinquished  them  to  others,  for  a  consideration,  or 
obtained  what  money  they  could  in  the  way  of  loans,  and  they 
afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of  other  owners. 

The  so-called  timber  culture  law,  which  was  later  abolished, 
proved  of  immense  value  to  the  valley  as  an  incentive  to  the  plant- 
ing of  trees,  and  hundreds  of  settlers  who  planted  five  or  ten  acres 
of  trees,  at  first  merely  in  order  to  secure  title  to  the  land,  found 
later  that  they  could  not  have  made  a  better  investment  of  either 
time  or  money,  and  the  magnificent  groves  of  timber  resulting 
have,  in  fact,  changed  the  face  of  the  earth,  influenced  the  cli- 
matic conditions,  and  added  literally  millions  of  dollars  to  the 
value  of  the  lands. 

The  farming  in  the  Red  River  valley  during  the  first  twenty 
years  of  occupation  was  of  a  most  primitive  kind.  The  use  of  a 
breaking-plow  the  first  season,  and  of  the  cross-plow,  the  drill, 
the  harvester  and  the  threshing  machine,  in  one  continual  round, 
yielded  rich  returns  of  wheat  and  other  cereals.  But  slight 
attention  was  paid  to  other  branches  of  farming,  and  money 
came  easy  to  the  farmers.  The  small  shanties  gave  place  to 
substantial  farm-houses,  and  the  temporary  stables  gave  place  in 
time  to  commodious  barns  and  machinery  sheds.  However,  there 


was  a  perceptible  diminution  in  returns  from  the  early  farming 
methods,  and  gradually  the  farmers  of  the  valley  found  it  neces- 
sary to  take  up  improved  methods  of  farming  and  raise  stock  and 
otherwise  diversify  their  farming  in  order  to  secure  the  best 

The  development  of  the  cities  and  towns  of  the  valley  has 
scarcely  kept  pace  with  that  of  the  farming  interests,  although 
there  has  been  a  steady  growth  in  this  direction,  and  Grand 
Forks,  Fargo,  Larimore,  Grafton,  Hillsboro,  Mayville  and  the 
other  principal  cities  of  the  valley  have  within  the  'past  few 
years  taken  on  metropolitan  proportions.  The  extension  of  new 
lines  of  railway  out  over  the  valley  in  every  direction  have  within 
the  past  few  years  placed  Grand  Forks  and  Fargo  at  an  advan- 
tage as  railroad  distributing  centers,  and  both  have  built  up  a 
large  trade  with  outlying  territory.  The  outlook  for  the  years  to 
come  in  the  valley  could  hardly  be  brighter  than  it  is  today, 
and  it  will  continue,  as  in  the  past,  to  be  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous sections  of  the  country. 


The  history  of  a  state  or  nation  is  that  of  the  people  who 
made  it  a  state  or  a  nation.  The  history  of  the  Red  River  valley, 
to  a  very  large  extent,  is  that  of  those  pioneers  of  Dakota  who 
settled  first  in  this  portion  of  that  state,  and  whose  doings  have 
been  to  some  considerable  extent  chronicled  in  their  own  author- 
ized publications.  In  order  that  a  full  history  of  this  important 
society  may  be  preserved,  and  because  of  the  importance  of  those 
meetings,  we  have  copied  largely  from  their  authorized  records, 
and  they  are  as  follows : 

The  Old  Settlers'  Association. 

December  27,  1879,  about  twenty  old  settlers  of  Grand  Forks 
•  and  vicinity  met  at  McCormack's  and  Grigg's  hall,  Grand  Forks, 
for.  the  purpose  of  organizing  an  old  settlers'  association.  R.  M. 
Probstfield  was  elected  president  and  George  B.  Winship  secre- 
tary. J.  J.  Cavanaugh  was  elected  treasurer.  The  following  old 
settlers  responded  to  the  call  for  a  contribution  of  twenty-five 
cents  each  to  pay  the  expenses  incidental  to  the  organization,  viz. : 
Alexander  Griggs,  0.  S.  Freeman,  W.  C.  Nash,  James  Hanrahan, 
James  Jenks,  Z.  B.  Hunt,  Ed.  Williams,  D.  P.  Reeves,  Burt  Haney, 
R.  M.  Probstfield,  William  Blair,  Thomas  Walsh,  C.  W.  McLaugh- 
lin,  William  Budge,  James  McCrea,  George  Akers,  Matt  Mc- 
Guiness,  N.  Hoffman,  J.  J.  Cavanaugh,  M.  L.  McCormack  and 
George  B.  Winship. 

M.  L.  McCormack,  W.  C.  Nash  and  Thomas  Walsh  were 
appointed  a  committee  on  arrangements  for  the  meeting  for 

A  committee  was  also  appointed  on  invitation  for  the  several 



localities  as  follows:  Grand  Forks  county,  Alex.  Griggs,  D.  P. 
Reeves,  Matt  McGuiness;  Wilkin  county,  J.  R.  Harris,  D.  Mc- 
Cauley,  Mr.  Phelps ;  Clay  county,  R.  M.  Probstfield,  E.  R.  Hutch- 
inson,  C.  P.  Slogy;  Polk  county,  James  Jenks,  E.  M.  Walsh  and 
John  Ireland;  Kittson  and  Marshall  counties,  F.  Brawley,  J.  W. 
Stewart,  A.  W.  Stiles ;  Pembina  county,  Charles  Cavalier,  William 
Budge  and  N.  E.  Nelson ;  Traill  county,  A.  Sargeant,  C.  M.  Clark, 
George  Weston;  Cass  county,  J.  B.  Chapin,  Jacob  Lowell,  Jr.,  and 
George  Egbert;  Richland  county,  M.  T.  Rich  and  two  others  to 
be  named.  February  4  next  was  fixed  as  date  of  meeting  for 
organization.  At  that  meeting  the  following  were  elected  officers 
of  the  association,  viz. :  President,  R.  M.  Probstfield ;  vice  presi- 
dents, Asa  Sargeant,  of  Traill,  N.  E.  Nelson,  of  Pembina,  and  J.  R. 
Harris,  of  Wilkin;  secretary  and  treasurer,  George  B.  Winship, 
of  Grand  Forks ;  executive  committee,  Frank  Veits,  J.  S.  Eshel- 
man  and  M.  L.  McCormack,  of  Grand  Forks. 

Letters  were  read  from  J.  J.  Hill,  General  H.  H.  Silbey,  ex- 
Senator  H.  M.  Rice  and  N.  W.  Kittson,  of  St.  Paul.  W.  G.  Wood- 
ruff, M.  L.  McCormack  and  J.  S.  Eshelman  were  appointed  a 
committee  on  by-laws. 

The  following  members  paid  the  membership  fee  of  $1,  viz. : 
W.  C.  Nash,  John  Fadden,  E.  Williams,  R.  Fadden,  Joseph  Hanra- 
han,  George  Akers,  Z.  B.  Hunt,  William  Fleming,  George  Ames, 
George  B.  Winship,  Alex.  Griggs,  Jacob  Rheinhart,  William 
Budge,  R.  Coulter,  L.  Surprise,  M.  Flarry,  N.  Hoffman,  J.  Jenks, 
M.  L.  McCormack,  F.  Veits,  J.  S.  Eshelman. 

December,  1881,  the  old  settlers  again  met  in  the  court  house 
at  Grand  Forks,  and  the  following  answered  to  the  roll  call :  Burt 
Haney,  John  Fadden,  D.  F.  Brawley,  H.  R.  Vaughn,  Richmond 
Fadden,  Edward  Williams,  James  Jenks,  W.  P.  Blair,  J.  Green- 
wood, George  H.  Ames,  Nick  Hoffman,  Z.  M.  Hunt,  Thomas 
Walsh,  Michael  McGuinness,  Joseph  Hanrahan,  William  Budge, 
M.  L.  McCormack,  0.  S.  Freeman,  W.  C.  Nash,  George  W.  Akers, 
Frank  Veits,  George  B.  Winship,  Michael  Ferry,  John  Island, 
Leon  Surprise,  J.  S.  Eshelman,  Robert  Coulter,  Alex.  Griggs, 
R.  M.  Probstfield.  E.  R.  Hutchinson.  The  following  officers  were 
elected:  President,  D.  F.  Brawley,  St.  Vincent;  vice-president, 
Howard  R.  Vaughn,  Pembina ;  second  vice-president,  Alex.  Griggs, 


Grand  Forks;  third  vice-president,  James  Holes,  of  Cass;  secre- 
tary, George  B.  Winship,  Grand  Forks;  executive  committee, 
Charles  Cavalier,  N.  E.  Nelson  and  Judson  La  Moure.  It  was 
voted  that  all  who  settled  in  the  Eed  Eiver  valley  prior  to  Sep- 
tember 1, 1873,  should  be  eligible  to  membership. 

A  later  meeting  was  held  at  Pembina,  probably  in  1882.  At 
this  meeting  the  following  were  present :  Hugh  0  'Donnell,  Charles 
J.  Brown,  A.  Carl,  A.  Watson,  Alex.  Griggs,  S.  W.  Ferry,  Charles 
Crawford,  0.  S.  Freeman,  Eobert  E.  Ewing,  M.  L.  McCormack, 
A.  C.  McCumber,  H.  E.  Vaughan,  S.  C.  Cady,  Jacob  Eheinhart, 
Charles  Cavalier,  W.  J.  S.  Traill,  A.  W.  Stiles,  William  Camp, 
E.  Armstrong,  George  B.  Winship,  Burt  Haney,  Frank  Myrick, 
Captain  Aymo,  Judson  La  Moure,  N.  E.  Nelson,  Norman  Gingras, 
Andrew  T.  Nelson,  Thomas  Walsh,  D.  F.  Brawley,  John  Fadden 
and  F.  T.  Bradley.  At  this  meeting  Bradley  was  elected  presi- 
dent, and  E.  Fadden,  N.  E.  Nelson  and  J.  B.  Chapin  vice-presi- 
dents. J.  F.  Termant,  of  West  Lynn,  was  elected  secretary  and 
G.  B.  Winship  treasurer.  This  organization  was  allowed  to  lapse, 
and  ten  years  later,  viz.,  December  10,  1891,  the  society  met  again 
at  Grand  Forks  for  organization.  George  B.  Winship  called  the 
meeting  to  order;  D.  M.  Holmes  was  secretary.  N.  K.  Hubbard, 
Frank  Veits,  Charles  Cavalier,  0.  H.  Elmer  and  John  Erickson 
were  appointed  a  committee  on  permanent  organization.  They 
reported  a  plan  of  organization  and  that  all  settlers  in  the  valley 
prior  to  December  31,  1875,  should  be  eligible  to  membership. 
Vice  presidents  were  to  be  elected  from  each  of  the  Eed  Eiver 
valley  counties,  as  follows:  Pembina,  Charles  Cavalier,  Traill, 
Asa  Sargeant ;  Cass,  Jacob  Lowell ;  Eichland,  Hans  Myhra ;  Polk, 
0.  H.  Elmer ;  Clay,  John  Erickson ;  Wilkin,  Daniel  McCauley. 

There  was  no  meeting  of  the  association  for  ten  years,  when 
they  again  met  at  Grand  Forks  for  the  purpose  of  reorganization, 
December  10,  1891,  George  B.  Winship  being  elected  president 
and  D.  M.  Holmes  secretary.  N.  K.  Hubbard,  0.  H.  Elmer,  John 
Erickson,  Frank  Veits  and  Charles  Cavalier  were  appointed  a 
committee  on  permanent  organization. 

This  committee  limited  membership  to  those  who  settled  in 
the  Eed  Eiver  valley  prior  to  December  31,  1875.  Charles  Cava- 
lier, of  Pembina;  A.  Sargeant,  of  Traill;  Jacob  Lowell,  of  Cass; 


Hans  Myhra,  of  Richland ;  0.  H.  Elmer,  of  Polk ;  John  Erickson, 
of  Clay,  and  David  McCauley,  of  Wilkin,  were  elected  vice- 
presidents.  J.  W.  Taylor,  Robert  Patterson,  W.  G.  Fonseca,  and 
E.  L.  Barber,  of  Manitoba,  were  elected  honorary  members.  The 
membership  fee  was  fixed  at  $2  and  the  receipts  were,  for  mem- 
bership, $102;  from  the  old  association,  $32,  and  from  banquet 
tickets  for  invited  guests,  $25.  The  local  committee  turned  into 
the  treasury  the  sum  of  $24.75.  The  banquet  at  the  Dakotah  hotel 
cost  $84,  the  music  for  the  hall,  $50,  and  printing  and  other 
expenses  consumed  the  balance. 

Those  present  were  George  B.  Winship,  D.  M.  Holmes,  J.  B. 
Chapin,  Jacob  Lowell,  N.  E.  Nelson,  Robert  Ewing,  H.  R.  Vaughn, 
Richmond  Fadden,  P.  P.  Nokken,  H.  C.  Myhra,  Asa  Sargeant, 
P.  S.  Kelly,  Halvor  Thoraldson,  E.  M.  Walsh,  "W.  H.  Moorhead, 
M.  D.  Campbell,  George  A.  Wheeler,  Thomas  Campbell,  Edward 
O'Brien,  James  A.  Jenks,  N.  K.  Hubbard,  Z.  M.  Hunt,  J.  G. 
Hamilton,  John  W.  W.  Smith,  Thomas  Walsh,  W.  H.  Brown, 
Michael  Ferry,  George  H.  Walsh,  James  Duckworth,  William 
Camp,  Frank  Veits,  Joseph  Jarvis,  Casper  Mosher,  George  H. 
Fadden,  John  Erickson,  C.  Cavalier,  John  N.  Harvey,  James  Elton, 
0.  H.  Elmer,  J.  T.  Taylor,  R.  Patterson,  Ed.  Williams,  George  A. 
Wheeler,  Jr.,  B.  Haggerty,  James  K.  Swan,  W.  J.  Anderson,  John 
0.  Fadden,  G.  G.  Beardsley,  Philip  McLaughlin,  George  E.  Jack- 
son, Walter  J.  S.  Traill,  Judson  La  Moure,  John  Kabernagle. 

At  the  Moorhead  meeting,  December  7,  1892,  there  was  a 
goodly  number  present,  but  the  records  do  not  show  who  partici- 
pated. The  receipts  for  membership  fees,  however,  were  $48. 
George  B.  Winship  was  elected  president;  N.  K.  Hubbard  (Cass), 
John  Herrick  (Richland),  James  Nolan  (Wilkin),  Asa  Sargeant 
(Traill),  0.  H.  Elmer  (Polk),  and  Charles  Cavalier  (Pembina), 
vice-presidents.  Ransom  Phelps  was  elected  local  secretary  and 
Breckenridge  was  chosen  as  the  next  place  of  meeting.  Mrs.  J.  S. 
Harris  was  appointed  to  procure  certain  manuscripts  in  the  hands 
of  Dr.  Harvey  relating  to  the  early  history  of  the  Red  River 

At  the  Breckenridge  meeting,  December  6,  1893,  George  B. 
Winship,  Grand  Forks;  Job  and  Frank  Herrick,  Abercrombie; 
James  Nolan,  McCauleyville ;  John  Erickson,  Moorhead ;  H.  C.  N. 


Myhra,  Kongberg;  N.  D.  and  Frank  J.  Smith,  Breckenridge. 
answered  to  the  call  of  the  roll.  Twenty  old  settlers  responded 
to  the  invitation  to  join  the  society,  their  names  and  date  of 
settlement  being  as  follows  : 

Frank  Doleshy,  Wahpeton,  1873;  Folsom  Dow,  Wahpeton, 
1871;  Benjamin  Taylor,  Wahpeton,  1872;  Samuel  Taylor,  Wah- 
peton, 1872;  Frank  Forneck,  Wahpeton,  1871;  Wenzel  Meck- 
nesh,  Wahpeton,  1872;  August  Horfs,  Hankinson,  1874;  Charles 
Bladow,  Hinkinson,  1874;  Frederick  Hoefs,  Hinkinson,  1874; 
August  Berntd,  Hankinson,  1874;  Eric  A.  Lein,  Dwight,  1875; 
John  Myhra,  Dwight,  1870;  Edward  Connelly,  Breckenridge, 
Minn.,  1858;  Edward  R.  Hyser,  Breckenridge,  Minn.,  1871; 
D.  Wilmot  Smith,  Breckenridge,  Minn.,  1871;  Peter  Hansen, 
Breckenridge,  Minn.,  1871;  Aaron  B.  Lichter,  Breckenridge, 
Minn.,  187- ;  Hans  Martinson,  Rothsay,  Minn.,  1871;  Anthony 
Nolan,  Brainerd,  1867. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected  honorary  members : 
T.  E.  Kenestow,  1885;  E.  Mattison,  1879;  Joseph  Gunn,  1882; 
Henry  Champion,  1878,  all  Breckenridge;  and  William  W.  Tag- 
gart,  Campbell,  1878,  and  George  McKee,  Campbell,  1879 ;  William 
M.  James,  editor  "Telegram,"  Breckenridge,  1882;  Fred  Falley, 
editor  "Globe,"  Wahpeton,  and  H.  M.  Morrill,  editor  "Gazette," 
Wahpeton,  and  Frank  J.  Smith,  Breckenridge. 

The  following  officers  were  elected:  President,  Edward  Con- 
nelly, Breckenridge;  vice-presidents,  W.  W.  Bodkin  (Clay),  B. 
Sampson  (Polk),  Charles  Cavalier  (Pembina),  Frank  Veits 
(Grand  Forks),  Asa  Sargeant  (Traill),  N.  K.  Hubbard  (Cass), 
Folsom  Dow  (Richland)  ;  secretary,  Frank  J.  Smith,  Brecken- 
ridge; treasurer,  John  Erickson,  Moorhead.  Fargo  was  selected 
as  the  next  place  of  meeting.  Resolutions  of  condolence  were 
offered  on  account  of  the  death  of  James  R.  Harris  and  John  W. 
Taylor.  After  paying  all  debts,  the  society  voted  $10.50  remain- 
ing in  tHe  treasury  to  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  which  had  provided 
the  banquet. 

At  the  Fargo  meeting,  December  6,  1894,  the  attendance 
was  large  and  twenty  new  members  were  added,  viz. :  N.  B. 
Pinkham,  S.  F.  Crockett,  C.  B.  Thiemens,  D.  E.  Herrick,  John  E. 
Haggart,  G.  A.  Barnes,  Arthur  Bassett,  H.  G.  Stordock,  S.  G. 



Roberts,  Joseph  Prevost,  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  Frank  Whitman, 
Evan  S.  Tyler,  Alex.  Gamble,  Edwin  Griffin,  W.  H.  White,  A.  H. 
Morgan,  William  O'Neill,  Martin  Hector,  A.  G.  Lewis,  G.  J. 
Keeney.  The  following  old  members  were  present  and  paid  their 
dues:  James  Holes,  Jacob  Lowell,  Harry  O'Neill,  G.  B.  Win- 
ship,  A.  McHench,  W.  H.  Brown,  E.  R.  Hutchinson,  Job  Herrick, 
Frank  Herrick,  P.  Kelly,  Frank  Veits,  Jacob  Rheinhart,  W.  J. 
Anderson,  J.  A.  Jenks,  James  Nolan,  James  Elton,  R.  M.  Probst- 
field,  J.  H.  Shard,  F.  J.  Smith,  S.  G.  Comstock. 

The  following  officers  were  elected:  N.  K.  Hubbard,  Cass, 
president ;  vice-presidents,  R.  M.  Probstfield  (Clay),  Charles 
Cavalier  (Pembina),  W.  C.  Nash  (Polk),  George  B.  Winship 
(Grand  Forks),  C.  W.  Morgan  (Traill),  James  Holes  (Cass), 
Frank  Herrick  (Richland),  Edwin  Connelly  (Wilkin)  ;  secretary, 
B.  F.  Mackall,  Moorhead ;  treasurer,  Will  H.  White,  Fargo.  C.  A. 
Lounsberry,  S.  G.  Roberts,  George  B.  Winship,  S.  F.  Crockett, 
E.  S.  Tyler,  Charles  Cavalier  and  David  McCauley  were  appointed 
an  historical  committee  to  gather  data  and  facts  in  regard  to  the 
early  settlement  and  history  of  the  Red  River  valley. 

S.  G.  Comstock,  S.  G.  Roberts  and  A.  McHench  were  appointed 
a  committee  to  draft  a  constitution  and  by-laws. 

A  banquet  was  given  in  the  evening  at  the  Hotel  Metropole, 
an  elaborate  program  having  been  provided.  The  principal  ad- 
dresses were  by  Hon.  S.  G.  Comstock,  Hon.  R.  M.  Probstfield, 
George  B.  Winship  and  G.  J.  Keeney.  It  was  voted  to  hold  the 
next  meeting  at  Grand  Forks.  Since  this  meeting  H.  G.  Stordock 
and  James  A.  Jenks  have  passed  away. 

The  register  of  the  old  settlers  shows  the  names,  date  and 
place  of  settlement  of  those  who  are  or  who  have  been  members 
of  the  society. 

The  association  met  at  Grand  Forks,  December  26,  1895, 
George  B.  Winship  presiding  in  the  absence  of  President  Hub- 
bard,  on  account  of  illness.  President  Hubbard 's  address  was 
read  by  Colonel  C.  A.  Lounsberry.  Those  present  were  H.  E. 
Maloney,  James  Colosky,  C.  F.  Getchell,  James  Twamley,  C.  L. 
Gordon,  Jorgen  Howard,  Frank  Williams,  Robert  Anderson,  C.  W. 
Morgan,  D.  Perkins,  A.  Barlow,  F.  A.  Wardell,  J.  E.  Sullivan, 
A.  H.  Barlow,  James  Nesbitt,  D.  McDonald,  James  Smith,  John 


Kinan,  William  Skinner,  Gus  Williams,  Thomas  McVitre,  0. 
Osmond  and  Christopher  R.  Coulter. 

Colonel  Lounsberry,  from  the  historical  committee,  reported 
the  work  done  by  his  committee,  which  included  the  establish- 
ment of  "The  Record"  for  the  purpose  of  gathering  historical 
data,  and  was  accorded  a  vote  of  thanks.  The  names  of  H.  G. 
Stordock,  James  A.  Jenks  and  John  Island  were  entered  on  the 
death  roll  and  suitable  resolutions  of  respect  and  condolence 

The  following  officers  were  elected :  President,  Frank  Veits ; 
vice-presidents,  W.  H.  Moorhead,  Pat  Kelly,  Jacob  Rheinhart, 

E.  R.  Hutchinson,  Robert  Coulter,  James  Nolan,  Job  Herrick; 
treasurer,  D.  M.  Holmes;  secretary,  George  B.  Winship. 

Those  who  settled  in  the  Red  River  valley  prior  to  December 
31,  1877.  were  voted  eligible  to  membership. 

The  sixth  annual  meeting  of  the  reorganized  association  was 
held  at  Pembina,  December  18,  1896.  The  following  members 
were  present :  W.  H.  Brown,  Judson  La  Moure,  Joseph  Colosky, 
C.  A.  Lounsberry,  John  Hater,  E.  K.  Cavalier,  Charles  Cavalier, 
John  Otten,  James  Carpenter,  Frank  Russell,  George  Allard, 

F.  A.  Hart,  Joseph  Desloria,  Andrew  Cragin,  Peter  Hogan,  Milo 
Fadden,  H.  E.  Maloney,  Frank  Myrick,  George  B.  Winship,  Joe 
Parent,  W.  H.   Moorhead,   Fred  Delisle,   Joseph  Morin,   W.   J. 
Kneeshaw,   Thomas  J.  Neilson,   Bradne  Johnson,   John  Hogan, 
F.  A.  Wardwell. 

It  was  ordered  that  all  persons  who  settled  in  the  Red  River 
valley  prior  to  July  1,  1879,  should  be  eligible  to  membership, 
and  that  a  permanent  secretary  should  be  elected.  The  secretary, 
president,  and  George  B.  Winship  were  appointed  a  committee 
on  constitution  and  by-laws  and  were  directed  to  take  whatever 
steps  were  necessary  to  secure  the  incorporation  of  the  association 
under  the  laws  of  North  Dakota. 

Frank  Veits  was  elected  president;  W.  H.  Moorhead,  G.  S. 
Barnes,  James  Carpenter,  Pat  Kelly,  E.  R.  Hutchinson,  Robert 
Coulter,  James  Nolan  and  Job  Herrick,  vice-presidents;  D.  M. 
Holmes,  treasurer,  and  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  secretary. 

The  association  was  finally  incorporated  by  the  action  of  the 


seventh  annual  meeting,  of  which  the  proceedings  are  herewith 

The  seventh  annual  session  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association 
of  the  Red  River  Valley  was  held  at  Grand  Forks,  N.  D.,  Septem- 
ber 29,  1897,  the  opening  meeting  being  held  at  the  court  house. 
There  were  over  a  hundred  pioneers  in  attendance  and  the  meet- 
ing was  a  most  enjoyable  one.  At  noon  an  elaborate  spread  was 
served  at  the  Ingalls,  Mrs.  Maloney  in  charge. 

After  reading  the  minutes  of  the  last  regular  meeting  they 
were  approved. 

C.  A.  Lounsberry,  from  the  committee  on  articles  of  associa- 
tion and  by-laws,  reported  the  draft  of  the  articles  and  by-laws, 
which  were  adopted ;  and  the  president,  secretary,  treasurer,  and 
three  vice-presidents,  later  selected  for  the  purpose,  were  directed 
to  cause  the  articles  of  association  to  be  properly  executed  and 
filed  with  the  secretary  of  state. 

James  K.  Swan,  of  Grand  Forks,  was  elected  president  for 
the  ensuing  year  upon  the  unanimous  vote  of  the  association. 

D.  M.  Holmes,  of  Grand  Forks,  was  re-elected  treasurer  for 
the  ensuing  year. 

James  Nolan,  of  Wilkin  county,  Thomas  McCoy,  Traill  county, 
and  James  Carpenter,  Walsh  county,  were  elected  vice-presidents 
for  their  respective  counties  and  designated  to  sign  the  articles 
of  association  in  connection  with  the  president,  secretary  and 

Joseph  E.  Cronan  (Cass),  George  E.  McCrea  (Pembina), 
William  Skinner  (Polk),  Job  Herrick  (Richland),  W.  J.  Bodkin 
(Clay),  and  E.  E.  Corliss  (Otter  Tail  county),  were  elected  vice- 
presidents  for  their  respective  counties. 

The  secretary  was  directed  to  draft  and  cause  to  be  pub- 
lished suitable  memorials  of  the  old  settlers  who  have  passed 
away  during  the  past  year. 

Upon  motion  of  P.  McLaughlin,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  tendered 
to  Hon.  Frank  Veits,  the  retiring  president,  and  to  other  officers 
for  their  services. 

J.  K.  Swan,  president-elect,  was  introduced,  making  suitable 


Mrs.  Charles  Cavalier  and  Miss  Lulah  Cavalier  were  elected 
honorary  members  of  the  association. 

Letters  were  read  from  R.  C.  Burdick,  of  St.  Paul,  a  settler  of 
1853,  and  Charles  Cavalier,  Pembina,  a  settler  of  1851,  and  a 
telegram  from  M.  H.  Morrill,  expressing  regret  at  their  inability 
to  be  present. 

The  register  showed  the  following  in  attendance,  and  their 
date  of  settlement : 

Hugh  Parr,  Kelly's  Point,  1876;  James  O'Reiley,  Grand  Forks, 
1879:  Donald  Stewart,  Forest  River,  1878;  Alexander  Oldham, 
Grand  Forks,  1877;  H.  H.  Strom,  Traill  county,  1878;  C.  0. 
Maloney,  Grand  Forks,  1875;  John  Swift,  Grand  Forks,  1874; 
William  Code,  Park  River,  1878 ;  James  Pette,  Grand  Forks,  1878 ; 
M.  C.  Gaulke,  Grand  Forks,  1878;  Thomas  Nisbet,  Mallory,  Minn., 
1878;  William  H.  Standish,  Polk  county,  Minnesota,  1879;  Louis 
A.  Lhiver,  Grand  Forks,  1878 ;  M.  Addison,  Grand  Forks,  1879 ; 
H.  D.  Cutler,  Grand  Forks,  1879  ;'H.  Arnegaard,  Hillsboro,  1871; 
M.  D.  Chappell,  Grand  Forks,  1873;  L.  M.  Anderson,  Pembina, 
1872;  M.  L.  Enright,  East  Grand  Forks,  1872;  Peter  Gannau, 
Frog  Point,  1871;  H.  P.  Ryan/Grand  Forks,  1878;  George  F. 
Whitcomb,  Fort  Abercrombie,  1865;  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  Fargo, 
April  4,  1873 ;  George  J.  Longfellow,  Fargo,  1879 ;  William  Acker- 
man,  Abercrombie,  1866 ;  John  0  'Leary,  Grand  Forks,  1878 ; 
Michael  Byrne,  Grand  Forks,  1877 ;  Thomas  Gray,  Grand  Forks, 
1875 ;  Thomas  McCoy,  Forest  River,  1877 ;  D.  J.  Lemery,  Forest 
River,  1878;  J.  P.  Walsh,  Grandin,  1878;  Henry  Gotzian,  Grand 
Forks,  1879;  Michael  Maguire,  East  Grand  Forks,  1878;  A.  L. 
McCallum,  Fisher,  1879;  Peter  Stoughton,  Grand  Forks,  1877; 
J.  E.  Cronan,  Walsh  county,  1872;  George  A.  McCrea,  Drayton, 
1879;  John  0.  Fadden,  Grand  Forks,  1873;  John  Fadden,  Sr., 
Grand  Forks,  1873;  A.  W.  Edwards,  Fargo,  1878;  Richmond 
Fadden,  Grand  Forks,  1873;  Joe  Laport,  Larimore,  1873;  E.  E. 
Corliss,  Fergus  Falls,  1870;  Captain  George  C.  Whitcomb,  Pem- 
bina, 1863;  Samuel  Berg,  Ojata,  1872;  William  Cook,  Pembina, 
1877 ;  August  Nelson,  East  Grand  Forks,  1877 ;  William  Fletcher, 
Grandin,  1878;  John  Rea,  East  Grand  Forks,  1872;  M.  J.  Moran, 
Grand  Forks,  1878;  M.  L.  Adams,  Grand  Forks,  1879;  C.  A.  Allen, 
Grand  Forks,  1878 ;  Fred  Freeman,  Thompson,  1878 ;  Thomas  L. 



Lawson,  Jr.,  Grand  Forks,  1879;  John  McDonald,  Fargo,  1871; 
George  A.  Glenn,  Winnipeg,  1873 ;  George  B.  Winship,  Aber- 
crombie,  1867;  Job  Herrick,  Abercrombie,  1868;  P.  McLaughlin, 
Fargo,  1874 ;  James  Duckworth,  Grand  Forks,  1875 ;  A.  H.  Barlow, 
Grand  Forks,  1876 ;  J.  G.  Hamilton,  Sisseton  agency,  1875 ;  Robert 
Anderson,  Grand  Forks,  1874;  J.  M.  Stoughton,  Turtle  Eiver, 
1876;  Joseph  A.  Barlow,  Grand  Forks,  1876;  William  Skinner, 
Clay  county,  Minnesota,  1878;  M.  J.  Fadden,  Grand  Forks,  1871; 
Thomas  Walsh,  Grand  Forks,  1871;  J.  E.  Sullivan,  East  Grand 
Forks,  1875;  James  Nolan,  McCauleyville,  1865 ;  D.  McDonald, 
Grand  Forks,  1878;  D.  M.  Holmes,  Grand  Forks,  1871;  James 
Carpenter,  Forest  River,  1878;  William  H.  Brown,  Grand  Forks, 
1877;  George  H.  Walsh,  Grand  Forks,  187*5;  James  Twamley, 
Grand  Forks,  1876 ;  James  K.  Swan,  Grand  Forks,  1874 ;  Joseph 
Jarvis,  Fisher,  1872;  James  Elton,  Georgetown,  1875;  John  Har- 
vey, Grand  Forks,  1874 ;  Robert  Coulter,  Mallory,  1871 ;  John  0. 
Fadden,  Sr.,  Grand  Forks,  1871 ;  Frank  Veits,  Georgetown,  1870 ; 
Mrs.  Frank  Veits,  Georgetown,  1870;  W.  J.  Anderson,  Grand 
Forks,  1875 ;  Albert  Schmidt,  Wilkin  county,  1869 ;  P.  P.  Chacey, 
Fargo,  1877;  John  Cole,  Grand  Forks,  1878;  E.  K.  Cavalier, 
native,  Kildonan,  1858;  James  H.  Mathews,  Grand  Forks,  1878; 
Ruth  J.  Chacey,  Fargo,  1877 ;  John  McDonald,  Forest  River,  1878 ; 
John  R.  Woods,  Forest  River,  1879 ;  Louis  Stillmaker,  Grand 
Forks,  1879;  F.  A.  Hart,  Pembina,  1879;  Thomas  Knox,  Elm 
River,  1878;  Gunder  Howard,  Moorhead,  1872.  Mrs.  Frank 
Veits,  1870,  and  Captain  Whitcomb,  a  settler  of  1863,  were  ad- 
mitted to  honorary  membership. 

Articles  of  incorporation  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  were 
drawn  up  in  1897  and  are  as  follows : 

Article  I.  This  corporation  shall  be  known  as  the  Red  River 
Valley  Old  Settlers'  Association,  and  is  incorporated  under  Sec. 
3183,  Revised  Codes  of  North  Dakota. 

Article  II.  The  general  offices  of  this  association  shall  be  at 

Article  III.  This  association  shall  exist  for  a  period  of  forty 

Article  IV.     The  number  of  directors  of  this  association  shall 


be  eleven,  but  the  following  shall  constitute   a  first   board  of 
directors  and  shall  execute  these  articles : 

President — James  K.  Swan,  Grand  Forks,  N.  D.  Vice  Presi- 
dents— James  Nolan,  Wilkin  county,  Minnesota ;  Thomas  McCoy, 
Traill  county,  North  Dakota;  James  Carpenter,  Walsh  county, 
North  Dakota.  Secretary — C.  A.  Lounsberry,  Fargo,  N.  D.  Treas- 
urer— D.  M.  Holmes,  Grand  Forks,  N.  D. 

Article  V.  This  association  may  become  subordinate  to  a 
state  organization  of  old  settlers;  and  associations  subordinate 
to  this  may  be  organized  in  each  of  the  Red  River  Valley  counties 
in  Minnesota  and  North  Dakota,  having  purposes  in  harmony 
with  this  organization. 

Article  VI.  This  association  may  hold  real  and  personal 
property  not  exceeding  in  value  $10,000.  It  may  receive  bequests 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  an  historical  and  biographical 
library,  for  preserving  its  records,  publishing  its  proceedings, 
biographical  sketches,  etc.  When  dissolved  its  property  shall 
be  turned  over  to  the  state  for  historical  and  library  purposes. 

Article  VII.  The  private  property  of  the  members  of  this 
association  shall  not  be  liable  for  its  debts. 

In  testimony  whereof  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and 
seals  this  29th  day  of  September,  1897. 

James  K.  Swan,  [Seal] 

James  Nolan,  [Seal] 

Thomas  McCoy,  [Seal] 

James  Carpenter,          [Seal] 
C.  A.  Lounsberry.         [Seal] 


County  of  Grand  Forks, 

On  this  29th  day  of  September,  1897,  personally  appeared 
before  me  James  K.  Swan,  James  Nolan,  Thomas  McCoy,  James 
Carpenter,  C.  A.  Lounsberry  and  D.  M.  Holmes,  who,  being  duly 
sworn,  doth  each  for  himself  say  that  he  is  an  officer  and  director 
of  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers '  Association,  and  that  these 
articles  of  association  are  executed  in  accordance  with  a  majority 
vote  had  at  a  regularly  called  meeting  of  said  association  held 



at  Pembina,  N.  D.,  December  18,  1896,  and  that  a  regularly  called 
meeting  of  said  association  held  at  Grand  Forks,  September  29, 
1897,  by  a  majority  vote  they  were  especially  designated  to  sign 
and  file  said  articles  of  association.  J.  G.  Hamilton, 

Notary  Public,  Grand  Forks  County, 

North  Dakota. 

By-Laws  of  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers'  Association. 

Section  I.  The  officers  of  this  association  shall  be  a  president, 
vice  president  from  each  county  in  the  Red  River  Valley  in  Min- 
nesota and  North  Dakota,  excepting  the  county  from  which  the 
president  may  be  elected,  a  secretary  and  treasurer.  The  officers 
excepting  the  secretary  shall  be  elected  annually  r  but  shall  hold 
until  their  successors  are  elected.  The  secretary  shall  be  elected 
for  a  term  of  six  years  and  the  first  secretary  shall  be  Colonel 
Clement  A.  Lounsberry,  who  was  made  permanent  secretary  by 
the  meeting  which  ordered  this  incorporation,  at  Pembina,  De- 
cember 18,  1896.  The  secretary  may  appoint  a  deputy  to  act  in 
case  of  his  absence.  Officers  shall  be  elected  by  ballot  at  the 
annual  meetings  in  June  or  September,  and  a  majority  of  mem- 
bers shall  elect. 

Sec.  II.  The  annual  meetings  of  this  association  shall  be 
held  in  the  city  of  Grand  Forks  at  such  time  in  June  or  Septem- 
ber as  the  executive  committee  consisting  of  the  president,  secre- 
tary, treasurer  and  two  vice  presidents,  or  a  majority  thereof, 
may  direct,  unless  otherwise  ordered  by  a  majority  vote  at  the 
annual  meeting  preceding,  or  by  a  majority  of  all  of  the  directors 
at  a  meeting  of  which  thirty  days'  notice  of  time  and  place  shall 
be  given  by  publication,  in  Fargo  and  Grand  Forks  daily  papers. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  directors  shall  be  at  the  general 
office  in  Fargo  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  May  of  each  year. 

Sec.  III.  In  addition  to  the  directors  named  in  the  articles 
of  association  the  following  shall  be  vice  presidents  and  directors, 
completing  the  first  board  of  directors,  viz. : 

Joseph  E.  Cronan,  Cass  county,  North  Dakota. 

George  E.  McCrea,  Pembina  county,  North  Dakota. 

William  Skinner,  Polk  county,  Minnesota. 


Job  Herrick,  Richland  county,  North  Dakota. 

W.  J.  Bodkin,  Clay  county,  Minnesota. 

Sec.  IV.  Vacancies  in  the  board  of  directors  or  officers  may 
be  filled  by  appointment  at  any  regular  or  called  meeting  of  the 
board  of  directors.  Any  officer  may  be  removed  for  neglect  of 
duty  by  a  majority  vote  of  the  directors  at  any  regular  or  called 

Sec.  V.  The  president,  secretary,  treasurer  and  two  vice 
presidents  shall  constitute  a  quorum  of  executive  committee,  and 
five  shall  constitute  a  quorum  at  any  meeting  of  the  board  of 
directors.  Any  officer  or  vice  president  may  in  writing  designate 
any  member  of  this  association  to  act  in  his  stead  at  any  regular 
or  called  meeting  of  the  executive  committee  or  board  of  directors. 

Sec.  VI.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  president  to  preside  at 
all  meetings  of  the  association,  or  of  the  board  of  directors  or 
executive  committee.  He  may  designate  any  vice  president  to 
act  in  his  stead  in  case  of  his  absence.  He  shall  countersign  all 
warrants  drawn  upon  the  treasurer.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
vice  presidents  to  attend  all  regular  or  called  meetings  of  the 
directors  and  to  labor  to  promote  the  general  interests  of  the 
association  in  their  respective  counties.  They  may  organize  the 
qualified  settlers  in  their  respective  counties  into  an  association 
subordinate  to  this  and  cause  their  names  to  be  enrolled  upon  the 
register  of  this  society  upon  payment  of  the  required  fee,  the 
necessary  data  being  supplied.  They  shall  receive  and  forward 
names  and  fee  to  the  secretary  of  all  who  apply  to  them  for  this 

The  treasurer  shall  receive  all  funds  from  the  hands  of  the 
secretary  and  when  requested  so  to  do  from  members  of  the 
association  on  account  of  registration  and  dues,  mailing  a  dupli- 
cate receipt  therefor  to  the  secretary  in  order  that  proper  ac- 
counts may  be  kept  with  the  members.  He  shall  pay  out  the 
funds  upon  the  order  of  the  Secretary,  countersigned  by  the 
president,  as  may  be  ordered  from  time  to  time  by  the  executive 
committee,  the  board  of  directors  or  tjie  association  in  annual 
convention.  He  shall  make  annual  report  for  each  fiscal  year 
ending  May  30. 

The  secretary  shall  keep  the  records  of  the  association  and 


the  minutes  of  all  meetings  of  the  association,  directors  or  execu- 
tive committee.  He  shall  publish  the  proceedings  together  with 
biographical  sketches  of  the  members  who  have  died  during  the 
preceding  year,  with  portraits  where  possible,  and  such  other 
sketches  as  may  be  deemed  of  interest,  provided  that  no  expense 
which  the  annual  dues  and  registration  fees  or  other  funds  in 
the  hands  of  the  secretary  or  treasurer  or  dues  or  fees  to  be  paid 
will  not  liquidate.  He  shall  make  semi-annual  report  closing 
on  the  last  day  of  January  and  July  of  each  year,  and  supple- 
mental report  for  the  months  intervening  between  his  last  report 
and  the  time  of  the  annual  meeting,  for  the  information  of  the 
association  in  annual  convention.  Pie  shall  receive  and  receipt 
for  the  registration  fees  from  joining  members  and  for  dues  and 
pay  the  same  over  to  the  treasurer.  He  shall  issue  a  certificate 
of  membership  to  each  of  those  who  have  heretofore  paid  the 
membership  fee  and  enroll  their  names  in  substantial  form  upon 
the  permanent  rolls  of  this  association. 

Sec.  VII.  Any  person  who  was  a  settler  in  the  Red  River 
Valley  prior  to  July  1,  1879,  shall  be  entitled  to  membership  in 
the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers'  Association  upon  payment  of 
$1  registration  or  joining  fee,  provided  that  those  who  have  here- 
tofore paid  a  membership  fee  in  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Set- 
tlers' Association  shall  be  registered  as  members  upon  furnishing 
the  secretary  data  as  to  their  date  of  settlement,  where  settled, 
present  residence,  date  and  place  of  birth,  and  occupation.  The 
annual  dues  shall  be  50  cents,  payable  on  or  before  the  time  of 
annual  meeting.  Members  in  arrears  for  dues  shall  not  be  enti- 
tled to  vote  or  to  receive  copies  of  the  published  proceedings  or 
other  publications  issued  by  this  association.  The  registration 
fee  shall  cover  the  dues  for  that  year.  Persons  who  settled  in 
the  Red  River  Valley  prior  to  June  30,  1869,  shall  be  enrolled 
as  honorary  members  if  they  so  desire,  and  when  so  enrolled  shall 
be  exempt  from  dues  and  from  the  registration  fee.  Wives  and 
daughters  of  old  settlers,  if  born  prior  to  July  1,  1879,  may  be 
enrolled  as  honorary  members,  the  necessary  data  for  such  enroll- 
ment being  furnished  the  secretary. 

Sec.  VIII.  The  order  of  business  at  the  annual  meeting  shall 
be  as  follows : 


Registration  of  new  members,  and  payment  of  dues,  the  books 
being  opened  for  that  purpose  one  hour  before  the  time  set 
for  the  meeting. 

Call  to  order. 

Reading  the  names  of  those  who  have  registered  upon  joining 
or  the  payment  of  dues. 

Reading  minutes  of  the  last  meeting. 

Death  roll  of  the  previous  year. 

Reports  of  secretary  and  treasurer. 

Annual  address  of  president. 

Reading  papers  and  communications  from  absent  members. 

Motions  and  resolutions. 

New  business. 

Election  of  officers. 

Installation  of  officers. 


Banquet.    Five  minute  addresses.     Good-bye. 

Adopted  at  annual  meeting  September  29,  1897. 

Official  Minutes. 

The  annual  reunion  of  the  old  settlers  of  the  Red  River  Valley 
held  in  Park  River,  N,  D.,  Tuesday  and  Wednesday,  June  12  and 
13,  1900,  was  a  merry  and  a  most  enjoyable  one.  The  town  was 
theirs  and  they  were  justified  in  anticipating  a  cordial  reception. 
They  were  together  for  two  days.  Nearly  every  one  of  the  Red 
river  pioneers  had  at  one  time  lived  in  a  sod  shanty,  and  begin- 
ning life  at  that  stage  of  prosperity  they  had  grown  as  they 
progressed  to  be  men  of  appreciative  and  grateful  natures — and 
that  is  what  they  are. 

The  citizens  commenced  decorating  the  business  places  and 
residences  early  Tuesday  morning,  and  by  the  time  the  south 
train  arrived  the  town  presented  an  appearance  of  a  Fourth  of 
July  celebration,  lacking  only  in  the  noise  of  bombs  and  firearms. 
The  band  met  the  settlers  at  the  train  and  escorted  them  up 
town.  The  forenoon  was  devoted  to  shaking  hands  and  arrang- 
ing for  the  entertainment  of  the  visitors.  About  sixty  were 
present  at  the  business  meeting  of  the  association  in  the 


Business  Meeting— First  Day. 

The  annual  business  meeting  of  the  Red  River  Valley  Old 
Settlers '  Association  was  held  in  the  Masonic  hall  at  1 :30  p.  m. 
In  the  absence  of  President  Mager,  James  Twamley,  of  Grand 
Forks,  was  elected  chairman,  Secretary  Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  of 
Fargo,  being  present. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  meeting  were  approved. 

The  following  members  joined  the  association  here  and  paid 
their  dues : 

N.  0.  Clemetson,  Dundee. 

Mons  Monson,  Grafton. 

John  T.NDaley,  Mandt. 

Benjamin  Code,  D.  F.  Booth,  Joseph  Coulter,  Archie  C.  Thomp- 
son, Ropert  Coulter,  Inkerman  Davis,  Sandy  A.  Bruce,  J.  Morley 
Wyard,  James  F.  Smith,  Robert  Arnott,  James  E.  Code,  Thomas 
Wadge,  John  Holmes,  William  E.  Wadge,  George  Dobmeier, 
George  M.  Bruce,  H.  I.  Heterington,  L.  S.  Carruth,  Park  River. 

James  Gilby,  Grand  Forks. 

Ole  G.  Manderud,  A.  0.  Mandt,  A.  I.  Anderson,  Mandt. 

Oscar  C.  Clemetson,  Henry  Clemetson,  Dundee. 

H.  J.  Hagen,  Abercrombie. 

Nels  M.  Midgarden,  Claus  A.  Dahl,  Nash. 

John  Woods,  Forest  River. 

Patrick  Berrigan,  Ardoch. 

A.  H.  Walker,  Hoople. 

Gunder  Midgarden,  Grafton. 

The  following  members  are  reported  as  having  paid  the 
annual  dues: 

J.  A.  Delaney,  Grafton. 

James  Twamley,  George  B.  Winship,  W.  J.  Anderson,  Thomas 
Nesbit,  James  Elton,  Grand  Forks. 

Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  Fargo. 

A.  Code,  W.  Code,  G.  K.  McEwan,  John  Wadge,  Park  River. 

Albert  Schmidt,  Abercrombie. 

James  T.  Carpenter,  James  Carpenter,  Forest  River. 

Peter  Stoughton,  Stoughton. 

J.  E.  Sullivan,  East  Grand  Forks. 

Total  receipts,  $55.00. 


The  secretary  reported  that  he  had  secured  the  certificate 
of  incorporation  of  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers'  Associa- 
tion, as  directed  by  the  meeting  at  Grand  Forks  in  1898. 

The  deaths  of  old  settlers  reported  were:  Alex  Oldham, 
Grand  Forks,  and  Francis  Thomas,  Pembina. 

President  Twamley  was  requested  to  prepare  a  memorial  to 
be  inserted  in  the  minutes  of  this  meeting  in  memory  of  Alex 
Oldham  and  a  sketch  of  Francis  Thomas  by  Charles  Cavalier 
was  ordered  printed  in  the  minutes. 

Letters  were  presented  and  read  from  J.  F.  Mager,  C.  W. 
Andrews,  Charles  Cavalier  and  J.  C.  Kennedy. 

President  Twamley  reported  the  action  taken  in  the  matter 
of  the  adoption  of  an  insignia  for  the  society  and  it  was  ordered 
that  the  old  log  cabin  of  Hon.  Charles  Cavalier  be  adopted  as 
such,  and  that  the  secretary  procure  100  or  more  badges  bearing 
this  insignia  and  100  or  more  buttons  for  the  next  meeting. 

Upon  a  suggestion  of  Peter  Stoughton  the  members  were 
urged  to  make  report  to  the  secretary,  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  Fargo, 
upon  the  occasion  of  the  death  of  any  member  of  the  association, 
giving  data  necessary  for  a  suitable  memorial  to  be  carried  into 
the  records. 

Thomas  Bolton,  a  settler  of  1881,  requested  the  privilege  of 
speaking,  he  not  being  eligible  to  membership.  He  called  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  many  new  settlements  and  towns,  including 
Grafton,  were  established  in  1881  and  urged  the  association  to 
so  amend  its  by-laws  as  to  make  the  settlers  of  '81  eligible.  . 

An  amendment  to  the  constitution  and  by-laws  was  adopted 
whereby  all  settlers  in  the  valley  prior  to  December  31,  1881, 
were  made  eligible  to  membership. 

This  motion  was  followed  by  adding  to  the  list  the  following 
new  members : 

Thomas  Bolton,  Robert  Stewart,  D.  E.  Towle,  E.  Reeve  Clax- 
ton,  John  A.  McCombs,  H.  A.  Pomranke,  Michael  Hylden,  J.  J. 
Irwin,  Park  River. 

The  officers  elected  for  the  ensuing  year  were: 

President — James  Twamley,  Grand  Forks. 

Vice  Presidents — Charles  Cavalier,  Pembina  county,  North 



John  E.  Haggart,  Cass  county,  North  Dakota. 

James  E.  Sullivan,  Polk  county,  Minnesota, 

Albert  Schmidt,  Riehland  county,  North  Dakota. 

S.  G.  Comstock,  Clay  county,  Minnesota. 

D.  McCauley,  Wilkin  county,  Minnesota. 

H.  H.  Strom,  Traill  county,  North  Dakota. 

James  Carpenter,  Walsh  county,  North  Dakota. 

Treasurer — J.  Morley  Wyard. 

The  secretary  announced  the  appointment  of  J.  Morley 
Wyard  as  assistant  secretary  for  the  ensuing  year  and  requested 
members  to  pay  their  dues  to  him  in  order  to  provide  means  for 
printing  proceedings  of  the  association. 

The  plans  for  holding  the  eleventh  annual  meeting  being  under 
discussion,  J.  A.  Delaney  moved  that  the  said  meeting  be  held 
at  Grafton  in  June,  1901.  Albert  Schmidt  moved  to  amend  by 
striking  out  Grafton  and  inserting  Wahpeton.  The  amendment 
was  lost  by  ID  ayes  and  24  noes,  and  Grafton  was  chosen  the 
next  place  of  meeting,  the  date  in  June  to  be  selected  by  the 
executive  committee. 

The  following  bills  were  allowed : 

C.  A.  Lounsberry $  5.75 

Charles  H.  Lee 16.00 

The  following  honorary  members  were  admitted  to  the  asso- 
ciation : 

Mesdames  George  Dobmeier,  E.  Reeve  Claxton,  T.  Bolton, 
Michael  Hylden,  Albert  Schmidt,  Andrew  Walker,  John  T.  Daley, 
A.  I.  Anderson,  Archie  Thompson,  J.  A.  Delaney,  Joseph  Coulter, 
James  Twamley,  Anna  McGlinch,  Robert  Stewart,  D.  E.  Towley, 
L.  S.  Carruth,  J.  J.  Irwin,  G.  B.  Winship,  Nels  Midgarden,  Ole 
G.  Manderud,  John  Holmes,  Robert  Arnott,  James  Carpenter, 
C.  A.  Lounsberry,  M.  Halliday,  J.  J.  Smith,  J.  E.  Sullivan,  John 
Woods,  H.  J.  Hagen,  William  Code,  E.  R.  Swarthout,  Thomas 
Wadge,  Benjamin  Code,  Raymond  G.  Anderson,  N.  0.  Clemetson, 
Peter  Stoughton,  George  Stead,  H.  T.  Hetherington,  A.  E.  Wadge, 
John  Wadge,  E.  Townsend,  F.  T.  Waugh,  Harry  A.  Holmes, 
Misses  Anna  Daley,  Ella  and  Alma  Daley,  Ida  Anderson,  Anna 
Carpenter,  Edna  Twamley,  Lila  and  Blanch  McGlinch,  Mabel 


Booth,  Jennie  Woods,  Maude  McEwan,  Elizabeth  Code,  Maggie 
Code,  Agnes  Brown,  Virginia  Anderson,  Galena  Clemetson, 
Caroline  Clemetson. 

At  4:30  p.  m.  the  settlers  assembled  in  the  park,  where  an 
address  of  welcome  was  delivered  by  Rev.  Strachan,  who  offered 
the  freedom  of  the  city  to  the  visitors.  Mr.  James  Twamley 
responded  on  behalf  of  the  old  settlers  and  thanked  the  citizens 
for  the  elaborate  preparations  made  for  their  entertainment. 
Following  this  was  a  banquet  given  in  the  opera  house.  This 
was  a  luxurious  affair.  There  were  numerous  toasts  and  re- 
sponses and  several  vocal  solos  and  recitations.  There  were 
many  amusing  and  interesting  incidents  related.  Every  number 
on  the  programme  was  heartily  applauded.  The  following  is  the 
programme  and  song  by  M.  E.  Quigley  dedicated  to  the  Old  Set- 
tlers' Association: 

Quartette,  "The  Midnight  Fire  Alarm'*' 

..Mmes.  Matteson  and  Wadge,  Messrs.  Wyard  and  Quigley 

Recitation . Miss  Nettie  Honey 

Toast,  "The  Old  Settler" James  Twamley 

Toast,  "The  Sod  Shanty" James  Carpenter 

Song  and  Quartette ."The  Old  Sod  Shack" 

Toast,  "The  Red  River  Valley" George  B.  Winship 

Toast,  "Woman,  Her  Influence  and  Beauty".  .George  K.  McEwan 

Toast,  "The  Young  Settler" W.  E.  Hoover 

Recitation Miss  Maud  McEwan 

Vocal  Solo B.  F.  Green 

Col.  Lounsberry,  C.  D.  Lord,  Nels  N.  Midgarden  and  Mrs. 
Harry  A.  Holmes  were  also  called  upon  to  say  a  few  words.  All 
responded  with  short  interesting  talks  on  matters  incidental  to 
the  early  history  of  the  valley.  Mrs.  Holmes  was  the  first  white 
child  born  in  the  valley. 

The  Old  Sod  Shack. 

It  was  builded  on  the  prairie ; 

Was  not  sheltered  by  a  tree ; 
Where  the  wild  flowers  bloomed  about  it 

And  the  wild  winds  whistled  free. 


Its  walls  were  made  of  sod, 

Of  which  there  was  no  lack, 
And  poplar  poles  for  rafters 

In  the  old  sod  shack. 


Though  nearly  vanished  now, 

It  brings  our  mem  'ry  back ; 
For  we  once  had  homely  comforts 

In  the  old  sod  shack. 

Oh,  it  cost  us  very  little 

To  uprear  our  domicile; 
A  little  patient  labor 

And  our  house  was  up  in  style; 
Small  need  there  was  for  nails, 

And  we  owed  no  lumber-jack 
For  the  shingles  on  the  roof 

Of  the  old  sod  shack. 

It  is  nearly  out  of  use, 

And  its  place  is  taken  by 
The  more  pretentious  mansion 

With  shade  trees  planted  nigh. 
But  North  Dakota's  hist'ry 

"Will  be  surely  off  the  track 
If  no  page  is  written  there 

For  the  old  sod  shack. 

Let  us  kindly  think  upon  it 

As  our  way  through  life  we  take ; 
Let  us  treasure  up  these  mem'ries 

For  old  friends'  and  friendships'  sake; 
May  the  last  chip  from  our  mem'ry, 

Which  old  Time  will  surely  back, 
Be  the  one  that  bears  the  image 

Of  the  old  sod  shack. 

A  grand  ball  in  the  opera  house  concluded  the  day's  merri- 


Second  Day. 

The  band  was  out  early  and  played  a  number  of  selections  in 
the  streets  while  the  old  settlers  gathered  at  the  Masonic  hall  to 
conclude  the  work  of  the  adjourned  business  meeting  of  the 
previous  day. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  President  Twamley.  After 
some  discussion  on  the  matter  of  classifying  the  members  into 
four  degrees,  the  following  names  and  dates  were  decided  for 
each  class: 

All  coming  to  the  valley  prior  to  July  1  of  each  of  the  follow- 
ing years: 

1871— "Cat  Fish"  class.  1876— "Dog  Train"  class.  1879— 
"Ox  Cart"  class.  1881— "Stage  Coach"  class.  It  was  decided 
that  the  association  have  buttons  made  to  indicate  the  different 

The  following  were  the  new  members  admitted  during  the 
morning's  meeting: 

0.  A.  Trovatten,  John  L.  Main,  John  Peterson,  Thomas  A. 
Catherwood,  John  A.  Gemmill,  J.  D.  Gemmill,  Robert  Johnson, 
D.  White,  Robert  Brett,  Harry  Peoples,  John  Lewis,  George  F. 
Honey,  William  M.  Bruce. 

Honorary  Members. 

Mrs.  Harry  Peoples,  Mrs.  J.  A.  Gemmill,  Mrs.  J.  D.  Gemmill, 
Mrs.  Duncan  White,  Mrs.  George  F.  Honey,  Mrs.  Thomas  A. 
Catherwood,  Mrs.  0.  A.  Trovatten,  Mrs.  Robert  Brett,  Mrs.  John 
Lewis,  Mrs.  William  M.  Bruce. 

A  drive  through  the  city  followed,  which  occupied  about  two 
hours,  and  the  visitors  were  shown  the  beauties  of  the  city. 

Sides  were  chosen  for  the  tug-of-war  between  the  old  settlers. 
Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry  held  one  end  of  the  string  and  Thomas 
Nesbit,  of  Polk  county,  the  other  end.  Three  trials  were  made 
and  the  Colonel  won. 

John  H.  Peterson,  of  Golden  Valley,  was  the  victor  in  the  100- 
yard  foot  race  for  old  settlers  over  fifty  years  of  age,  and  carried 
away  the  elegant  trophy  cup.  Pat  Stoughton  came  in  second 
and  George  B.  Winship,  of  the  Grand  Forks  Herald,  third.  J.  E. 
Sullivan  and  Thomas  Nesbit,  of  Polk  county,  Robert  Johnson  and 


Col.  Lounsberry  also  started,  but  they  were  not  so  speedy  as  the 
winners,  as  the  result  shows. 

The  boys'  sack  race  was  won  by  H.  Halldorson  and  Arthur 
Soil,  second.  The  barrel  race  by  George  Martin  and  Fordyce 
Code,  second.  Emmett  and  John  Dougherty  won  first  and  sec- 
ond in  the  bicycle  race.  Walter  Nelson  won  the  foot  race. 

At  one  o'clock  the  band  headed  the  procession  to  the  ball 
grounds,  where  Cooperstown  and  Park  Eiver  were  billed  to  give 
the  spectators  a  good  exhibition  of  the  national  game.  The  teams 
lined  up  and  the  game  was  called  and  lasted  a  little  over  two 
hours,  the  score  standing  8  to  10  in  favor  of  the  Cooperstowns. 

The  two  days'  session  was  terminated  in  the  evening  by  a 
concert  in  the  opera  house.  Those  of  the  old  settlers  who  re- 
mained thoroughly  enjoyed  the  last  number  of  the  two  days' 
programme  of  the  tenth  annual  session.  The  Misses  Wilma  and 
Ruth  Anderson  again  won  plaudits  from  those  sensitively  re- 
sponsive to  the  charms  of  classic  music.  The  other  numbers  of 
the  programme  were  also  enthusiastically  received.  The  follow- 
ing is  the  programme: 

Piano  Solo — Polonaise  (the  major) Chopin 

Miss  Wilma  Anderson. 

Vocal  Solo .- 

Mr.  M.  E.  Quigley. 

Violin   Solo — Rondo   Capricioso Saint-Saens 

Miss  Ruth  Anderson. 

Recitation On  the  Other  Train 

Mrs.  R.  C.  Cliff. 

Piano  Solo — (a)  Filense (Spinning  Song) 

(b)  Waltz Van  Dooren 

Miss  Wilma  Anderson. 

Vocal  Solo 

Mrs.  B.  C.  Matteson. 

Violin  Solo — Serenade (Andaluza) 

Miss  Ruth  Anderson. 



Miss  Maude  McEwan. 


Piano  Solo— Last  Hope Gottschalk 

Miss  Wilma  Anderson. 

Vocal  Solo 

Mr.  G.  E.  Kermott. 

Violin   Solo—Romance Rubinstein 

Miss  Ruth  Anderson. 


Dr.  R.  C.  Cliff. 

The  Mandt  band  furnished  the  music  for  the  festive  occasion 
and  earned  considerable  praise  from  the  people  while  here. 

The  number  of  old  settlers  in  attendance  the  last  day  was 
about  100.  A  large  number  was  expected,  but  attractions  in 
other  towns  on  those  dates  prevented  a  good  many  from 

The  first  session  of  the  eleventh  annual  meeting  was  called  to 
order  in  Grafton  at  10  a.  m.,  on  Wednesday,  June  12,  1901,  with 
President  James  Twamley  in  the  chair. 

In  the  absence  of  Secretary  Lounsberry,  C.  W.  Andrews,  of 
Walhalla,  was  made  temporary  secretary  and  the  following  mem- 
bers reported  present: 

D.  W.  Driscoll,  H.  A.  Ball,  J.  A.  Delaney,  C.  G.  Jackson,  David 
Hogg,  N.  N.  Midgarden,  Gunder  Olson,  Iver  Dahl,  Andrew  H. 
Walker,  Grafton. 

Thomas  Bolton,  John  Peterson,  Henry  N.  Clemetson,  N.  0. 
Clemetson,  Park  River. 

James  Carpenter,  John  Woods,  Forest  River. 

A.  Smith,  H.  J.  Hagen,  Abercrombie. 

James  Twamley,  George  Richards,  Andrew  Kemble,  Grand 
Forks.  C.  W.  Andrews,  Walhalla. 

After  the  appointment  of  committees  the  place  of  next  meet- 
ing was  discussed  and  it  was  decided  to  meet  in  the  city  of 
Wahpeton,  N.  D.  On  motion  the  president  and  secretary  were 
authorized  to  fix  the  date  of  the  meeting,  which  shall  be  held 
during  the  month  of  June,  1902. 

The  election  of  officers  was  next  in  order.  A  communication 
from  Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  the  permanent  secretary,  was  read 
in  which  he  stated  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  control  his  time 



and  attend  to  the  duties  of  the  office  and  requested  that  someone 
who  was  able  to  give  more  attention  to  the  affairs  of  the  asso- 
ciation be  elected  secretary. 

The  elections  resulted  in  the  choice  of  H.  J.  Hagen,  of  Aber- 
crombie,  for  president  and  D.  W.  Driscoll,  of  Grafton,  for  treas- 
urer. C.  W.  Andrews,  of  Walhalla,  was  elected  permanent  secre- 
tary. The  new  officers  were  installed  by  the  retiring  president 
and  after  some  appropriate  remarks  President  Hagen  appointed 
the  following  vice  presidents : 

Pembina  County — Judson  LaMoure. 

Walsh  County — James  Carpenter  and  W.  C.  Lestikow. 

Grand  Forks  County — James  Twamley. 

Traill  County — Asa  Sargent. 

Richland  County — H.  C.  N.  Myhra. 

Cass  County — C.  A.  Lounsberry. 

Wilken  County,  Minnesota — Peter  Hansen. 

Mr.  T.  E.  Cooper  presented  to  the  association  a  copy  of  the 
early  history  of  Grafton  and  Walsh  county  and  also  a  paper 
containing  a  sketch  of  the  life  of  Mr.  Jacob  Rhinehart,  an  early 
settler  of  Walsh  county.  The  same  were  accepted  and  a  vote 
of  thanks  tendered  Mr.  Cooper,  who  was,  on  motion,  made  a 
regular  member  of  the  association  and  his  wife  an  honorary 

The  names  of  those  who  had  died  during  the  year  were  read 
and  the  secretary  was  instructed  to  prepare  suitable  obituary 
notices  and  publish  same  in  the  Journal.  The  following  is  the 

Mary  Ann  Woods,  wife  of  John  Woods,  at  Forest  River,  April 
24,  1901. 

David  McAuley,  of  McAuleyville,  July,  1900,  aged  75  years. 

Edward  Connolly,  March,  1901,  aged  65  years. 

J.  W.  Blanding,  March,  1901,  aged  82  years. 

Alex.  Oldham,  Grand  Forks. 

The  secretary  reported  receiving  from  J.  Morley  Wyard,  for- 
mer treasurer,  $54.25,  which,  with  the  $172.50  received  from  dues 
and  new  members,  constituted  the  receipts  for  the  year,  $226.75. 

Letters  regretting  their  inability  to  attend  the  annual  reunion 


were  received  and  read  from  Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry  and  Charles 

On  motion  it  was  ordered  that  the  secretary  prepare  a  roster 
of  the  association  having  the  names  printed  in  alphabetical 
order  and  with  a  copy  of  the  journal,  which  was  also  ordered 
printed,  sent  to  each  member  who  has  paid  his  membership  fees 
and  dues.  The  secretary  was  authorized  to  have  the  necessary 
printing  done. 

Moved  that  the  association  badge  be  the  Log  Cabin,  Red 
Kiver  Cart  and  Ox  with  Old  Settlers  and  R.  R.  V.  A.,  date  De- 
cember 31,  1881,  a  general  badge  for  the  association,  and  for 
each  different  date  as  per  minutes  of  the  association  at  Park 
River  session,  an  emblem  corresponding  to  same,  "Catfish,"  "Dog 
Train,"  "Ox  Cart"  and  "Stage  Coach." 

Moved  that  the  secretary  receive  ten  per  cent,  of  all  moneys 
paid,  as  his  salary. 

A  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  the  citizens  of  Graf- 
ton,  the  committee  on  arrangements,  the  ladies  of  the  Relief 
Corps,  Professor  Deeks  and  D.  C.  Moore,  who  acted  as  mayor  in 
the  absence  of  Mr.  Lestikow,  for  their  untiring  efforts  to  make 
the  meeting  a  pleasant  success. 

At  6 :30  o  'clock  Wednesday  evening  the  visitors  were  invited 
to  the  armory,  where  a  sumptuous  dinner  had  been  provided  by 
the  members  of  the  W.  R.  C.  About  two  hundred  persons  sat 
down  to  the  feast  and  it  was  indeed  a  happy  gathering.  Short 
addresses  were  made  by  President  Hagen,  Messrs.  Stockwell, 
Twamley,  Toombs,  Cooper,  Andrews,  James  Carpenter  and  others, 
and  H.  A.  Ball  sang  "My  Little  Old  Sod  Shanty  on  the  Claim" 
in  his  usual  happy  manner  and  the  whole  company  joined  in  the 
chorus.  D.  C.  Moore  acted  as  master  of  ceremonies  and  spoke 
briefly  in  closing  this  part  of  the  programme.  After  everyone 
had  been  thoroughly  satisfied  with  the  good  things  prepared  by 
the  ladies,  the  company  joined  in  singing  "America."  Professor 
Deeks,  of  Grand  Forks,  was  present  and  kindly  consented  to 
operate  the  piano.  The  dancing  was  continued  for  an  hour  or 
so,  and  those  who  did  not  care  to  indulge  spent  the  time  in  mak- 
ing acquaintances  and  talking  over  old  times.  Altogether  it  was 
a  very  pleasant  affair. 


Sessions  were  held  Thursday,  but  these  were  mostly  of  a 
social  nature.  The  visitors  left  in  the  evening  for  their  homes, 
feeling  that  two  days  had  been  well  spent  and  expressing  them- 
selves as  delighted  with  the  entertainment  given  by  the  citizens 
of  Grafton. 

The  twelfth  annual  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  H.  J. 
Hagen,  president  of  the  association,  in  the  opera  house,  Wahpe- 
ton,  at  one  o'clock  p.  m.,  June  26,  1902.  Prayer  was  offered  by 
the  Kev.  G.  H.  Davies,  of  Wahpeton,  after  which  Mayor  Bade 
presented  Hon.  W.  E.  Purcell  to  the  meeting,  who  delivered  the 
address  of  welcome. 

The  Wahpeton  band  assisted  in  the  opening  exercises  with 
music.  After  the  conclusion  of  the  address,  at  about  three  p.  m., 
all  (not  memebrs  of  the  association)  were  requested  to  retire  to 
allow  the  old  settlers  to  transact  the  routine  business  of  the  year 
and  the  ladies  were  invited  to  go  to  Schuler  Hall,  where  a  special 
programme  had  been  prepared  for  their  entertainment.  This 
was  a  special  feature  gotten  up  by  the  ladies  of  Wahpeton  for 
the  entertainment  of  the  old  settlers'  companions  and  their  fam- 
ilies, who  are  honorary  members  of  the  association,  and  was 
greatly  enjoyed  by  all. 

Handsome  rugs  had  been  laid  upon  the  floor,  fine  easy  chairs 
provided  in  abundance,  small  tables  and  stands  placed  here  and 
there,  screens  artistically  arranged  to  form  cosy  nooks,  and  the 
room  made  as  much  as  possible  to  take  on  the  semblance  of  a 
parlor.  Charming  young  ladies  presided  over  the  handsome  and 
enticing  frappe  bowls. 

A  fine  musical  programme  had  been  provided  and  the  visitors 
enjoyed  it  greatly.  Mrs.  Meckstroth  sang  a  contralto  song;  the 
Misses  Purdon  and  McKean  played  four-hand  pieces,  and  the 
ladies'  quartette,  comprising  Miss  Beeman,  Mesdames  Bassett, 
Davidson  and  Meckstroth,  sang  choice  selections.  The  visitors 
plainly  showed  their  delight. 

At  the  business  meeting  the  first  thing  on  the  programme  was 
the  reading  of  the  minutes  of  the  last  meeting,  held  at  Grafton, 
which  were  read  by  Assistant  Secretary,  the  Hon.  Folsom  Dow, 
and  on  motion  were  approved  as  read.  The  acting  secretary  then 
read  the  death  roll  for  the  preceding  year,  as  follows : 


J.  A.  Delaney,  Grafton,  N.  D.;  Maj.  E.  A.  McGlone,  Devils 
Lake,  N.  D.;  John  J.  Hurley,  Walhalla,  N.  D.;  John  0.  Fadden, 
Sr.,  Arvilla,  N.  D. ;  William  James,  Bathgate,  N.  D. ;  William  Har- 
vey, Jr.,  Earnest,  N.  D.;  R.  McGregor,  Grafton,  N.  D.;  M.  L. 
Adams,  Grand  Forks,  N.  D.  These  are  all  the  names  received 
to  date  by  the  secretary  of  members  having  died  during  the 
preceding  year. 

In  the  address  made  at  this  meeting  the  speaker  reviewed  in 
part  the  history  of  the  association.  In  the  latter  portion  of  his 
speech  he  said: 

"At  the  Fargo  meeting  in  '94  it  was  resolved  that  a  commit- 
tee be  appointed  to  procure  facts  concerning  the  early  settlements 
and  history  of  the  Red  River  Valley.  This  committee  consisted 
of  C.  A.  Lounsberry,  George  B.  Winship,  S.  G.  Roberts,  S.  F. 
Crockett,  E.  S.  Tyler,  Charles  Cavalier  and  David  McCauley.  A 
committee  was  also  appointed  to  draft  a  constitution  and  by-laws 
for  the  association. 

"At  the  Grand  Forks  meeting  in  '95,  Col.  Lounsberry,  chair- 
man of  the  historical  committee,  reported  the  work  done  by  this 
committee,  which  included  the  establishment  of  the  'Record'  for 
the  purpose  of  gathering  historical  data.  The  date  for  eligible 
membership  was  advanced  to  settlers  of  the  Red  River  Valley 
prior  to  December  31,  1877. 

"Pembina,  December  18,  1896,  when  it  was  ordered  that  those 
who  had  settled  in  the  valley  prior  to  July  1,  1879,  should  be 
eligible  to  membership,  and  a  permanent  secretary  be  elected. 
Col.  C.  A.  Lounsberry  was  made  secretary. 

"Articles  of  association  and  incorporation  were  concluded  by 
the  action  of  the  seventh  annual  meeting,  which  was  held  in 
Grand  Forks,  September  29,  1897.  Under  the  association  arti- 
cles, 'This  association  shall  exist  for  a  term  of  forty  years,  and 
the  directors  shall  be  eleven  in  number,  and  may  hold  real  and 
personal  property  not  exceeding  in  value  ten  thousand  dollars. 
It  may  receive  bequests  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  his- 
torical and  biographical  library  for  preserving  its  records,  pub- 
lishing its  proceedings,  biographical  sketches,  etc.,  and  when  dis- 
solved its  property  shall  be  turned  over  to  the  state  for  his- 
torical and  library  purposes.' 


"Wives  and  daughters  of  old  settlers,  if  born  prior  to  July  1, 
1879,  were  made  eligible  to  be  entered  on  the  roll  as  honorary 

"The  historical  committee  reported  that  Charles  Cavalier  was 
the  first  white  settler  to  have  a  patent  for  North  Dakota  land. 
'Jim'  Hill  was  the  second  purchaser  of  real  estate  in  North 

C.  W.  Andrews,  the  secretary,  reported  at  this  meeting  that 
the  books  and  papers  of  the  association,  together  with  the  minute 
book  and  all  papers  of  the  Park  River  Association,  were  destroyed 
at  the  big  fire  that  occurred  there  in  1900. 

The  death  roll  report  at  this  time  consisted  of:  Hon.  J.  A. 
Delaney,  Grafton,  N.  D. ;  Major  E.  A.  Maglone,  Devils  Lake,  N. 
D.;  John  J.  Hurley,  Walhalla,  N.  D.;  John  0.  Fadden,  Sr., 
Arvilla,  N.  D. ;  William  James,  Bathgate,  N.  D. ;  William  Harvey, 
Jr.,  Ernest,  N.  D.;  R.  McGregor,  Grafton,  N.  D. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  executive  committee  held  at  Grand  Forks 
December  20,  1902,  at  which  the  officers  of  the  association  and 
other  members  were  present,  H.  J.  Hagan  presented  a  map  of 
old  Fort  Abercrombie,  and  a  letter  of  suggestions  from  Albert 
Schmidt,  of  Abercrombie,  as  to  how  the  old  location  could  be 
utilized  as  a  site  for  the  Old  Settlers'  Historical  Museum. 

The  secretary  presented  the  claims  of  Walhalla  as  such  a 
site,  offering  to  donate  from  one  to  five  acres  of  land  for  the 
location  and  assuring  the  committee  that  any  old  historical  build- 
ings in  the  locality  would  be  freely  given  them  to  move  to  their 
premises  in  case  they  accepted  a  site  in  Walhalla. 

It  was  moved  and  seconded  that  Mr.  Andrews  be  tendered 
a  vote  of  thanks  for  his  liberal  offer  of  land  at  Walhalla  for 
the  benefit  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association. 

John  Nelson,  who  settled  at  Breckenridge  in  1873  and  is  at 
present  receiver  of  the  Grand  Forks  land  office,  was  made  a 
member  of  the  association  and  his  wife  was  elected  an  honorary 

It  was  moved  and  seconded  that  the  general  secretary  send 
samples  of  the  Journal  to  the  Agricultural  College  at  Fargo,  the 
University  at  Grand  Forks,  the  Red  River  Valley  University  at 


Wahpeton,  the  secretary  of  state  and  the  normal  schools  at 
Valley  City  and  Mayville.  (Which  has  since  been  done.) 

It  was  moved  by  George  B.  Winship  that  the  president,  secre- 
tary and  Col.  Lounsberry  be  a  committee  of  three  for  the  pur- 
pose of  conferring  with  the  State  Historical  Society  and  prepare 
a  memorial  to  the  state  legislature  asking  for  the  appropriation 
of  $1,000  as  a  nucleus  for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  sites,  put- 
ting up  buildings,  procuring  historical  relics  and  maintaining 
same,  and  that  the  bill  be  presented  at  the  coming  session  of  the 
legislature,  if  possible,  by  Hon.  Judson  LaMoure,  said  appropria- 
tion to  be  expended  by  the  Historical  Society  in  conjunction 
with  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers'  Association. 

This  memorial  was  drafted  and  presented  to  Mr.  LaMoure, 
who,  by  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  senate,  introduced  the 
following  : 

Senate  Bill  No.  196. 

For  an  Act  to  Provide  for  the  Contribution,  Purchase  and  Cus- 
tody of  Historical  Sites  and  Relics  in  the   State   of  North 
Dakota  and  to  Appropriate  Money  Therefor. 
Be  It  Enacted  by  the  Legislative  Assembly  of  the  State  of  North 
Dakota : 

Section  1.  The  State  Historical  Commission  may  from  time 
to  time,  receive  contributions  of  historical  sites  and  relics,  or 
money  for  the  purchase  of  such  sites  and  relics,  and  may  purchase 
such  sites  and  relics.  It  may  purchase  not  exceeding  ten  acres 
of  land,  embracing  the  site  of  old  Fort  Abercrombie,  in  Richland 
county,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  $500:  and  not  exceeding  ten 
acres  of  land,  embracing  the  site  of  the  first  Christian  mission 
grounds,  at  Walhalla,  in  Pembina  county,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding 
$500.  When  land  shall  be  contributed  or  purchased  as  herein 
authorized  for  historical  purposes,  the  title  shall  vest  in  the 
state  of  North  Dakota,  and  the  land  may  be  placed  in  the  custody 
of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  of  the  respective  counties  in 
which  said  sites  are  located,  and  may  be  improved  and  used  by 
them  for  public  park  purposes  and  for  the  accumulation  and  care 
of  relics  of  historical  interest.  When  relics  are  contributed  or 
purchased  they  shall  be  placed  in  the  custody  of  the  State  His- 



torical  Commission  and  those  of  a  local  historical  nature  may  be 
leased  to  the  County  Old  Settlers'  Association,  where  proper  pro- 
visions have  been  made  for  their  care  and  preservation.  Money 
contributed  for  the  purchase  of  historic  relics  or  sites  shall  be 
placed  in  the  hands  of  the  state  treasurer  and  shall  be  paid  out 
on  the  warrant  of  the  state  auditor  when  approved  by  the  State 
Historical  Commission,  or  a  majority  of  its  members. 

Sec.  2.  There  is  hereby  appropriated  for  the  purpose  of  this 
act,  the  sum  of  $1,000,  or  so  much  thereof  as  may  be  necessary 
out  of  the  money  in  the  state  treasury  not  otherwise  appropriated. 
Provided,  that  before  said  appropriation  shall  be  available  there 
shall  have  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  treasurer  of  the  state 
of  North  Dakota,  to  the  credit  and  for  the  use  and  benefit  of  said 
State  Historical  Commission,  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars 
($1,000)  as  a  contribution  from  interested  persons  for  carrying 
out  the  provisions  of  this  act. 

The  above  bill  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  resolutions, 
and  through  the  untiring  efforts  of  Hon.  Judson  LaMoure,  Presi- 
dent William  H.  White  and  Hon.  James  Twamley,  was  passed  on 
its  third  reading.  . 

On  motion  the  meeting  adjourned  until  June  6,  1893. 
The  directors  of  the  association  met,  as  provided  for  in  the 
constitution  of  the  association,  at  the  Waldorf  hotel  in  Fargo, 
N.  D.,  at  9 :30  a.  m.,  June  6,  1903. 

There  was  present  the  president,  William  H.  White,  the 
secretary,  C.  W.  Andrews ;  James  Holes,  vice  president  from  Cass 
county;  N.  J.  Hagen,  vice  president  from  Richland  county;  Asa 
Sargent,  vice  president  from  Traill  county.  A  quorum  being 
present,  the  business  of  the  meeting  was  taken  up  and  transacted. 
It  was  decided  that  the  county  officers  should  apply  to  the 
general  secretary  for  all  printed  blanks  and  supplies  needed. 

The  report  of  the  treasurer,  showing  a  balance  of  $161.55 
in  the  treasury,  was  received  and  the  report  approved. 

On  motion  it  was  decided  that  county  treasurers  should  ren- 
der full  reports  to  the  general  secretary  of  all  moneys  collected. 
Vice  President  Holes  reported  the  organization  of  the  Cass 
county  auxiliary  on  June  10  with  a  very  interesting  meeting. 
Many  new  members  were  secured  and  old  members  paid  up,  net- 


ting  the  organization  $114.50  from  dues  and  fees.  He  reported 
750  people  in  Cass  county  who  were  eligible  to  membership. 

Vice  President  Hagan  reported  plans  for  a  big  meeting  at 
Abercrombie  on  June  17,  and  thought  they  would  have  90  new 
members  before  that  time,  and  expressed  the  opinion  that  their 
enrollment  would  reach  300  before  the  meeting  was  over.  There 
are  a  great  many  people  in  Richland  county  who  settled  there 
during  the  years  1870  to  1875. 

Vice  President  Sargeant,  of  Traill  county,  made  no  report, 
but  recommended  that  the  counties  work  together  and  help  each 
other  in  their  work  as  much  as  possible,  the  general  executive 
keeping  in  touch  with  each  county  organization. 

It  was  moved  by  H.  J.  Hagan  that  we  do  not  have  an  annual 
meeting  this  year,  but  assist  at  the  Abercrombie  and  Walhalla 
meetings,  the  officers  to  be  elected  at  the  Abercrombie  meeting 
and  installed  at  the  Walhalla  meeting.  The  next  annual  meeting 
to  be  held  at  Fargo  in  June,  190-1.  After  discussion  the  motion 
was  approved. 

The  general  secretary  was  instructed  to  get  out  a  uniform 
set  of  record  books,  receipts,  order  book  and  report  blanks  and 
have  a  supply  printed  so  as  to  be  able  to  supply  each  county 
upon  demand. 

It  was  moved  by  James  Elton,  of  Grand  Forks  county,  and 
seconded  by  H.  J.  Hagen,  of  Richland  county,  that  a  vote  of 
thanks  be  given  the  Hon.  Judson  LaMoure  for  his  efforts  in 
securing  the  passage  of  the  bill  appropriating  state  funds  for 
the  purchase  of  historical  sites  for  the  use  of  the  Old  Settlers' 

It  was  moved  by  H.  J.  Hagen  that  a  site  be  purchased  at 
Abercrombie  comprising  part  of  the  grounds  of  the  old  fort  as 
per  diagram  herewith  submitted  and  marked  exhibit  A,  at  a 
cost  of  $75.00  per  acre.  The  motion  prevailed  and  H.  J.  Hagen, 
George  Hammer,  of  Abercrombie,  and  Charles  E.  "Wolfe,  of  Wah- 
peton,  were  appointed  a  committee  to  purchase  site. 

On  motion  adjourned  to  meet  at  Abercrombie  June  17,  1903. 

The  thirteenth  annual  meeting  was  held  at  Abercrombie  July 
17,  1903.  The  meeting  being  called  at  the  same  time  and  place 
as  the  organization  of  the  Richland  County  Auxiliary,  no  business 



was  attempted  but  the  receiving  of  reports  of  officers  and  the 
annual  election.  W.  H.  White,  the  president,  called  for  the 
order  of  business. 

The  officers  elected  at  this  meeting  were: 

President — L.  B.  Gibbs,  of  Grand  Forks. 

Secretary — C.  W.  Andrews,  of  Walhalla. 

Treasurer — D.  W.  Driscoll,  of  Grafton. 

After  the  installation  into  office  of  President  Gibbs,  the  fol- 
lowing vice  presidents  were  appointed  by  him : 

T.  R.  Shaw,  Pembina  county. 

J.  L.  Cashel,  Grafton,  Walsh  county. 

George  B.  Winship,  Grand  Forks  county. 

E.  Y.  Sarles,  Traill  county. 

George  I.  Foster,  Cass  county. 

A.  D.  Stephens,  Polk  county,  Minnesota. 

A.  P.  Mclntyre,  Marshall  county,  Minnesota. 

On  motion  the  association  adjourned  to  allow  the  members 
to  be  present  at  the  ceremonies  attending  the  dedication  of  the 
Old  Settlers'  Park,  the  association  to  meet  in  1904  on  call  of  the 
president  and  executive  committee. 

Wednesday,  July  17,  was  a  red-letter  day  for  Abercrombie. 
The  sun  rose  cloudless  from  the  eastern  horizon  and  seemed  to 
smile  an  approval  upon  the  handsomely  decorated  town  of  Aber- 
crombie with  its  big  tent,  new  park  and  new  school  house.  Early 
in  the  day  teams  began  to  come  in  from  every  direction  drawing 
loads  of  people.  The  train  from  Fargo  unloaded  scores  of  set- 
tlers and  their  families  and  were  met  by  the  famous  Kindred 
band  and  the  reception  committee  at  the  depot,  who  gave  them 
to  understand  that  the  town  was  theirs.  The  trains  also  from 
Wahpeton  were  loaded  with  people  for  the  celebration,  and  by 
noon  between  2,500  and  3,000  guests  were  in  our  village.  The 
first  on  the  programme  was  to  form  in  line  at  the  depot  and 
march  to  the  new  school  house,  the  procession  being  headed  by 
the  Galchute  and  Kindred  bands ;  marched  to  the  new  structure 
and  with  due  ceremony  the  school  board,  conducted  by  W.  C. 
Scoville  and  C.  J.  Monson,  directed  the  laying  of  the  keystone 
to  the  new  building.  After  prayer  by  Rev.  Edwards  and  singing 
by  the  young  ladies,  Albert  Schmidt,  the  first  school  director  of 


Abercrombie,  was  very  appropriately  chosen  to  perform  the 
work,  which  he  did  in  a  very  graceful  manner.  He  also  gave  a 
brief  history  of  schools  in  Abercrombie  township.  He  was  fol- 
lowed by  an  address  by  Hon.  W.  L.  Stockwell,  state  superinten- 
dent of  public  instruction,  which  was  eloquent,  enthusiastic  and 
inspiring  from  first  to  last,  and  was  enjoyed  by  all.  The  pro- 
cession then  marched  to  the  new  park,  where  Olaf  Bjorke,  chair- 
man of  the  township  board  of  supervisors,  addressed  the  settlers 
in  a  very  eloquent  manner.  He  was  followed  by  Hon.  P.  J. 
McCumber,  United  States  senator  from  North  Dakota.  He  gave 
a  brief  history  of  the  Dakotas,  tracing  them  from  the  glacial 
period  and  Lake  Agassiz  to  their  present  grandeur.  His  speech 
was  eloquent  and  enthusing  and  was  enjoyed  by  fully  two  thou- 
sand people.  After  his  address  the  guests  were  directed  to  the 
large  tent  where  dinner  was  served  free  to  all.  Mrs.  Hammer, 
Mrs.  Clark,  Mrs.  Hagen,  Mrs.  Munger  and  other  ladies,  assisted 
by  several  gentlemen,  ably  waited  on  the  big  crowd  until  all  had 

After  dinner  W.  H.  White  called  the  meeting  to  order  and 
announced  its  object.  After  prayer  by  Rev.  Edwards  he  called 
upon  John  D.  Benton,  of  Fargo,  who  responded  in  his  well- 
pleasing  manner,  also  Mr.  Hubbard,  the  man  who  started  J.  J. 
Hill  in  business  and  gave  him  $5  for  hauling  his  trunk  from 
McCauleyville  to  Moorhead,  way  back  in  the  fifties.  Mr.  Hub- 
bard  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Fargo  and  is  well  known 
here.  Judge  Lauder  was  called  and  delivered  a  very  able  address 
in  which  he  paid  due  tribute  to  the  people  of  Abercrombie  for  the 
elaborate  preparations  for  the  old  people's  comfort.  The  ad- 
dress of  welcome  was  given  by  Hon.  G.  A.  Hammer.  He  gave  all 
to  understand  that  neither  time  nor  money  had  been  spared  to 
make  a  pleasant  meeting  for  the  old  settlers  and  that  they  were 
heartily  welcome  to  our  hospitality. 

Mr.  Holes,  of  Fargo,  responded  very  pleasantly  and  made 
appropriate  remarks  upon  the  occasion.  Mrs.  Woodbury  read 
the  state  song  composed  by  Mrs.  Slaughter.  H.  J.  Hagen  deliv- 
ered a  well-worded  address.  Other  old  settlers  responded  and 
all  present  enjoyed  their  speaking. 

Next  came  the  election  of  officers.    H.  J.  Hagen  was  elected 


president  of  Eichland  County  Old  Settlers'  Association  and 
Anton  Mikche  vice  president  for  the  coming  year,  Hon.  George 
Van  Amain  secretary  and  K.  L.  Johnson  treasurer. 

Supper  then  was  ready  and  Mrs.  C.  "W.  McCauley  had  been 
chosen  toast  mistress.  She  was  right  at  home  in  the  position  and 
made  things  lively  by  enthusing  the  crowd  with  her  ready  wit 
and  humor.  She  called  upon  the  following,  who  responded  to 
the  different  subjects  assigned  them:  Senator  McCumber,  "The 
Pioneer  Citizen ; ' '  County  Attorney  Schuler,  * '  The  Improvements 
of  the  Day;"  W.  H.  White,  "The  Old  Settler  Financially;"  James 
Holes,  Fargo;  C.  W.  Andrews,  "The  Old  Settler  Industrially;" 
Col.  Benton,  "The  Old  Life  and  the  New;"  J.  A.  Johnson,  ex- 
mayor  of  Fargo,  "The  Ladies  Past  and  Present;"  0.  J.  Hagen, 
"What  the  Old  Settlers  Stand  for."  J.  Q.  Burbank,  county  sur- 
veyor, responded  to  a  toast  very  gracefully  and  Alex  Stern  was 
called  on,  but  was  too  busy  with  his  supper  to  respond.  All  in 
all  everybody  enjoyed  the  occasion  and  Abercrombie  people  feel 
amply  repaid  for  their  trouble. 

The  fifteenth  annual  meeting  of  the  association  was  held  at 
Grand  Forks,  N.  D.,  June  27,  1905,  with  President  L.  B.  Gibbs 
in  the  chair. 

The  death  roll  for  this  year  includes  the  names  of:  D.  W. 
Driscoll,  Graf  ton;  William  A.  Ackerman,  Grand  Forks;  George 
Eichards,  Grand  Forks;  Andrew  Kimble,  East  Grand  Forks; 
Peter  Ferry,  Turtle  Kiver ;  Mrs.  Barney  Haggerty,  Grand  Forks ; 
Mrs.  Ann  Martin,  Grand  Forks ;  Mrs.  D.  McDonald,  Grand  Forks ; 
Mrs.  C.  Coulter,  Mallory. 

Fraternal  letters  from  the  following  persons  were  received 
and  read:  Hon.  W.  E.  Purcell,  of  Wahpeton;  D.  A.  Hogg,  of 
Graf  ton;  T.  E.  Shaw,  Pembina;  Mrs.  Carrie  W.  McCauley,  of 
McCauleyville,  Minn. ;  President  J.  J.  Hill,  of  the  Great  Northern 
Eailway  Company;  Colonel  A.  W.  Edwards,  of  Montreal;  Sen- 
ators Hansbrough  and  McCumber,  and  Congressman  Gronna,  of 
Lakota,  and  Congressman  Steenerson,  of  Crookston,  and  Gov- 
ernor E.  Y.  Sarles. 

Secretary  Andrews  addressed  the  meeting  in  reference  to  a 
collection  of  relics  by  the  association.  Through  the  efforts  of  the 
association  the  state  had  appropriated  $500.00  for  the  purchase 


of  a  historical  park  site  at  Walhalla  and  a  like  amount  for  Aber- 
crombie.  Five  acres  have  been  purchased  at  both  points,  both 
historic  ground  and  adapted  for  permanent  park  purposes.  It 
is  designed  to  make  these  as  beautiful  and  attractive  as  possible. 
At  Walhalla  one  of  the  old  warehouses  built  by  N.  W.  Kittson 
sixty  years  ago  is  still  standing  and  this  will  be  moved  to  the 
park,  fitted  up  suitably  as  a  museum  for  relics,  and  the  nucleus 
of  a  collection  has  been  already  formed.  Secretary  Andrews  had 
secured  a  Ked  river  cart  made  by  Red  Bear  in  1848,  which  has 
been  exhibited  at  the  St.  Louis  fair  and  is  now  on  exhibition  at 
Portland.  This  has  been  donated  to  the  association  for  the 
Walhalla  museum  and  another  cart  built  by  M.  Dupre  in  1862 
has  been  donated  to  the  Abercrombie  collection  by  Secretary 

Secretary  Andrews  urged  that  all  take  an  interest  in  making 
a  valuable  collection  of  relics  which  should  form  the  association's 

Hon.  W.  H.  White,  of  Fargo,  vice  president  for  Cass  county, 
a  former  president  of  the  parent  association,  addressed  the 
society  on  the  subject  of  the  county  auxiliaries.  Mr.  White  had 
been  largely  instrumental  in  having  the  county  auxiliaries  organ- 
ized, but  felt  that  perhaps  it  was  a  mistake.  He  urged  that  the 
county  auxiliaries  should  not  be  allowed  to  detract  in  any  man- 
ner from  the  parent  association,  nor  to  take  its  place,  to  any 
extent,  but  instead,  its  object  should  be  to  build  up  the  Red 
River  Valley  Association. 

Vice  President  H.  J.  Hagen,  of  Richland  county,  and  others 
expressed  the  same  sentiment.  Secretary  Andrews  said  that  it 
was  very  necessary  to  have  a  secretary  of  each  of  the  county 
auxiliaries  who  would  co-operate  with  the  general  secretary. 

The  matter  of  the  election  of  officers  was  taken  up  and  a  dis- 
cussion ensued  as  to  the  form.  A  motion  offered  by  the  Hon. 
John  D.  Benton  that  the  association  elect  a  president  who  should 
nominate  twelve  vice  presidents,  one  for  each  of  the  counties  in 
the  Red  River  valley,  eleven  of  whom  should  be  named  as  the 
directors,  and  these  nominations  to  be  ratified  by  the  association, 
was  adopted. 

After  a  concert  in  the  evening  the  old  settlers  joined  heartily 


in  a  dance,  the  company  making  a  merry  time  until  1  o'clock  in 
the  morning. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Settlers' 
Association  for  1906  was  held  in  the  Masonic  Temple  at  Fargo, 
N.  D.,  July  24,  1906,  with  an  attendance  of  more  than  300  persons. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  president,  Thomas 
Baker,  Jr.,  who  introduced  Mayor  J.  A.  Johnson,  who  delivered 
an  address  of  welcome.  Mayor  Johnson  spoke  feelingly  of  early 
days,  of  those  whom  he  met  when  he  came  to  Fargo  twenty-seven 
years  ago,  of  the  enterprise  and  enthusiasm  of  the  people,  of  the 
willingness  to  back  up  any  scheme  for  the  advancement  of  the 
city ;  men  put  up  five  or  ten  dollars  then,  where  today  they  would 
not  put  up  one,  of  the  value  of  these  meetings  from  an  historical 
point  of  view,  and  reminded  the  members  that  much  of  historical 
interest  would  be  lost  if  not  placed  on  record  while  they  were 

An  interesting  address  was  given  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Tagen  and 
remarks  were  also  made  by  Colonel  Ball,  S.  G.  Roberts,  L.  B. 
Gibbs,  James  Twamley,  C.  W.  Andrews,  J.  Schmidt  and  N.  K. 
Hubbard.  Colonel  Morton  also  gave  an  interesting  address  in 
which  he  told  of  his  first  coming  to  Fargo  in  1875,  being  twenty- 
four  hours  on  the  train  from  St.  Paul  to  Fargo,  of  his  investments 
in  land  within  ten  miles  from  Fargo,  at  prices  ranging  from 
$96.00  to  $200.00  per  quarter,  land  that  now,  thirty  years  after, 
brings  $4,000.00  to  $5,000.00  per  quarter  and  even  more.  Colonel 
Morton  is  a  good  story  teller  and  his  stories  of  Mayor  Chapin, 
Major  Edwards  and  others  were  keenly  appreciated  by  the  old 
settlers  present. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  programme,  William  Anglin,  of 
Crookston,  was  elected  president  of  the  association  and  Crookston 
was  selected  as  the  next  place  for  the  meeting. 

Report  of  the  Secretary-Treasurer. 

During  the  year  just  closed,  the  Red  River  Valley  Old  Set- 
tlers' Association  has  held  one  general  meeting  at  Grand  Forks 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Grand  Forks  County  Association,  which 
was  largely  attended  by  the  old  settlers  of  Grand  Forks  county 
and  also  many  members  from  over  the  state  and  from  Minne- 


sola.  There  were  also  held  meetings  of  county  organizations  for 
Pembina  and  Walsh  counties  at  Walhalla;  of  Richland  county 
at  Christine  on  June  8,  1905,  and  again  at  Wyudmere  on  June 
14  and  15,  1906.  The  Polk  County  Association  held  a  meeting 
at  Crookston.  The  meetings  were  well  attended  and  thoroughly 

Not  so  many  new  members  were  received  this  year  as  in 
former  years  and  many  old  members  have  failed  to  pay  their 
dues.  Some  of  the  county  secretaries  do  not  realize  the  im- 
portance of  reporting  to  the  general  secretary  all  the  members 
enrolled  and  dues  collected.  It  is  particularly  important  to 
report  the  present  address  of  each  member,  so  that  notices  may 
be  sent  from  time  to  time  from  the  general  secretary's  office. 

The  books  of  the  general  secretary  show  a  membership  as 
follows:  Pembina  and  Walsh  counties,  177  members;  Grand 
Forks  county,  120  members ;  Cass  county,  107  members ;  Richland 
county,  116  members;  Polk  county,  51  members;  a  total  of  571 
members,  but  I  think  that  there  are  many  members  whose  names 
do  not  appear  on  the  general  secretary's  books. 

During  the  past  year  we  have  received  $500.00  from  the  state 
of  North  Dakota  to  aid  in  fitting  up  the  park  at  Walhalla,  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Pembina  and  Walsh  County  Associations. 
The  grounds  have  been  purchased  and  the  old  warehouse  built 
in  1852  and  used  by  Commodore  Kittson  in  his  fur  trading  busi- 
ness, has  been  purchased,  repaired  and  placed  in  the  park,  and 
other  improvements  made. 



By  Old  Settlers. 
And  Incidents  in  the  Early  Settlement  of  North  Dakota. 

Major  William  Camp  was  a  native  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  but 
a  man  of  the  world,  an  all-around  cosmopolitan,  genial  and  pleas- 
ant. He  had  visited  all  parts  of  the  United  States  and  was  a 
close  observer,  and  having  a  very  retentive  memory  he  possessed 
a  wonderful  fund  of  information.  He  was  not  avaricious,  but  he 
gained  a  competence  and  never  wanted  for  any  of  the  comforts 
of  life.  He  went  to  California  in  1849,  remaining  several  years, 
having  good  success  in  mining,  and  might  have  taken  his  ease 
during  the  remainder  of  his  life  on  the  accumulated  dust,  but 
he  divided  his  means  among  friends,  retaining  only  enough  to 
return  to  the  gold  fields,  where  he  again  gained  a  competence 
which  he  in  part  divided  with  the  same  generous  spirit  as  before. 
Being  a  brother-in-law  of  Colonel  John  Hancock,  he  came  to 
Pembina  in  1870  and  took  a  pre-emption  claim  near  old  Fort 
Pembina,  and  settled  down  to  the  life  of  an  amateur  settler,  cul- 
tivating a  large  garden  in  the  early  morning  and  other  odd  times, 
but  really  spending  most  of  his  time  angling  for  Red  river  salmon, 
as  the  catfish  and  gold  eyes  were  called.  He  was  an  expert  in 
this  line — a  worthy  son  of  Walton — indeed  it  was  believed  he 
could  have  given  old  Sir  Izaak  points.  As  he  fished  for  pastime 
and  required  but  few  for  his  own  use,  his  neighbors  came  in  for 
the  lion's  share  of  the  fruits  of  his  sport.  He  seemed  to  have  a 
magnetic  influence  on  the  fish  and  would  haul  them  in  when 
those  on  the  same  stream  above  and  below  got  no  bites,  but 



Major  Camp  was  happy  even  though  it  sometimes  happened  that 
even  his  bait  would  not  tempt  the  fish,  in  the  contemplation  of 
his  former  successes  or  of  the  good  time  to  come.  He  was  not  a 
Nimrod.  Indeed,  I  doubt  whether  he  ever  fired  a  gun  or  a  pistol. 
He  absolutely  knew  nothing  of  shooting,  and  never  carried  a 
gun  or  knife  during  all  of  the  rough  scenes  he  had  passed  through. 
He  was  at  all  times  genial  and  pleasant.  In  his  home  he  had  a 
favorite  cat  which  followed  him  into  the  fields  where  he  was  at 
work.  When  the  cat  died  the  usual  sign  of  mourning  was  placed 
on  the  shanty  door.  The  children,  especially  the  little  girls, 
were  always  his  friends,  and  the  dimes  he  spent  on  the  little  ones 
would  have  more  than  paid  his  taxes.  Sometimes  he  would  prom- 
ise them  the  first  nickel  he  should  find  or  a  nickel  when  "the 
pigs  got  fat  enough  to  kill."  One  day  when  he  had  given  the 
same  old  bluff  for  about  the  eleventh  time,  one  of  the  little  girls 
told  him  he  could  lie  faster  than  a  horse  could  run,  which  was 
all  the  same  to  the  Major.  He  had  no  enemies  and  was  liked  by 
all.  He  was  a  good  conversationalist  and  could  tell  any  number 
of  good  stories.  He  had  many  quaint  sayings.  "Up  is  up  and 
down  is  down;  right  is  right  and  right  wrongs  no  one,"  was  a 
common  one.  Again  he  would  remark:  "The  young  may  die; 
the  old  must."  Frank  Hart  quoted  this  on  him  a  few  days  be- 
fore his  death  and  finally  succeeded  in  getting  him  to  make  a 
will.  It  is  in  favor  of  Colonel  John  Hancock.  The  estate  con- 
sists of  $2,000  or  more  in  money  and  considerable  in  mortgages. 
His  death  was  painless  and  without  a  struggle  and  he  was  buried 
by  the  Free  Masons  in  the  beautiful  cemetery  at  Pembina,  where 
it  is  hoped  his  friends  will  erect  a  suitable  monument  at  an  early 
day.  A  good  citizen,  a  kind  friend,  a  noble  man  has  gone  to  his 

In  his  sober  and  conversational  moments  the  Major  but  sel- 
dom flickered  out;  but  when  in  a  mellow  mood,  as  he  sometimes 
would  get,  he  would  burst  out  in  a  melodious  strain  in  a  high, 
low  or  flat  tone,  as  the  humor  took  him,  with  "Mary  of  Argyle," 
and  keep  it  up  for  hours,  and  in  part  of  it  the  Swiss  Nightingale 
would  be  in  a  total  eclipse.  This,  to  the  knowledge  of  your  corre- 
spondent, was  all  the  song  he  tried  his  vocal  powers  on. 

Now  and  then  he  would  illustrate  a  subject  he  was  speaking 


on  by  a  quotation  from  Shakespeare  or  some  noted  poet,  thus 
demonstrating  that  he  was  not  the  subject  that  was  only  "fit 
for  bar-room  stratagem  and  sports." 

Old  Time  Wedding  Festivities.    By  Charles  Cavalier. 

When  we  had  returned  to  the  house,  which  was  filled  with 
over  sixty  happy  couples,  all  nicely  and  tastefully  and  some 
richly  attired,  I  must  say  I  never  saw  a  more  genteel  lot  of  people, 
and  there  was  beauty  galore,  and  a  finer  party  of  ladies,  com- 
bined with  much  beauty,  I  never  saw.  The  supper  was  a  grand 
affair,  the  table  was  loaded  with  all  the  substantials  and  luxuries 
of  civilized 'life  with  much  of  hunter's  skill,  which  all  ate  with 
the  appetite  of  us  northerners,  while  toasts  and  speeches  were 
made  by  some  of  our  home  talent.  Supper  over,  the  tables  cleared 
and  teeth  picked,  all  by  nine  o'clock,  then  the  room  was  cleared 
for  the  dance,  fiddlers  tuned  up,  and  the  young  beaus  hunted 
their  partners.  This  pastime  was  one  I  shall  never  forget,  for  it 
was  kept  up  all  night,  some  of  them  singing,  "We  won't  go  home 
till  morning,"  nor  did  they,  the  most  of  them,  and  did  not  see 
bed  until  the  next  night.  Thus  ended  our  old-time  wedding  of 
the  Red  river  of  North  Dakota.  Times  are  changed  and  the  pro- 
gramme is  now  of  another  scale. 

On  the  16th  of  March,  1857,  we  left  the  good  old  home  of 
my  wife  on  our  return  to  St.  Joseph,  N.  D.  My  father-in-law, 
Mr.  Murray,  accompanied  us  part  of  the  way  and  my  wife's 
brother,  James,  returned  with  us  to  St.  Joseph.  Arriving  at 
Narcisse  Marion's,  I  was  to  take  my  own  dog  team,  managed  by 
Commodore  Paul  Bouvier,  same  as  on  the  voyage  down.  We  bade 
our  old  friend  Marion  and  wife  good-bye  that  day  after  dinner, 
Paul  leading  with  the  dogs.  Sandy  Dahl,  next  with  my  wife  on 
board  his  train,  followed  by  Mr.  Murray  and  James.  Having  a 
good  road  and  a  fine  day  for  travel  we  went  along  kiting  and 
arrived  in  good  time  at  our  intended  camping  place  at  Old 
Dauphinais.  Mr.  D.  in  his  young  days  was  a  Canadian  voyageur, 
but  after  his  marriage  with  a  half-breed  girl  he  settled  down  to 
pastoral  and  agricultural  life,  but  leaving  his  home  twice  a  year, 
he  took  the  plains  as  a  hunter  of  buffalo  and  other  game,  return- 
ing in  June  with  his  carts  laden  with  pemmican  and  buffalo  cow 


pelts  with  which  to  make  robes.  My  father-in-law  and  the  old 
man  having  been  hunters  together  in  their  young  days,  they 
swapped  the  usual  yarns  of  hunting  exploits  until  they  talked 
me  to  sleep.  Next  morning  we  took  an  early  and  substantial 
breakfast  and  bade  adieu  to  Mr.  Murray  and  our  host,  Old  Dau- 
phinais,  of  whom  I  may  say  in  passing,  that  he  was  in  a  prosper- 
ous way,  having  some  sixty  head  of  horses,  over  forty  horned 
cattle;  sheep  and  chickens,  and  eighteen  or  twenty  children; 
but  to  resume  our  journey,  we  had  fine  weather  that  day,  though 
it  commenced  thawing  the  day  we  arrived  at  Pembina.  That 
night  we  camped  at  Two  Little  Points,  and  had  a  pleasant  and 
comfortable  time.  The  next  day  we  reached  Pembina.  Mr. 
Murray  and  I  were  treated  to  the  best  they  had  in  the  larder 
and  the  old  custom  in  those  days  of  sipping  port  wine  until  late 
bedtime.  The  next  day  early,  having  bid  our  friends  good-bye, 
we  endeavored  to  make  a  good  spell  before  it  commenced  thaw- 
ing, and  by  so  doing  we  arrived  at  St.  Joseph  before  dark  and 
were  welcomed  by  our  friends  with  a  fusillade  of  twenty  or  more 
N.  W.  Trading  Company's  flint-lock  guns,  all  of  which  did  me 
good  to  take  in. 

An  Old-Timer's  Story.— Senator  R.  M.  Probstfield. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  characters  among  the  early  set- 
tlers of  the  Eed  Eiver  valley  is  Kandolph  M.  Probstfield,  farmer, 
living  on  the  Eed  river  just  below  Moorhead.  Mr.  Probstfield 
came  in  advance  of  civilization,  before  the  stage  lines  and  steam- 
boats, before  the  United  States  surveys,  before  the  railroads,  and 
before  Moorhead  and  Fargo  were  born  in  thought  even. 

Born  near  Muenster-Mayfield,  Germany,  November  9,  1832, 
Mr.  Probstfield  came  to  the  United  States  when  a  lad  of  nine- 
teen. He  resided  a  while  in  Wisconsin  and  northern  Michigan, 
where  he  was  engaged  in  lumbering,  and  in  Milwaukee  a  month 
or  so,  and  came  to  St.  Paul  in  1853.  The  Big  Timber  country 
was  then  unsurveyed,  and  he  went  into  the  wilds  near  what 
is  now  Mankato  and  took  up  a  claim  which  fell  on  school  lands, 
and  he  gave  it  up.  In  September,  1853,  he  went  down  the  Missis- 
sippi from  St.  Paul  on  a  lumber  raft  to  what  is  now  Wabasha, 
and  thence  to  Galena,  111.,  by  steamer,  where  he  located  in  the 



wood  business.  He  returned  to  St.  Paul  in  the  spring  of  1854. 
He  was  an  active  politician  in  those  days,  and,  though  a  Demo- 
crat, was  instinctively  opposed  to  human  slavery,  and  went  south 
in  order  to  observe  the  working  of  that  system.  He  run  on  the 
Ohio  and  Mississippi  between  Pittsburg,  Cincinnati  and  New 
Orleans,  and  finally  shipped  on  the  Prometheus  as  a  cabin  boy 
and  went  to  Nicaragua  at  the  time  of  Walker's  filibustering 
expedition.  Crossing  over  the  isthmus,  he  went  to  San  Francisco. 
Returning  to  the  Mississippi  and  Ohio,  he  was  again  employed, 
this  time  as  a  roustabout,  and  came  up  the  river  in  the  spring  of 
1856,  as  soon  as  the  ice  would  permit.  The  river  was  frozen  from 
Cairo  to  St.  Louis  and  below  that  for  many  miles  filled  with 
floating  ice. 

Speaking  of  the  winter  of  1856,  the  editor  of  "The  Record" 
was  then  in  Ohio  and  made  thirteen  weekly  trips  carrying  the 
mail  from  Hicksville,  Ohio,  to  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  on  runners,  after 
the  first  of  January.  There  was  good  sleighing  on  the  first  of 
April,  and  the  old  people  who  used  to  live  on  the  Susquehanna, 
in  New  York,  told  stories  of  deep  snows  and  blizzards  which  out- 
blizzard  the  severest  Red  River  valley  weather. 

Returning  to  Minnesota,  Mr.  Probstfield  became  interested  in 
a  hotel  at  Chisago  City,  where  he  prospered,  but,  meeting  with 
unexpected  difficulties  through  a  partner,  left  there  in  1857  and 
was  thereafter  employed  for  a  time  clerking  in  a  grocery  store 
in  West  St.  Paul,  where  he  became  active  in  politics,  was  super- 
visor, assessor,  collector,  etc. 

Minnesota  had  voted  $5,000,000  in  bonds  to  promote  the  con- 
struction of  railroads,  and  these  bonds  were  made  the  basis  for 
the  issue  of  currency  by  state  banks.  The  bonds  fell  in  value, 
the  banks  broke,  and  the  people  who  had  either  bonds  or  alleged 
money,  lost,  Probstfield  being  one  of  the  losers. 

Preceding  the  panic,  there  had  been  an  era  of  speculation  in 
town  sites,  and  several  were  located  on  the  Red  river,  among  them 
Lafayette  and  Sheyenne  City,  located  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Sheyenne.  The  eastern  states  were  flooded  with  circulars  of 
paper  cities.  They  would  be  located  on  some  prominent  stream, 
and  laid  out  into  blocks  and  lots,  the  plats  showing  beautiful 
parks,  steamboats,  prospective  railroads,  and  thriving  commer- 


cial  marts.  People  in  the  East  were  offered  lots  for  $2,  just  the 
cost  of  making  out  the  transfer  and  recording  the  deeds,  the 
alleged  object  being  to  secure  settlement,  which  would  make  the 
reserved  lots  of  great  value ;  but  in  this  case  no  lots  were  sold. 

Stories  had  come  back  of  the  rich  agricultural  lands  in  the 
Red  River  valley,  and,  wanting  to  get  beyond  the  confines  of 
civilization,  perhaps  where  he  could  contemplate  his  losses  unmo- 
lested— for  the  true  German  wants  to  be  let  alone  in  his  miseries, 
but  is  always  ready  to  share  his  joys — he  started  for  the  Red 
River  valley,  February  26,  1859. 

Accompanying  him  were  George  Emerling  and  Gerhardt  Lulls- 
dorf.  George  Emerling  afterwards  kept  a  hotel  in  Fort  Garry, 
now  Winnipeg,  and  later  settled  at  Walhalla,  where  he  built  the 
first  flouring  mill  in  North  Dakota.  He  died  at  Walhalla  of 
smallpox.  With  the  true  instincts  of  the  pioneer  settler,  Emer- 
ling took  in  one  sick  of  this  dread  disease,  because  others  pro- 
nounced him  unclean,  and  gave  his  life  for  the  care  of  him. 
Lullsdorf  engaged  in  the  hardware  business  in  Mankota  after- 
ward, where  he  was  associated  with  John  F.  Meagher. 

The  journey  to  the  Red  river  was  a  hard  one  in  many  respects. 
The  winter  was  much  such  a  winter  as  this  until  March.  There 
was  snow  until  they  reached  Sauk  Rapids.  At  what  is  now  Little 
Falls,  or  near  there,  at  Luther's,  they  left  their  wagon  and 
took  sleds. 

Crow  Wing,  fifteen  miles  below  what  is  now  Brainerd,  was 
the  outside  settlement,  except  that  there  was  a  land  office  at 
Otter  Tail  City.  The  settlers  there  were  Duncan  and  James 
McDougall  and  one  Van  Ness,  who  married  part  blood  daughters 
of  John  McDonald,  who  was  an  Indian  trader  at  that  point,  and 
the  two  land  officers.  Duncan  McDougall  still  lives  in  the  country 
near  Richwood,  on  the  reservation  in  Becker  county,  Minnesota. 

On  the  way  from  Otter  Tail  they  caught  up  with  Anson 
Northrup's  expedition  en  route  to  the  Red  river  for  the  purpose 
of  building  a  steamboat.  Desirous  of  opening  trade  with  the 
Hudson  Bay  interests,  the  St.  Paul  Chamber  of  Commerce  had 
offered  a  bonus  of  $10,000  for  the  construction  of  a  steamboat 
on  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  and  Anson  Northrup  had  under- 
taken to  earn  that  money.  His  expedition  consisted  of  forty- 


four  men  and  a  large  number  of  ox  teams.  Baldwin  Olmstead, 
Lewis  Stone  and  George  Stone  were  interested  with  Northrup 
and  were  leading  characters  in  the  expedition.  The  machinery 
was  from  the  old  North  Star,  which  run  on  the  Mississippi  above 

The  snow  had  become  very  deep,  and  it  was  snowing  every 
day.  About  March  12  the  expedition  was  out  of  hay,  and  Probst- 
field  went  to  the  south  end  of  Otter  Tail  lake,  and  it  took  three 
days  for  the  trip.  The  snow  was  three  feet  deep  and  more  com- 
ing. Reaching  Oak  lake,  they  could  go  no  farther,  and  were  com- 
pelled to  cut  down  trees  to  enable  their  ponies  to  live.  So  far 
they  had  followed  the  Hudson  Bay  and  half-breed  cart  trails. 
From  there  they  must  try  an  unknown  country,  buried  in  snow, 
and  it  took  several  days'  exploration  before  they  dared  to  strike 
out.  After  ten  days'  waiting,  the  Northrop  party  caught  up  with 
them,  and,  the  explorations  having  been  completed,  they  struck 
out  for  the  mouth  of  the  Sheyenne,  about  ten  miles  north  of 
Fargo  and  Moorhead.  They  struck  the  Buffalo,  six  miles  east 
of  the  Red  river,  March  31,  1859,  and  Probstfield  rode  into  Lafay- 
ette, as  this  point  was  then  generally  called,  late  in  the  evening, 
for  provisions,  the  whole  party  being  out  of  supplies.  Edward 
Murphy,  from  Montreal,  and  Charles  Nash  and  Henry  Myers, 
from  New  York,  were  then  living  there.  Across  the  river  two 
men  were  holding  down  a  town  site,  known  as  Dakota  City,  for 
Pierre  Bottineau  and  others,  of  Minneapolis.  The  men  were 
Frank  Durant  and  David  Auger.  That  was  before  Dakota  was 
created,  and  the  territory  was  unorganized  and  unattached. 

Richard  Banning,  a  brother  of  William  L.  Banning,  well 
known  in  Minnesota  history,  lived  one  and  a  half  miles  north  of 
Lafayette,  holding  down  the  town  site  of  Sheyenne  City.  One- 
half  mile  farther  north,  George  "W.  Northrop  and  his  partner, 
Cloren,  lived  in  a  nameless  city.  Northrop  was  a  great  hunter 
and  trapper,  and  was  often  employed  by  English  noblemen  to 
accompany  them  on  buffalo  hunts.  He  was  killed  under  General 
Sully  during  the  Indian  war,  July  28,  1864.  Ten  miles  south  of 
Sheyenne,  where  Mr.  Probstfield  now  lives,  then  known  as  Ten- 
Mile  Point,  Robert  Davis  then  resided.  Eighty  rods  north  of  him 
was  the  home  of  John  Hanna.  Ed.  Griffin,  now  living  at  Fargo, 


and  James  Anderson,  alias  Eobinson  Crusoe,  were  also  in  the 
vicinity,  Griffin  at  the  mouth  of  the  Wild  Eice.  There  were  two 
companies  of  soldiers  at  Abercrombie. 

This  was  before  Georgetown  was  established,  and  these  were 
practically  all  of  the  white  settlers  south  of  Pembina  in  the  Eed 
Eiver  valley. 

Probstfield  succeeded  in  obtaining  supplies  at  Lafayette,  con- 
sisting of  pork  and  flour,  and  the  night  was  spent  baking  bis- 
suit.  He  started  on  the  return  early,  and  the  hungry  men  soon 
had  relief.  That  night  the  expedition  reached  Lafayette — the 
mouth  of  the  Sheyenne — and  in  a  few  days  the  machinery,  which 
had  been  left  at  various  points  en  route,  owing  to  the  bad  roads, 
was  brought  in. 

A  pit  was  dug  and  men  set  to  work  with  a  whip-saw  to  cut 
lumber  for  the  boat.  By  this  process  two  men  could  cut  about 
250  feet  per  day  if  the  timber  was  frozen.  When  not  frozen,  not 
more  than  175  feet  could  be  cut.  It  was  a  tedious  process,  but 
the  material  was  supplied  by  and  by,  and  the  hull  of  the  boat  com- 
pleted. After  the  completion  of  the  hull  it  was  run  up  to  Aber- 
crombie, where  the  cabin  was  put  on.  There  was  plenty  of  busi- 
ness on  the  river,  but  Northrup  had  trouble  enough  of  his  own, 
and  proceeded  to  St.  Paul,  where  he  collected  his  bonus  for  the 
construction  of  the  boat  and  then  tied  her  up.  He  had  agreed  to 
put  a  boat  on  the  Eed  river,  but  not  to  run  her,  and  by  refusing 
forced  her  sale  to  Blakely  &  Carpenter. 

April  22,  1859,  Mr.  Probstfield  left  on  his  return  trip  for  St. 
Paul.  He  was  accompanied  by  Eobert  McNeil,  who  had  four 
horses  and  a  Eed  Eiver  cart ;  James  Eyan  and  David  Augie  also 
accompanied  the  party. 

Northrup  had  exhausted  his  resources  in  his  boat-building, 
and  his  old-time  credit  was  gone,  and  as  Probstfield  had  depended 
upon  his  orders  for  supplies,  he  found  slim  picking  on  his  way 
back.  He  found  Northrup 's  family  at  St.  Anthony  and  brought 
them  the  first  intelligence  they  had  from  him  since  he  left  them 
early  in  February  for  his  Eed  Eiver  expedition.  The  deep  snows 
gave  swollen  streams  and  bad  roads,  but  they  reached  their  desti- 
nation seventeen  days  out  from  the  Eed  river,  and  started  back 


in  July.  Adam  Stein  returned  with  Mr.  Probstfield,  and  they  got 
back  to  the  Red  river  about  the  12th  of  July. 

In  the  meantime  the  stage  line  had  been  extended  to  Aber- 
crombie  from  St.  Cloud,  and  about  August  1  it  was  extended  to 
Georgetown,  which  had  been  established  as  a  station  of  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company.  From  thence  freight  was  shipped  to  Fort 
Garry  by  team  or  steamer,  and  from  there  to  other  Hudson  Bay 
Company  points.  James  McKay  located  Georgetown.  He  was 
in  charge  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  train.  A  warehouse  was 
built  the  following  winter,  and  the  next  year  a  hotel  and  a  store 
to  supply  the  men  with  their  needs,  but  not  for  general  trade. 

Prior  to  1860  one  range  of  towns  had  been  surveyed  along 
the  Red  river  up  to  Town  144,  as  far  north  as  Wild  Rice.  Wilkin 
county  was  known  as  Toombs  county  and  Clay  as  Breckinridge. 

Robert  McKenzie  was  the  first  in  charge  of  Georgetown.  He 
was  a  part-blood  Cree,  a  most  excellent  gentleman.  In  December, 
1859,  he  accompanied  a  party  of  Hudson  Bay  people  as  a  guide. 
A  few  miles  south  of  Pembina  the  party  run  out  of  supplies  and 
McKenzie  went  to  Pembina  for  relief;  failing  to  return,  they 
pushed  on  to  Pembina,  and,  finding  that  he  had  not  been  there,  a 
searching  party  found  him  frozen  to  death  about  seventeen  miles 
south  of  Pembina.  The  thermometer  had  ranged  from  30  to  40 
degrees  below  zero  for  several  days,  with  a  strong  northwest 

James  Pruden  was  the  next  in  charge  at  Georgetown.  He 
was  the  reverse  of  McKenzie  in  almost  everything.  The  men 
mutinied  under  his  ill  treatment,  and  he  found  it  prudent  to  leave. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Alex.  Murray,  a  most  capable  and  efficient 
gentleman.  He  was  in  charge  until  September,  1862,  when  the 
post  was  evacuated  for  a  time  because  of  the  Indian  war.  There 
were  about  thirty  men  employed  at  Georgetown  at  the  time, 
erecting  buildings,  making  hay  and  attempting  to  farm,  about 
twenty  acres  being  under  cultivation  at  the  time.  The  first  crop 
was  put  in  in  1861,  but  the  season  was  late,  owing  to  the  floods 
of  that  year,  and  the  next  year  it  was  abandoned  because  of  the 
Indian  outbreak,  and  never  harvested. 

Georgetown  was  re-established  in  1864,  and  in  1865  Mr. 
Probstfield  took  charge  and  remained  in  charge  from  that  time 


till  1868.  He  was  postmaster  at  Georgetown  from  1864  to  1869. 
Oscar  Bentley  was  in  charge  of  the  post  in  1864  and  until  Mr. 
Probstfield  succeeded  him. 

D.  P.  Harris,  killed  by  burglars  in  Minneapolis ;  Henry  Gager, 
now  residing  at  Bismarck,  and  the  two  Bentleys,  came  to  the  post 
in  1864. 

The  International  was  built  at  Georgetown  in  the  spring  of 
1862.  On  her  first  trip  down  the  river  from  Georgetown  she  car- 
ried a  party  of  Frazier  River  adventurers,  among  the  number 
Andrew  Holes,  of  Moorhead.  The  machinery  was  from  the  old 
Freighter,  which  was  attempted  to  be  sent  up  the  Minnesota 
through  Lake  Traverse  and  Big  Stone  lake  to  the  Red  river ;  and 
had  the  boat  started  earlier  the  feat  could  have  been  accom- 
plished, the  water  being  so  high  during  the  spring  of  1861.  But 
she  was  left  aground  in  the  outlet  of  Big  Stone  lake,  and  in  the 
winter  of  1861-2  her  machinery  was  hauled  by  team  to  George- 
town, under  much  the  same  conditions  as  Northrup  had  hauled 
his  boat  from  the  Mississippi,  except  that  she  was  moved  over  a 
timberless  and  uninhabited  country  from  the  mouth  of  Mustinka 
creek,  where  she  had  wintered. 

In  September,  1860,  Mr.  Probstfield  went  to  Europe.  Three 
brothers  and  two  cousins  returned  with  him.  They  were  delayed 
several  weeks  the  next  spring,  but  when  they  came  to  the  valley 
in  1861  they  brought  five  yoke  of  cattle,  ten  cows  and  thirty  head 
of  young  cattle.  They  left  St.  Paul,  May  25,  and  reached  the 
Red  river,  June  22.  They  carried  a  long  rope  with  which  to 
pull  their  wagons  through  the  sloughs,  carrying  their  loads 
over  the  best  way  they  could,  locating  on  section  32,  township 
142,  range  48,  one-half  mile  south  of  where  Georgetown  was 

In  1862  Mr.  Probstfield  purchased  twenty-four  head  of  sheep. 
They  came  from  Fort  Garry,  and  cost  $100  in  gold.  They  came 
on  the  first  return  trip  of  the  International.  The  freight  was  $40. 
Eighteen  hours  after  their  arrival  all  but  one  were  killed  by 
Hudson  Bay  dogs,  and  the  other  one  was  killed  during  their 
absence  from  Georgetown  at  the  time  of  the  evacuation. 

Two  of  his  brothers  entered  the  army — Justus  P.,  in  Com- 
pany G  of  the  Fourth  Minnesota,  and  died  at  the  New  House  of 


Refuge  in  St.  Louis,  October  30,  1863.  Anthony  enlisted  in 
Company  D,  Fifth  Minnesota,  and  died  at  Jefferson  Barracks, 
twenty  days  before  his  brother.  Anthony  had  served  in  the  Prus- 
sian army  as  an  artilleryman,  and  did  effective  work  at  the  siege 
of  Abercrombie.  One  shot  fired  by  him  struck  a  house  occupied 
by  Indians  besieging  the  fort  and  killed  four.  The  other  brother 
was  employed  as  a  carpenter  at  Abercrombie.  He  died  in  Mis- 
souri in  1894.  The  cousins  left  the  country  on  account  of  the 
Indian  troubles.  One  is  in  or  near  Portland,  Ore.,  the  other  in 
Los  Angeles,  Cal. 

In  September,  1861,  Mr.  Probstfield  went  to  South  Bend,  Ind., 
where  he  was  married  to  Catherine  Goodman,  a  sister  of  Peter, 
Joseph  and  Adam  Goodman,  now  at  Sheldon,  who  were  also  early 
settlers  in  the  Red  River  valley.  After  the  wedding  they  drove 
from  St.  Paul  in  an  ox  team  and  covered  wagon  to  Georgetown, 
taking  eighteen  days  for  the  trip.  Mary  Probstfield,  their  first- 
born, was  a  babe  when  the  exciting  events  of  the  Indian  war 
which  followed  occurred. 

The  years  1859  and  1860  had  been  years  of  hardships.  There 
had  been  the  flood  of  1861,  the  late  season,  and  the  excitement 
of  the  war.  The  Sioux,  then  occupying  the  lake  and  big  timber 
regions,  were  angry  and  threatening,  and  the  Chippewas  were 
clamoring  for  treaty  rights.  There  was  bad  blood  between  the 
Chippewas  and  the  Crees,  and  when  the  war  spirit  is  on  the 
Indian,  or  his  heart  is  bad,  there  is  no  telling  where  or  when  he 
will  strike. 

Finally  the  expected  happened.  The  settlers  at  Breckinridge 
were  massacred  and  Fort  Abercrombie,  which  contained  two 
companies  of  troops  and  such  settlers  as  could  be  alarmed  and 
brought  in  for  safety,  was  besieged. 

The  first  news  reached  Georgetown  on  the  night  of  August  22, 
1862.  Two  companies  had  previously  been  stationed  at  George- 
town, but  they  had  been  withdrawn  and  the  post  was  defenseless. 
About  midnight,  Mr.  Probstfield  was  .aroused  by  loud  knocking 
at  his  door  by  George  Lullsdorf  and  E.  R.  Hutchinson,  with 
orders  to  dress  quickly  and  hurry  to  the  post  for  safety.  There 
they  found  consternation,  panic,  confusion,  frightened  men  and 
weeping  women.  The  night  was  passed  in  terror.  A  Hudson 


Bay  Company  train  had  arrived  that  night  loaded  with  goods  for 
the  north,  and  with  the  men  of  this  train  and  those  at  the 
post,  and  the  settlers  who  had  come  into  that  point,  they  mus- 
tered forty-four  men  able  to  bear  arms.  They  had  thirty-three 
guns — good,  bad  and  indifferent — including  some  old  flintlocks, 
but  there  was  an  abundance  of  ammunition  in  the  stores  for 
shipment  north.  Norman  W.  Kittson  was  there  in  charge  of 
the  Hudson  Bay  Transportation  interests,  and  the  International 
lay  at  the  landing. 

The  organization  was  perfect,  and  for  two  weeks  or  more 
they  kept  up  their  constant  vigil,  the  outposts  being  relieved 
every  two  hours.  The  windows  and  doors  of  the  buildings  were 
barricaded  with  plank,  provided  with  portholes.  A  bastion  was 
thrown  out  at  the  corner,  with  room  for  six  men,  and  thus  pre- 
pared and  armed  for  defense,  they  waited,  debating  as  to  which 
way  to  retire.  They  knew  Abercrombie  was  surrounded  and  that 
several  men  escorting  couriers  out  of  the  fort  had  been  killed, 
and  so  they  decided  to  go  north  and  reach  safety  at  Fort  Garry, 
if  possible. 

"The  crossing  of  the  river  that  night  at  Georgetown,"  says 
Mr.  Probstfield,  "is  one  I  shall  never  forget.  The  sufferings,  the 
anxiety,  the  terrors,  and  the  disappointment,  to  me  were  of  all 
events  most  deeply  impressed  upon  my  mind.  We  had  all  worked 
all  night,  most  of  us  like  heroes — I  thinking  only  of  the  safety 
of  the  whole,  regardless  of  self  or  of  my  family  even,  except 
as  our  interests  were  bound  up  in  the  whole ;  and  at  last  I  found 
myself  alone  with  wife  and  babe,  team  and  goods,  without  a  soul 
to  help,  excepting  the  almost  sick  and  physically  helpless  Alex- 
ander Murray,  the  agent  of  the  company,  who  with  us  was  the 
last  to  leave.  Team  after  team  was  ferried  across  the  stream, 
and  as  the  work  of  evacuation  progressed,  the  panic  increased, 
and  when  we  came  to  cross  it  required  considerable  persuasion 
to  have  the  ferry  returned  for  us. ' ' 

They  camped  out  of  rifle  range  from  the  timber,  about  one- 
half  mile  from  Georgetown  on  the  Dakota  side,  and  so  great 
was  the  exhaustion  that  every  soul  fell  asleep  and  the  camp  was 
left  without  the  slightest  protection.  At  noon  they  reached  Elm 
river,  and  as  they  were  preparing  or  eating  their  dinner,  Pierre 


Bottineau  came  in  from  Abercrombie  and  informed  them  of  the 
conditions  there,  and  that  he  had  seen  Indians  prowling  around 
near  Georgetown.  This  created  another  panic,  and  those  who 
had  not  had  their  dinner,  desired  none,  and  they  hurriedly  broke 
camp  and  hurried  on.  Various  propositions  were  made,  among 
them  one  for  the  women  and  children  to  go  on  with  the  horse 
teams,  while  the  men  would  bring  on  the  train;  but  as  human 
life  was  regarded  of  the  greatest  value,  the  party  moved  on  with 
the  greatest  caution,  reconnoitering  the  Goose  and  other  streams 
where  there  was  timber  before  attempting  to  cross,  always  throw- 
ing the  train  into  corral  when  stopping.  They  crossed  the  Goose 
late  next  day  and  were  encouraged  by  meeting  fifteen  well  armed 
and  thoroughly  equipped  horsemen  from  Pembina,  who  had  been 
sent  out  for  their  relief.  Among  the  party  were  Joe  Rolette, 
Hugh  Donaldson,  William  Moorhead  and  others  well  known  then 
to  Probstfield.  Pierre  Bottineau  returned  with  them,  having  gone 
on  for  relief. 

The  International  had  left  for  Fort  Garry  the  evening  of 
the  evacuation  of  Georgetown,  having  on  board  the  family  of 
Alexander  Murray  and  other  women  and  children  from  the  post, 
Commodore  Kittson  and  others.  The  river  being  low,  the  boat 
was  grounded  about  six  miles  by  land  below  Georgetown,  at  what 
is  now  Caledonia ;  therefore  it  became  necessary  to  dispatch  some 
teams  to  remove  the  women  and  children  from  the  boat,  together 
with  the  crew  and  some  of  the  more  important  goods.  Two  men 
were  left  in  charge  of  the  boat  as  watchmen.  They  were  Joseph 
Adams  and  Robert  Scrambler.  Mrs.  Scrambler  remained  with 
her  husband.  A  barge  attached  to  the  boat  was  loosened  and 
floated  down  the  river  in  charge  of  E.  R.  Hutchinson. 

At  the  camp  the  wagons  were  in  corral  and  every  man  was 
on  the  alert.  About  eleven  at  night,  when  the  party  was  momen- 
tarily expected  to  return,  an  Indian  yell  was  heard  that  was 
simply  hair-lifting.  Every  man  was  on  his  feet,  and  every  rifle 
cocked,  when  the  voice  of  Hugh  Donaldson  assured  them  there 
was  no  danger.  The  yell  came  from  Pierre  Bottineau,  who  was 
in  a  playful  mood  from  what  he  had  found  at  the  boat,  the  sale 
of  which  is  now  prohibited  in  North  Dakota. 

The  next  night  the  expedition  camped  at  Frog  Point,  now 


Belmont,  and  as  had  been  the  case  before,  everybody  went  to 
sleep,  without  outposts  or  other  guards,  and  the  next  night  three 
miles  south  of  Grand  Forks.  A  meeting  was  then  called  to  con- 
sider necessary  measures  of  safety,  and  as  nothing  seemed  likely 
to  be  accomplished,  Probstfield  left  the  meeting,  declaring  that 
he  would  go  no  farther  with  them,  but  saying  they  could  call  him 
when  his  turn  came  to  stand  guard,  if  they  determined  to  put  out 
guards.  He  was  called  at  five  next  morning  to  go  on  duty,  and 
stood  his  trick,  but  refused  to  go  further  with  the  expedition. 
In  the  meantime  they  had  learned  that  there  were  several  hun- 
dred Chippewa  Indians  at  Grand  Forks,  hungry  and  desperate, 
who  were  waiting  to  meet  Governor  Ramsey  and  others,  who 
were  to  treat  with  them,  but  who  had  been  delayed  by  the  Indian 
outbreak.  These  Indians  captured  the  expedition,  took  what 
they  wanted  to  eat,  but  harmed  none  of  the  party,  which  went  on 
to  Pembina. 

Stephen  Wheeler,  who  worked  for  C.  P.  Lull,  who  was  keeping 
a  hotel  at  Georgetown  up  to  the  time  of  the  outbreak;  William 
Tarbell;  Ed.  Larkens,  known  as  "Lige,"  his  wife,  an  Indian 
named  Marceau  and  his  wife;  Mrs.  Commisanze  and  Mrs.  E.  R. 
Hutchinson,  remained  with  Probstfield.  Lull,  his  wife  and  child, 
were  with  other  settlers  at  Abercrombie.  Mrs.  Hutchinson  was 
escorted  to  the  barge  and  went  on  down  the  river  with  her 

The  first  camp  on  the  way  back  was  eight  miles  south  of  Grand 
Forks,  and  they  made  their  way  slowly,  remaining  several  days 
at  some  places  where  the  ducks  and  geese  were  abundant.  When 
within  eight  miles  of  Georgetown,  Tarbell  went  on  alone  to  re- 
connoiter,  telling  the  party  not  to  come  if  he  failed  to  return. 
The  hours  of  waiting  were  long  and  anxious  ones.  The  relief  to 
mind  was  great  when,  just  at  nightfall,  Tarbell  returned,  having 
been  delayed  by  reason  of  the  boat  being  on  the  Georgetown  side 
and  filled  with  water.  It  was  after  dark  when  they  reached 
Georgetown,  but  the  only  harm  done  in  their  absence  was  by  the 
train  dogs  to  the  sheep,  all  of  which  had  been  slaughtered. 

From  that  time  on  they  led  a  humdrum  life,  not  free  from 
anxiety  and  alarm.  On  one  occasion,  especially,  the  dogs  set 
up  such  a  howling  and  barking,  and  kept  it  up  so  long,  that  there 


was  little  room  to  doubt  but  that  Indians  were  about.  In  the 
morning  the  tracks  of  a  dozen  or  more  horses  and  mules  ridden 
by  the  party  were  seen.  They  had  passed  directly  through  the 

The  expedition  which  went  to  Fort  Garry  returned  about  the 
middle  of  October.  A  detachment  of  troops  was  sent  down  with 
them.  Captain  T.  H.  Barrett  was  in  charge,  and  importuned 
Probstfield 's  party  to  return  with  him  to  Fort  Abercrombie,  but 
they  refused. 

That  fall  and  winter  Probstfield  was  in  correspondence  with 
General  A.  H.  Sibley  as  to  reinforcements  for  the  frontier  for 
the  coming  spring.  Sibley  urged  him  to  remain  with  his  family 
as  an  encouragement  to  others  to  return  to  the  valley.  He  urged 
that  the  condition  of  the  war  in  the  South  was  such  that  troops 
must  be  sent  south  instead  of  being  held  for  service  on  the  fron- 
tier. Notwithstanding  this  correspondence,  March  17  a  detach- 
ment of  troops  came  to  Georgetown  with  orders  from  General 
Sibley  to  remove  all  of  the  settlers  to  Fort  Abercrombie,  with 
special  orders  to  arrest  Probstfield  if  necessary.  The  detachment 
was  in  charge  of  Lieutenant  Tyler.  But  all  were  then  glad 
enough  to  seek  safety.  Probstfield  remained  at  Abercrombie 
until  June  22,  when,  having  some  differences  with  Major  G.  A. 
Camp  over  a  claim  for  a  cow  wantonly  killed  by  a  soldier,  the  loss 
of  which  Camp  insisted  he  should  bear  as  one  of  the  misfortunes 
of  war,  he  was  given  twenty-four  hours  to  leave  the  fort.  He 
left  in  six  and  went  with  his  family  to  St.  Cloud,  arriving  there 
July  4,  1863.  He  returned  in  the  fall  with  Hatch's  battalion,  to 
take  charge  of  his  hay,  which  the  army  appropriated,  and,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  cow,  Major  Camp  refused  to  approve  the  vouchers, 
and  the  claim  is  still  unsettled. 

Mr.  Probstfield  became  helpless  from  rheumatism  and  re- 
turned to  his  family  in  St.  Cloud,  returning  to  the  valley  in  May, 
1864,  and  took  charge  of  the  hotel  at  Georgetown,  and  the  next 
year  took  charge  of  the  post,  where  he  remained  until  1869,  when 
he  took  up  his  residence  in  Oakport,  where  he  now  resides. 

Oakport  became  the  principal  point  of  interest  on  the  Red 
river  in  1871,  until  the  crossing  of  that  river  by  the  railroad  was 


Proving  up  on  his  land  in  1871,  Mr.  Probstfield  moved  to  the 
mouth  of  Red  Lake  river,  East  Grand  Forks,  renting  his  hotel 
to  Major  William  Woods,  who  joined  the  Jackman  expedition 
to  Bismarck  in  the  race  for  that  town  site,  and  left  without 
warning,  in  May,  1872,  and  Mr.  Probstfield  was  compelled  to 
return  and  take  charge  of  it,  his  family  returning  in  November. 

The  first  county  commissioners  of  Clay  county,  then  known 
as  Breckinridge,  were  R.  M.  Probstfield,  E.  R.  Hutchinson  and 
Richard  Banning.  This  was  in  1860,  but  owing  to  the  Indian  war 
the  organization  lapsed.  The  name  of  the  county  was  changed 
to  Clay,  and  it  was  not  again  organized  until  the  Northern 
Pacific  railroad  reached  the  Red  river. 

Mr.  Probstfield  has  served  the  public  as  assessor,  treasurer, 
clerk,  school  director,  county  commissioner,  member  of  the 
senate,  and  in  other  capacities,  and  notwithstanding  his  well- 
known  integrity  and  patriotic  services,  was  twice  defeated  for 
the  legislature,  but  is  consoled  by  the  reflection  that  there  is  no 
disgrace  in  defeat. 

The  Oldest  Settler.    By  Edward  Griffin. 

Forty  years  ago  the  country  was  given  to  town  site  specula- 
tion. Title  being  secured  to  government  land,  from  the  railroads 
in  some  instances,  a  town  site  would  be  laid  out  and  lots  put  on 
the  market  for  sale,  a  thousand  miles  away.  Very  often  the 
formality  of  securing  title  was  dispensed  with.  Government  land 
was  platted  or  imaginary  tracts  laid  out,  and  advertisements 
sent  broadcast  over  the  country,  offering  lots  free  for  the  expense 
of  making  the  deed  and  recording.  Many  of  the  towns  were  in 
good  faith,  and  gift  lots  were  placed  because  it  was  believed 
that  good  would  be  accomplished  by  that  means. 

North  Dakota  had  then  been  occupied  by  Indian  traders  for 
many  years.  There  were  no  settlers  for  agricultural  purposes. 
The  Red  River  valley  was  already  famous  for  its  richness  of  soil 
and  for  its  vast  herds  of  buffalo. 

In  June,  1858,  Walter  Hanna,  Robert  David  and  myself  left 
Hastings,  Minn.,  and  on  the  4th  day  of  July  arrived  at  a  point 
on  the  Red  river  seven  miles  south  of  Moorhead,  at  a  point  after- 
wards known  as  East  Burlington,  and  there  we  laid  out  a  town 


site.  Fort  Abercrombie  was  laid  out  in  August  of  that  year. 
That  year  our  party  sought  refuge  for  the  winter,  in  connection 
with  a  town  site  party  from  St.  Paul,  at  a  point  called  Lafayette. 
Charles  Nash,  Henry  Brock  and  Harry  Myers  were  employed  to 
hold  that  town  site.  Bottineau  had  three  men  holding  a  town 
site  on  the  Dakota  side  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sheyenne  river. 
Harry  Banning,  Eichard  Banning  and  George  Myers  were  hold- 
ing a  town  site  at  Banning 's  point,  one  mile  south  of  the  Shey- 
enne. George  W.  Northrop,  the  famous  scout,  with  a  trapping 
party,  was  holding  a  claim  one  mile  north  of  the  Sheyenne,  mak- 
ing fifteen  men  within  three  miles  of  each  other  on  what  was  then 
the  extreme  frontier.  Christmas  day  was  duly  celebrated  by  the 
town  site  neighbors. 

In  the  spring  of  1859  the  steamboat  Anse  Northup  was  built 
at  Georgetown.  E.  E.  Hutchinson,  who  still  lives  at  Georgetown, 
came  that  year  and  helped  to  build  her.  E.  M.  Probstfield  raised 
cabbages  and  made  sauerkraut  and  got  comparatively  rich  on 
the  high  prices  he  was  able  to  secure  for  his  products.  The  Anse 
Northrup  made  the  first  trip  to  Abercrombie  in  June  that  year. 
The  Hudson  Bay  Company  established  their  post  at  Georgetown 
in  August,  1859.  Eobert  McKenzie,  who  was  frozen  to  death  in 
1860,  was  in  charge.  Edward  Connolly,  Adam  Stein  and  Lewis 
Lewiston  were  in  the  employ  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  I 
helped  Adkinson  make  improvements  where  Moorhead  now 
stands,  in  1859.  Charles  Slayton  and  wife  came  to  the  valley 
July  15,  1859.  Slayton  built  a  house  one  mile  north  of  Moor- 
head,  but  left  in  1861.  Lewis  Lewiston  built  a  house  in  1860, 
where  Moorhead  is  now,  which  was  known  as  Burbank  station, 
and  raised  100  acres  of  oats  in  1861.  This  was  the  first  crop  of 
oats  raised  in  the  valley.  He  was  in  Abercrombie  with  his  wife 
and  children  during  the  memorable  siege  in  1863,  when  Edward 
Wright  was  killed.  William  Eounsvel  came  in  1860,  and  built 
half  a  mile  from  Probstfield 's.  Zere  B.  Slayton  settled  one  mile 
north  of  Moorhead,  and  the  first  white  child  born  in  the  valley 
was  in  his  family,  April  20,  1861.  That  year  the  valley  was 
flooded.  There  was  only  about  100  acres  where  Moorhead  is 
that  was  not  covered  with  water.  The  water  was  two  feet  deep 


in  the  Slayton  house,  and  seemed  to  cover  the  whole  country  on 
the  Fargo  side. 

Edward  Buckmaster  came  in  1864  and  stopped  at  McCauley- 
ville.  Three  men  were  killed  by  the  Indians  that  year  seven  miles 
south  of  Moorhead.  Jud.  Stebbins  and  one  other  escaped.  In 
1862  I  went  to  Hastings  and  joined  the  Minnesota  Mounted 
Eangers  and  served  fourteen  months  in  Company  G  and  was  on 
the  Sibley  expedition  and  in  three  battles.  In  September,  1862, 
the  Indians  killed  a  family  of  five  at  the  old  crossing  on  Otter 
Tail  river.  One  old  lady  left  for  dead  literally  crawled  fifteen 
miles  to  Breckinridge,  living  on  frogs  several  days,  suffering 
almost  untold  horrors  on  the  trip.  George  Whitford  left  George- 
town afoot  and  alone  for  Abercrombie  in  1862,  and  has  never 
been  heard  of  since.  He  was  supposed  to  have  been  killed. 

George  Northrop  was  on  a  hunting  party  with  Sir  Francis 
Sykes  in  1861,  and  received  a  present  of  a  gun  from  Sir  Francis 
valued  at  $200.  The  next  year  he  was  out  with  another  hunting 
party.  The  Indians  surrounded  them,  took  their  guns  and  cloth- 
ing from  them,  and  sent  them  back  from  the  Devils  Lake  country 
in  Indian  costume.  Northrop  plead  for  his  gun,  but  they 
took  it  in. 

July  5,  1863,  Sibley 's  command  arrived  at  the  big  bend  of  the 
Sheyenne.  It  was  unmercifully  hot  and  dry.  The  ground  was 
without  a  particle  of  moisture,  and  the  grasses  parched.  One 
of  the  men  went  out  as  a  water  witch  and  with  a  crotched  stick 
located  a  spring  on  the  dry,  hard  prairie,  which  was  opened  by 
digging  only  two  feet.  It  was  here  that  Fort  Eansom  was  located, 
and  the  spring  is  said  to  supply  pure,  fresh  water  to  this  day. 

During  much  of  that  campaign  the  men  were  compelled  to 
cut  grass  in  the  sloughs  with  jackknives  for  their  animals.  When 
the  expedition  came  back  in  the  fall  they  found  rich,  green  grass 
about  six  inches  high  all  along  the  Maple  and  other  points  in 
Cass  county,  from  heavy  rains  during  their  absence.  I  crossed 
the  Eed  river  at  Abercrombie  that  fall  on  foot  without  wetting 
ray  feet,  the  river  was  so  nearly  dried  up,  and  the  deepest  place 
in  the  upper  Mississippi  was  not  to  exceed  three  feet.  The 
winter  of  1863  was  so  open  that  200  condemned  horses  from  the 
Sibley  expedition  wintered  on  the  prairies,  without  a  mouthful  of 


food  being  provided  for  them,  and  came  out  tat  the  next  spring. 
The  summer  of  1867  was  also  a  very  dry  one ;  most  of  the  lakes 
were  very  dry.  But  in  July  the  heavens  were  opened  and  a 
rainfall  came  that  raised  the  smaller  lakes  about  five  feet. 

In  1869  they  had  another  blizzard.  They  did  not  come  very 
often,  and  never  lasted  over  three  days,  but  they  attended  to 
business  while  pretending  to  be  on  duty.  David  McCauley  and 
Mr.  Hicks,  for  whom  Hickson  was  named,  were  with  me  during 
the  storm.  Hicks  employed  a  dog  train  to  take  him  back  home 
to  Alexandria.  It  took  McCauley  a  week  to  get  back  to  the  fort 
at  Abercrombie.  In  the  fall  of  1870,  twenty  Norwegian  families 
settled  on  Stony  Brook  and  lived  in  dugouts  that  winter.  They 
were  all  snowed  under,  but  tunneled  out  and  lived  comfortably. 
Stony  Brook  is  east  of  the  river  on  the  old  Abercrombie 
stage  road. 

I  remained  in  the  country — trapping,  hunting  and  trading, 
keeping  stage  station,  etc. — until  I  settled  on  a  farm  at  Elm 
river  in  1872,  occupying  one  of  the  abandoned  houses  built  by 
Lowell's  townsite  party  in  1870,  where  I  remained  until  I  settled 
at  Fargo. 

Forty  years  ago  the  two-wheeled  wooden  carts  were  in  use 
for  hauling  Hudson  Bay  goods  from  St.  Paul  to  Winnipeg,  and 
rawhide  harnesses  more  durable  than  ornamental  were  in  general 
use.  Dried  buffalo  meat  and  pemmican  were  sold  by  the  pound 
in  Hudson  Bay  stores. 

Walter  Hanna  broke  the  first  acre  of  Red  River  sod,  July  10, 
1858.  The  first  acre  of  potatoes  was  raised  by  Richard  Banning 
in  1860.  The  first  job  of  threshing  done  in  the  valley  was  at 
McCauleyville  in  1866,  by  David  McCauley.  The  machine  came 
from  Osakis,  Minn.,  to  thresh  thirty  acres  of  oats.  From  1864  to 
1870  David  McCauley  was  the  leading  business  man  in  the  valley. 
The  spring  of  1864  McCauley  purchased  from  the  government  200 
barrels  of  pork  at  less  than  $1  per  barrel  and  sold  it  for  $20  to 
$40.  In  1866  he  furnished  the  government  1,000  tons  of  hay  at 
$35  per  ton.  In  1867  he  was  the  owner  of  the  first  steam  sawmill 
in  the  valley,  and  was  proprietor  of  the  first  store  that  dealt  in 
general  merchandise,  and  at  the  present  time  is  a  Red  River 
valley  farmer. 


In  1860  George  W.  Northrop  escorted  two  ladies  that  came 
from  England  to  Winnipeg.  The  conveyance  was  a  flatboat.  On 
the  trip  down,  one  morning  a  small  party  of  Chippewa  Indians 
fired  several  shots  at  him  and  his  fair  companions.  George  asked 
why  and  what  reason  they  had  for  shooting  at  him.  Their  answer 
was:  "You  must  not  talk  our  enemy's  language  if  you  don't 
want  to  be  shot  at."  The  ladies  were  going  to  Winnipeg  to  make 
good  their  matrimonial  contracts. 

In  the  summer  of  1859,  on  the  first  trip  the  Burbank  Stage 
Company  made  to  the  valley,  between  Dayton  and  Abercrombie, 
on  the  old  half-breed  trail,  there  was  a  great  curiosity  noted  by 
the  travelers.  It  was  about  two  acres  of  buffalo  bones,  where 
there  had  been  a  buffalo  hunter's  camp  a  year  or  two  before,  for 
the  purpose  of  making  dried  buffalo  meat  and  pemmican.  There 
were  many  theories  advanced  as  to  how  the  bones  came  there. 
One  would  say  that  they  were  killed  by  wolves;  another,  that 
they  were  frozen  to  death  in  a  blizzard.  Captain  Blakeley,  of  the 
stage  line,  said:  "Hell,  they  were  drowned  in  one  of  the  Red 
River  valley  floods." 

Forty  years  ago  the  Red  River  valley  was  as  wild  as  nature 
made  it.  Today  it  is  famed  throughout  the  world  and  is  the  best 
known  wheat-growing  country.  Forty  years  ago  the  buffalo,  elk, 
bear,  fish  and  game  were  relied  upon  by  nature's  children  for 
food,  and  there  was  none  to  monopolize. 

Forty  years  ago  the  first  frame  building  of  the  valley  was 
erected.  It  was  a  two-story  building  at  Breckinridge.  To-day 
the  country  is  studded  with  cities  and  farm  houses  and  raises 
annually  50,000,000  bushels  of  wheat. 

Will  the  Red  River  valley  improve  as  much  in  the  next 
forty  years  as  it  has  in  the  past,  is  the  question  that  has  been 
often  asked.  Science,  education  and  advancement  go  hand  in 
hand  and  mother  nature  is  our  teacher  and  our  guide.  Science 
in  the  next  forty  years  will  cut  a  greater  figure  in  farming 
than  we  think.  Forty  years  hence  farm  machinery  will  be  run 
by  electricity;  capital  and  labor  will  march  with  a  steady  step, 
side  by  side,  and  the  valley  will  be  one  grand  theater  of  enter- 
prise and  beauty.  Fargo  will  be  a  city  that  can  boast  of  75,000 


population  and  the  generation  unborn  can  look  upon  the  present 
metropolis  with  pride. 

Note — George  W.  Northrop  was  a  sergeant  in  Company  C, 
Brackett's  battalion,  and  was  killed  in  action  on  the  headwaters 
of  the  Little  Missouri,  July  28,  1864.  He  received  eight  or  ten 
wounds,  one  of  which  pierced  his  heart.  About  2,000  troops 
were  engaged,  the  total  loss  was  five  killed  and  ten  wounded, 
of  which  Brackett  lost  two  killed  and  eight  wounded.  Sully 
reports  from  100  to  150  Indians  killed,  and  Brackett  that  he 
counted  27  in  front  of  his  command,  besides  seeing  the  Indians 
carry  away  many  of  them.  Northrop  was  one  of  the  most  popu- 
lar of  the  noted  frontiersmen,  and  before  enlisting  was  employed 
as  a  guide  by  military  expeditions,  hunting  parties,  etc. 

Fort  Abercrombie — The  Place  of  Refuge  for  the  Early  Settlers — 

The  Siege. 

Fort  Abercrombie  was  established  in  1858,  on  the  west  bank 
of  the  Red  river,  now  in  Riehland  county,  and  about  15  miles 
from  where  Wahpeton  is  located.  The  post  was  abandoned  after 
an  occupancy  of  little  over  a  year,  and  the  property  sold  at  a 
great  sacrifice.  It  was  rebuilt  in  July,  1860,  under  command 
of  Major  Day.  In  July,  1861,  the  major  with  his  two  companies 
were  ordered  to  Washington.  Major  Markham  with  his  two 
companies  took  command.  In  1862  all  full  regiments  were  or- 
dered south  to  join  the  United  States  forces,  and  Capt.  Inman, 
a  Baptist  clergyman,  was  the  next  in  command,  with  companies 
from  the  Fourth  regiment,  stationed  at  Fort  Snelling.  He  soon 
left  for  the  front,  crossing  the  Red  river  on  the  ice,  and  Captain 
Vanderhock,  with  two  companies  of  the  Fifth  Minnesota  Volun- 
teers, took  command.  On  the  19th  day  of  August,  1862,  the 
Indian  massacre  began  at  the  old  town  of  Breckenridge,  where 
the  hotel  was  burned  and  a  number  lost  their  lives,  among  them 
one  by  the  name  of  Russell.  In  one  week  the  attack  was  made 
on  the  fort.  The  stage  driver,  Charlie  Snell,  was  killed  in  the 
hotel  at  Breckenridge,  and,  a  chain  being  fastened  around  his 
body,  the  Indians  dragged  it  around  the  well  with  demoniac 
hate  until  a  deep  path  was  made  by  the  repeated  operation. 
The  Saskatchewan  and  Fort  Garry  mail  bags  were  gutted  and 


the  mail  scattered  in  every  direction  over  the  prairie ;  mail  from 
the  McKenzie  river  was  also  intercepted.  The  soldiers,  with 
Judge  McCauley,  gathered  up  as  much  of  the  mail  as  possible, 
and  it  was  forwarded  to  its  destination.  A  family  at  "Old 
Crossing,"  on  the  Otter  Tail,  sixteen  miles  from  Breckenridge, 
was  attacked  and  a  man  by  the  name  of  Scott  killed ;  his  mother 
was  badly  wounded,  but  was  brought  to  the  fort  and  cared  for 
until  she  fully  recovered.  A  boy  about  twelve  years  of  age  was 
captured  by  the  Sioux  and  carried  into  captivity,  but  finally 
ransomed  through  the  agency  of  a  Catholic  priest,  and  sent  to 
St.  Louis  to  his  grandparents.  It  is  reported  that  Mr.  Stone 
and  Judge  McCauley  were  lodging  together  in  the  fort  when 
there  was  an  alarm  that  the  Indians  were  about  making  an 
attack,  and  all  were  up  and  ready  in  a  short  time.  None  were 
more  deliberate  and  thoughtful  at  this  time  than  Judge  Mc- 
Cauley, who  got  out  of  bed  and  carefully  attended  to  his  toilet, 
putting  on  his  paper  collar  with  excellent  precision  and  correct 
adjustment  of  necktie,  when  the  announcement  was  made  that 
the  alarm  was  false.  "No  doubt,"  he  said,  "I  was  impressed 
that  it  was  unnecessary  to  hurry  much.  The  judge  has  heard 
of  his  respect  for  toilet  many  times  since ;  it  is  a  good  joke,  but 
he  takes  it  all  in  good  part.  At  this  time  some  seventy  persons 
had  come  to  seek  protection  in  the  fort,  and  all  were  ordered  to 
do  military  duty.  A  train  of  seventy  teams  with  Indian  goods 
and  supplies  that  was  going  to  Eed  lake  came  to  the  fort  for 
protection,  and  all  the  men  were  organized  into  a  company.  It 
was  estimated  that  there  were  1,500  Indians  surrounding  the  fort 
waiting  for  a  good  chance  to  make  a  furious  assault.  For  weeks 
there  had  been  no  mail  from  St.  Paul  or  the  outside  world,  and 
everybody  was  anxious  to  know  the  facts  about  the  rebellion. 
A  brave  citizen  by  the  name  of  Walter  S.  Hill  offered  to  take 
the  chances  of  carrying  the  mail  to  St.  Paul,  providing  he  could 
be  furnished  with  a  fleet  horse  and  an  escort  of  soldiers  to  pro- 
tect him  until  he  was  out  on  the  broad  prairie  beyond  the  strip 
of  woods  on  the  creek  east  of  McCauleyville.  A  call  was  made 
for  volunteers  to  act  as  an  escort,  and  thirty-two  responded  to 
the  call.  At  this  time  there  were  Indians  in  ambush  just  across 
the  river  from  the  fort,  and  some  had  been  using  their  sharp- 


shooters  from  the  tops  of  trees.  An  attack  on  the  outward  bound 
escort  was  expected,  but  all  was  still  and  not  the  turn  of  a  leaf 
was  heard.  Hill  was  soon  flying  toward  St.  Paul  with  his  fleet 
charger,  loaded  with  news  from  afar  for  many  anxious  ones  who 
had  become  weary  of  looking  in  vain  for  many  long  weeks.  Hill 
was  successful  in  his  undertaking.  As  the  escort  was  returning, 
an  attack  was  made  on  the  brave  thirty-two,  and  two  of  the 
number  were  shot,  Edward  Wright  and  a  soldier  by  the  name  of 
Shulty,  and  the  remainder  scattered  and  came  straggling  into 
the  fort  as  best  they  could.  Mr.  Shulty,  when  found,  had  his 
head  cut  off,  also  his  arms  and  legs,  and  he  had  been  disem- 
boweled by  the  incarnate  demons,  his  head  being  coffined  in  the 
abdominal  cavity.  Mr.  Wright  was  also  badly  mutilated,  and  his 
father  was  exceedingly  furious  at  the  post  commander  because 
he  had  not  prevented  the  awful  tragedy  from  taking  place.  At 
one  time  a  party  was  organized  to  go  and  drive  in  stock  that 
was  some  twelve  miles  below  the  ferry  crossing.  A  half-breed 
Chippewa  gave  a  war  whoop  which  was  well  understood  by  the 
Sioux,  and  he  was  riddled  with  bullets.  A  Mr.  Lull  was  in 
advance,  and  was  shot  through  the  leg.  All  turned  back  with- 
out venturing  further.  The  firm  of  Harris,  Whitford  &  Bentley, 
who  were  engaged  in  the  transportation  of  goods  from  St.  Paul 
to  this  point  and  thence  by  flat  boat  to  Fort  Garry,  had  a  farm 
south  of  Abercrombie  on  the  Minnesota  side.  This  was  in  1862. 
They  put  in  the  government  herd  fourteen  yoke  of  oxen  and 
eight  head  of  horses  for  protection;  but  the  wily  Sioux  sur- 
rounded and  took  possession  of  them,  driving  them  to  the  Indian 
headquarters.  The  total  number  of  the  herd  was  three  hundred. 
The  first  attack  having  been  made,  Mr.  Whitford,  in  company 
with  Mr.  Harris,  was  killed  on  his  way  from  Fort  Garry  to  Fort 
Abercrombie.  He  had  $5,000  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company's 
drafts.  This  firm  was  ruined  by  loss  of  $14,000 ;  afterward,  how- 
ever, the  government  paid  the  company  $9,000.  The  fort  was 
besieged  full  seven  weeks,  when  about  two  thousand  men,  under 
Captain  Burger,  came  to  relieve  the  imprisoned  and  strengthen 
the  fort.  On  the  return  of  a  part  of  this  force  to  St.  Paul  about 
seventy-five  women  and  children  were  transported.  It  appears 
that  Edward  A.  Stokes,  the  man  who  assassinated  Jim  Fisk,  had 


been  out  on  the  plains  hunting,  and  he  came  to  the  fort  with 
others  for  protection,  and  was  with  the  escort  which  was  under 
military  protection  en  route  for  St.  Paul.  Truly  wonders  will 
never  cease!  There  were  four  companies  left  at  the  fort  to 
protect  it  after  the  escort  had  left,  which  took  place  in  October, 
1862.  Captain  Burger  was  relieved,  and  Major  Camp  took  com- 
mand; he  was  shortly  relieved  by  Captain  Chamberlin  of  Hatch's 
battalion,  who  was  finally  superseded  by  General  C.  P.  Adams, 
now  of  Hastings,  Minn.,  who  was  in  command  until  1866.  Then 
Major  Hall,  of  the  Tenth  United  States  Infantry,  took  command 
and  General  Adams  was  ordered  back  to  be  mustered  out  of  the 
service.  The  United  States  mail  was  carried  under  military 
escort  until  the  year  1866.  The  fort  was  kept  up  until  1877, 
when  it  was  abandoned,  and  in  1878  the  government  buildings 
were  sold  and  scattered  over  the  prairie,  where,  with  repairs, 
they  made  homes  for  some  of  the  early  settlers. 

The  following  named  persons  were  the  post  commanders  at 
Fort  Abercrombie  from  the  time  of  its  establishment  until  it 
was  abandoned:  General  Abercrombie,  Major  Day,  Captain 
Markham,  Captain  Inman,  Captain  Vanderhock,  Captain  Burger, 
Captain  Pettier,  Major  Camp,  Captain  Chamberlain,  General  C. 
P.  Adams,  Captain  Whitcomb,  Major  Hall,  and  General  Slidell. 
Changes  were  frequent  at  first  because  all  were  needed  South 
as  fast  as  they  could  be  spared. 

Nick  Huffman  was  in  the  fort  during  the  siege.  Before  his 
death  he  prepared  the  following  facts  for  the  Red  River  Valley 
Old  Settlers'  Association: 

''On  my  first  trip  to  the  Red  River  valley,  early  in  the  spring 
of  1860,  four  of  us  left  St.  Cloud,  Minn.,  with  the  first  stage 
coach  that  came  through  to  Georgetown.  The  first  day  we 
reached  a  hotel  kept  by  Baptiste  Rounsvel  at  Cold  Springs. 
The  roads  were  bad  and  there  were  no  bridges  across  the  streams. 
We  carried  oats  enough  for  the  round  trip.  This  obliged  us  to 
unload  quite  often.  A  fence  rail  was  carried  along  to  lift  the 
stage  out  of  the  mud.  Next  night  we  found  good  comfortable 
quarters  at  a  place  kept  by  Mr.  Stewart  at  what  was  called 
Stewart's  crossing.  We  forded  Sauk  river  two  or  three  times, 
driving  to  what  was  then  called  West  Union.  There  was  no 


settlement  then  at  what  is  now  Sauk  Center.  At  Chicos  lake, 
Madson  Gordon  kept  a  station  in  a  small  shack.  Fish  was  the 
principal  article  of  food.  The  next  day  we  reached  Alexandria. 
The  roads  were  if  possible  worse  than  they  had  been  before  we 
struck  the  timber.  A  Mr.  Gregory,  his  wife  and  two  sons,  kept 
the  station  at  Alexandria  in  a  little  log  shanty.  Van  Dyke  kept 
the  postoffice  and  there  was  a  man  living  there  named  Hugh. 
The  next  day  we  went  to  Evansville,  where  John  Carter  was 
building  a  station.  We  slept  that  night  on  the  soft  side  of  a 
board,  but  the  supper  was  all  that  we  could  wish  and  we  did 
it  justice.  We  stopped  next  night  about  eight  miles  south  of 
Fergus  Falls,  where  Mr.  Wright  and  four  sons  lived.  Mr. 
Wright  had  a  dam  for  a  saw  mill,  built  that  winter  before,  which 
made  excellent  fishing,  and  we  had  plenty  of  sturgeon. 

"From  there  we  went  to  Breckenridge,  a  mile  or  so  from  the 
present  site.  Here  was  Mr.  Bentley,  Mark  Carpenter  and  Sam 
Carpenter  at  work  on  a  big  hotel.  It  was  three  stories  and 
basement.  I  should  think  it  was  big  enough  for  Chicago  in 
those  days.  There  was  also  a  saw  mill  to  cut  the  lumber  for 
the  hotel  and  they  had  men  in  the  woods  to  get  out  the  logs. 
Breckenridge  was  a  decidely  busy  place.  We  left  next  day  for 
Abercrombie,  but  the  fort  was  changed,  so  we  stopped  with  J. 
R.  Harris  in  a  small  shanty  where  a  man  by  the  name  of  William 
Gilpatrick  and  an  old  Irishman  was  stopping  and  selling  whiskey 
to  the  Indians,  who,  it  was  claimed,  was  afterwards  drowned  by 
the  Indians. 

"We  started  for  Georgetown  the  next  day,  but  as  it  was  too 
long  a  drive  to  make  in  one  day  we  got  supplies  from  Gilpatrick. 
About  midway  we  found  a  townsite.  There  was  a  shanty,  but 
no  roof  on  it.  It  was  called  Burlington.  (It  was  about  the 
mouth  of  the  Sheyenne  and  Ed  Griffin,  now  at  Fargo,  was  inter- 
ested in  it. — Ed.)  That  was  the  first  night  I  ever  slept  out  of 
doors  without  a  blanket.  We  were  a  little  short  on  supper  and 
breakfast,  but  reached  Georgetown  next  day  all  right.  Here 
there  were  ten  or  fifteen  men,  Dutch,  Swedes,  English,  French, 
Scotch  and  Indians,  employed  by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company. 
They  had  plenty  of  supplies  and  little  to  do  but  to  eat.  We  had 
roast  pork  and  other  good  things.  After  about  a  week  they  all 


went  away  but  me  and  three  others.  We  remained  another  week, 
when  a  new  boss  came  up  from  Fort  Garry.  By  that  time  I  was 
good  and  tired  of  Hudson  Bay  Company  employment  and  left 
on  foot  for  St.  Cloud,  but  only  got  to  where  Moorhead  now  is. 
Lewiston  kept  the  stage  station  there.  It  was  then  called 

"I  worked  about  a  month  here  and  then  went  south  to  what 
was  called  Campbell  station.  Stations  had  been  built  along  the 
road  and  teams  by  the  hundred  were  hauling  freight  for  Fort 
Garry  and  Georgetown.  The  old  steamer  Ans  Northrup  was  then 
making  regular  trips  from  Georgetown  to  Fort  Garry.  There 
was  life  and  good  pay  everywhere.  John  Campbell  and  Bill 
Kerr  was  batching  at  Campbell  station.  I  got  work  and  good 
pay  haying.  Captain  Munn  sent  for  me  to  work  on  the  steam- 
boat, which  they  then  called  the  Pioneer.  There  was  no  pleasure 
in  this,  as  the  water  was  low  and  the  men  had  to  haul  on  the 
lines  all  day  and  chop  wood  all  night  by  lantern,  and  we  had  a 
hard  time  to  get  the  boat  to  Georgetown. 

"There  was  an  old  steamboat  lying  in  the  Minnesota  river 
six  miles  below  Big  Stone  lake,  which  was  intended  to  come 
over  into  the  Red  river  in  1857.  There  was  a  big  flood  in  the 
Minnesota  river  and  Captain  Davis  thought  he  could  run  the 
old  Freighter,  for  that  was  the  name  of  the  boat,  into  the  Red 
river,  but  the  waters  went  down  and  the  boat  was  left  stranded. 
The  boat  was  sold  at  sheriff's  sale  and  was  bought  by  Burbank 
of  the  stage  company.  There  was  a  Welshman  left  in  charge  of 
the  boat  and  here  he  stayed  nearly  four  years  away  from  wife 
and  children  with  nothing  to  eat,  only  what  he  could  hunt  or 

"In  the  fall  of  1860  we  took  a  lot  of  teams,  wagons  and  tools, 
under  orders  from  Burbank,  and  took  the  boat  to  pieces  and 
brought  it  to  Georgetown.  We  found  the  boat  and  the  little 
Welshman  all  right.  His  hair  had  over  three  years'  growth 
and  his  whiskers  were  long.  You  may  be  sure  his  clothes  were 
not  of  the  latest  fashion  or  in  first-class  condition.  Coffee  sacks, 
window  curtains,  etc.,  had  been  used  to  keep  him  covered.  We 
divided  up  our  clothes  with  him,  but  they  were  not  good  fits, 
as  he  was  so  small. 


"A  second  trip  was  necessary  for  the  machinery.  There  were 
two  big  boilers,  but  we  brought  them  safely  to  Georgetown, 
where  the  boat  was  rebuilt.  We  did  not  reach  Georgetown  till 
after  Christmas  with  the  last  load  and  the  weather  was  very  cold. 
The  water  was  bad  and  the  men  suffered  a  great  deal.  There 
were  then  several  hundred  head  of  oxen  at  Georgetown  used  in 
freighting  and  we  took  a  new  outfit  and  went  to  Alexandria  and 
hauled  freight  to  Georgetown,  to  be  sent  on  down  the  river  the 
next  summer  to  Garry.  The  roads  were  bad,  there  was  a  heavy 
crust  on  the  snow  and  many  of  the  men  were  snow  blind.  Many 
of  the  cattle  died  on  the  road.  We  got  back,  however,  just 
before  the  spring  break  up  in  1861. 

"That  spring  was  very  high  water,  the  whole  valley  was 
flooded,  and  there  was  hardly  any  land  in  sight.  There  were  no 
crops  that  year,  but  plenty  of  hay.  We  all  went  on  the  boat  in 
the  spring,  with  Captain  Brand,  Pilot  John  K.  Swan,  and  the 
usual  crowd  of  'rousters.'  We  run  by  day  and  chopped  wood 
by  night,  as  the  Indians  did  not  allow  any  wood  choppers  to 
stay  on  the  river,  and  so  the  boat  had  to  get  its  own  wood.  The 
Indians  owned  the  whole  country  then.  It  was  steamboating 
under  difficulties,  as  the  Indians  were  inclined  to  be  hostile  and 
took  everything  from  the  settlers.  The  whole  crew  soon  gave 
out  and  had  to  quit.  We  built  a  saw  mill,  and  in  1861  boat 
building  became  a  leading  industry  at  Georgetown.  That  fall  I 
went  back  to  my  old  friends  Campbell  and  Kerr  and  helped  them 
in  haying,  and  then  went  to  St.  Cloud.  I  staged  all  the  next 
summer  from  Campbell's  station,  until  the  Indian  outbreak  of 
September,  1862. 

"We  were  twelve  miles  north  of  Abercrombie  at  the  stage 
station  when  we  heard  that  the  Indians  were  getting  on  the  war 
path,  but  old  frontiersmen  are  not  apt  to  believe  Indian  rumors, 
especially  if  they  come  from  immigrants.  However,  Campbell 
and  myself  were  in  the  habit  of  sleeping  on  the  prairie  some 
distance  from  the  house,  but  Kerr  used  to  sleep  upstairs  in  the 
house  we  had  built  that  summer.  He  would  go  up  stairs  and 
pull  the  stairs  up  after  him  and  we  thought  all  safe.  In  daytime 
we  would  go  about  our  work.  One  night  a  courier  came  from 
the  fort  and  warned  us  that  the  Indians  were  killing  everybody 


in  the  country,  so  we  picked  up  our  household  goods  and  our 
cattle  and  got  everything  ready  to  go  to  the  fort  that  night, 
but  we  only  got  about  half  way  when  night  came  on  and  we  had 
to  stop.  We  got  but  little  sleep  and  went  on  early  to  the  fort, 
where  there  were  men  working  for  J.  K.  Harris.  I  went  to  see 
my  old  friend  Russell,  who  was  at  the  crossing  the  year  before, 
but  he  had  rented  a  big  hotel  at  Breckenridge.  Scott  was  run- 
ning the  old  crossing  place.  Scott  was  killed  by  the  Indians. 
The  next  day  I  started  for  Breckenridge.  No  one  had  seen  any 
Indians  yet.  When  we  got  to  Breckenridge  two  blood-thirsty 
fellows  were  in  the  house.  They  were  the  first  I  had  seen  for  a 
long  time.  I  told  the  people  that  the  Indians  were  killing  all 
of  the  whites  and  they  had  better  go  with  us  to  the  fort,  but 
they  laughed  at  me  and  said  I  was  foolish.  The  Indians  made 
them  believe  they  were  to  have  a  big  dance  and  were  coming 
for  that  purpose.  Russell  had  three  men  working  for  him.  One 
of  them  had  a  wife  and  two  children.  The  woman  was  cooking 
and  the  men  haying,  much  hay  being  required,  as  hundreds  of 
teams  were  engaged  in  freighting  for  the  government  and  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company. 

"I  proposed  to  kill  the  two  Indians  in  the  house  and  to  take 
the  woman  and  children  to  the  fort.  By  this  time  we  could  see 
the  Indians  across  the  river,  coming  toward  the  house.  We  got 
the  woman  and  children  to  come  with  us,  but  neither  Russell 
nor  the  men  would  go.  The  woman  and  her  husband,  the  chil- 
dren and  their  father  parted  as  they  would  if  only  to  be  sep- 
arated for  a  few  hours.  I  have  been  sorry  a  hundred  times  that 
I  did  not  kill  the  two  Indians  as  I  proposed  to  do.  I  think  it 
might  have  saved  the  life  of  Russell  and  his  three  men. 

1  'We  got  to  the  fort  and  reported  what  we  had  seen  and 
a  party  was  organized  to  go  to  Breckenridge.  Ten  of  us 
started  out  on  horseback  under  the  guidance  of  a  half-breed 
because  we  hoped  we  might  yet  save  our  friends.  It  was 
late  when  we  got  half  a  mile  from  Breckenridge.  In  cross- 
ing a  cooley  our  horses  began  to  snort  and  the  breed  got  off 
to  see  what  was  the  matter.  He  said  they  had  killed  an  ox  and 
from  appearances  we  were  about  to  fall  into  a  trap  and  advised 
us  to  go  back. 



''We  returned  for  another  start  in  the  morning,  as  it  was 
then  very  late.  They  then  took  a  government  mule  team  and 
some  spades  and  shovels  to  fortify  in  case  of  need.  I  was  on 
guard  and  so  could  not  go  with  them.  They  found  Russell  and 
his  companions  had  been  butchered  by  the  Indians.  Rounseval, 
the  half-breed,  told  me  they  had  dragged  their  bodies  around, 
up  and  down  the  stairs,  and  about  the  premises  by  means  of  a 
chain  from  the  well,  which  they  hitched  to  their  feet,  until  there 
was  little  left  of  them.  The  hotel,  partially  completed,  was  never 
finished.  I  have  never  been  in  Breckenridge  since. 

"While  the  boys  were  engaged  in  burying  the  remains  they 
thought  they  could  see  an  Indian  in  the  saw  mill,  so  Rounseval 
went  to  see  if  that  was  the  case.  The  mill  was  half  a  mile  away. 
He  found  an  old  lady  by  the  name  of  Scott,  who  had  been  living 
with  her  son.  Her  son  was  killed  and  her  grandson  taken  pris- 
oner. She  had  a  bullet  wound  in  her  breast  and  had  crawled 
on  her  hands  and  knees  sixteen  miles  to  the  mill.  She  also  told 
the  boys  where  they  would  find  the  body  of  Joe  Snell,  a  stage 
driver,  three  miles  out  from  Breckenridge.  They  buried  the 
body  of  Snell  and  took  the  old  lady  to  the  fort.  On  the  way  in 
the  Indians  attacked  them  and  killed  the  teamster,  named  Ben- 
nett, and  came  very  near  taking  Captain  Mull's  wagon  contain- 
ing the  old  lady.  But  Rounseval  made  a  charge  and  brought 
back  the  team,  the  old  lady  and  the  body  of  Bennett.  They 
buried  Scott  the  next  day. 

"We  had  seen  no  Indians  around  the  fort,  but  were  fortify- 
ing and  preparing  for  the  attack  which  we  all  felt  must  come. 
About  fifty  citizens  were  organized  as  a  company  under  Captain 
D.  T.  Smith,  quartermaster,  I  Company  of  the  Fifth  Infantry, 
and  Captain  John  Vanderhorck's  company,  "D,"  I  think,  con- 
stituted the  garrison.  The  fort  was  hard  to  fortify.  There  was 
a  stockade  along  the  river.  The  headquarters  was  on  the  prairie. 
Also  the  quarters  for  one  company.  We  fortified  the  company 
quarters,  using  the  barrels  of  pork  and  corn  beef  and  flour  in 
part  for  the  purpose,  with  cordwood  and  earth.  The  women  and 
children  and  the  sick  and  the  picket  guards  also  had  special  pro- 
vision made  for  them.  The  wagons  were  strung  in  line  and  the 
little  four-pounders  were  made  ready  for  action.  Headquarters 


were  abandoned  at  night  and  most  of  the  officers  roomed  where 
the  sick  woman  was. 

''We  had  not  seen  any  Indians  yet  about  the  fort.  We  had 
a  longing  for  our  old  haunts.  Campbell,  Kerr  and  I  took  a  mule 
team  one  Sunday  to  go  to  their  ranch.  Hiram  Stone  furnished 
the  team.  The  boys  left  a  lot  of  hay  and  I  had  left  something 
under  the  hay  that  I  wanted,  especially  as  I  had  been  working  all 
day  and  standing  guard  all  night.  Some  good  brandy,  therefore, 
seemed  desirable,  even  if  there  was  some  risk  in  getting  it.  We 
got  the  brandy  and  started  for  the  fort.  When  we  got  within 
about  three  miles  of  the  fort  we  found  the  Indians  had  driven 
away  all  the  loose  stock  belonging  to  the  fort,  including  mules, 
horses,  beef  cattle  and  the  stock  of  the  settlers.  This  included 
a  big  drove  of  beef  cattle  on  the  way  to  Grand  Forks,  where  the 
governor  and  Major  Collins  were  to  exchange  them  with  the 
Red  Lake  Indians  for  the  Red  River  valley,  including  the  country 
as  far  west  as  Devils  Lake,  east  to  Thief  River,  north  to  Pembina 
and  south  to  about  where  Halstead  now  is. 

"Seeing  the  Indians  from  an  opening  in  the  timber  and 
thinking  they  had  captured  the  fort  we  felt  pretty  blue,  but 
meeting  some  of  the  boys  at  Whiskey  creek  we  learned  that  they 
had  simply  raided  the  stock.  They  came  near  the  fort.  Those 
in  the  fort  remained  to  protect  the  women  and  children  rather 
than  save  the  stock,  thinking  that  a  trap  might  be  set  for  them. 
They  let  the  Indians  have  the  beef  and  we  got  along  very  well 
with  salt  pork. 

"The  captain  doubled  the  guard.  This  put  nearly  every 
man  on  duty  and  increased  the  difficulties  of  our  situation.  We 
made  a  high  stockade  of  cordwood  and  barrels  of  pork  and  beef, 
which  was  to  be  the  last  resort  in  case  of  our  failure  to  repel  the 
attack,  but  as  good  luck  would  have  it  we  held  the  fort  during 
the  siege,  which  lasted  about  six  weeks. 

"The  first  attack  was  in  a  day  or  two  after  they  drove  the 
stock  away.  I  will  never  forget  the  occasion.  They  came  upon 
us  before  the  break  of  day.  When  they  gave  the  first  volley  on 
our  pickets  it  was  yet  dark.  None  were  hurt.  They  made  an 
attack  on  the  barns  located  south  of  the  fort.  The  hay  was  near 
the  barns,  two  of  which  were  built  of  poles  and  hay.  The  others 


were  dug-outs.  There  were  a  good  many  horses  in  the  dug-outs. 
All  of  the  best  ones  were  here,  as  the  Indians  drove  off  all  that 
got  on  the  prairie.  The  Indians  made  for  the  barns  and  fired 
the  hay  and  the  straw  stables.  It  was  our  first  battle.  We  were 
poorly  armed  and  no  discipline.  The  orders  were  to  fall  in  line 
on  the  parade  ground  when  attacked,  and  await  orders.  So  there 
was  where  we  went,  but  what  orders  could  be  given  in  the  ex- 
citement of  that  moment?  The  bullets  were  flying  everywhere, 
the  Indians  were  whooping  and  yelling  and  the  men  did  the 
most  natural  thing  in  the  world.  Every  man  made  a  break  for 
himself,  some  running  to  the  barns  and  others  to  the  old  saw- 
mill, which  stood  north  of  the  fort  close  to  the  river ;  and  so  we 
scattered  in  all  directions,  but  anyway  our  boys  were  not  slow 
in  getting  back  to  the  stables.  It  was  the  horses  the  Indians 
were  after,  but  they  did  not  get  many.  They  got  into  the  stables 
and  we  were  after  them.  When  I  got  there  Edward  Wright  was 
having  a  tussle  with  one  of  them.  Wright  run  his  bayonet 
through  Mr.  Lo  's  leg  and  had  him  pinned  to  the  floor.  I  finished 
him  by  putting  a  bullet  through  his  heart.  That  is  the  only 
Indian  I  could  say  for  sure  that  I  killed,  but  I  have  shot  at  a 
good  many." 

Here  the  story  as  written  by  Huffman's  own  hand  ends.  The 
siege  lasted  six  weeks.  There  were  many  exciting  attacks  and 
many  soirees  during  those  weeks  of  anxiety. 

Winship  Hotel— Budge 's  Tavern. 

When  Pembina  was  little,  before  Grand  Forks,  Fargo  and 
Moorhead  were  born,  George  B.  Winship  strayed  in  from  the 
south  via  Abercrombie,  and  Billy  Budge  from  Scotland  via 
Hudson's  bay,  and  meeting  at  Pembina  in  1871,  where  George 
was  engaged  as  clerk  in  the  sutler's  store,  they  concluded  to 
form  a  partnership  and  enter  into  business.  They  selected  a 
point  on  the  stage  line  between  Grand  Forks  and  Pembina  known 
as  Turtle  river,  where  they  erected  a  log  cabin  and  put  in  a 
list  stock  of  those  things  essential  to  life  for  man  and  beast 
and  opened  up  a  hotel.  The  old-timers  all  credit  them  with  hav- 
ing kept  an  excellent  stopping  place,  one  of  the  best  on  the  line, 
and  both  were  popular  and  have  since  prospered  in  this  world's 


goods.  Winship  conducts  the  leading  daily  and  owns  the  best 
business  block  in  the  state.  He  has  served  his  city  in  various 
capacities  and  represented  his  county  in  the  state  senate.  Budge, 
too,  has  been  in  public  life.  He  was  a  member  of  the  constitu- 
tional convention  and  owns  an  elegant  home.  Budge  is  inter- 
ested in  banking  and  milling  and  everything  else  that  tends  to 
build  up  the  state.  Both  have  interesting  families  who,  with  all 
others,  will  doubtless  enjoy  the  following  amusing  account  of 
their  early  exploits  condensed  from  a  sketch  by  Clarence  Web- 
ster, in  the  Chicago  Inter-Ocean  in  1886. 

After  erecting  their  cabin,  which  was  the  only  human  habi- 
tation in  1871  between  Grand  Forks  and  Pembina,  unable  to 
agree  on  the  name  for  their  place,  as  the  story  runs,  they  agreed 
to  label  it  " Winship 's  Hotel,"  so  as  to  meet  the  view  of  those 
coming  from  the  south,  and  that  "Budge's  Tavern"  should  be 
the  sign  displayed  for  the  observation  of  those  coming  from  the 
north.  They  disagreed  in  many  things,  but  united  in  one,  "We 
are  not  here  for  our  helth"  was  to  be  conspicuously  printed  on 
a  card  to  be  hung  on  the  wall  over  the  fireplace.  "God  Bless 
Our  Home,"  and  others  of  that  nature  were  not  fashionable 
then.  The  early  settlers  were  practical  sort  of  fellows,  who  be- 
lieved in  informing  people  just  where  they  were  at  and  what 
was  expected  of  them. 

Budge  was  an  expert  in  turning  the  flapjacks,  while  Winship 
was  equally  good  as  a  valet  de  chambre  at  both  house  and  barn, 
Budge  assisting,  however,  between  meals.  Both  were  excellent 
collectors  and  usually  insisted  that  there  must  be  an  understand- 
ing as  to  the  pay  before  any  of  the  supplies  had  been  consumed. 
It  is  said  that  they  each  warned  the  travelers  not  to  pay  the 
other,  resulting  in  occasional  loss  on  the  grounds  that  it  was 
unsafe  to  pay  either.  They  had  a  monopoly  and  like  all  monopo- 
lists were  independent  and  when  there  were  any  objections  to 
paying  $2  for  flapjacks  a  la  Budge  and  stable  accommodations 
a  la  Winship  the  fortunate  objector  was  invited  to  read  the  card 
over  the  fireplace  and  move  on.  Sometimes  Budge  suggested 
that  the  man  who  objected  to  paying  a  dollar  for  a  white  man's 
meal  could  fill  up  on  marsh  hay  at  half  price. 

It   sometimes   happened  that   objections   were   made   to   the 


economical  spelling  of  the  word  health  in  the  sign  upon  the  wall. 
If  the  kick  was  made  to  Budge  he  added  a  half  to  the  bill  for 
extras.  If  it  was  commented  on  before  Winship,  with  great 
presence  of  mind  he  always  remarked  that  the  proofreader  must 
have  been  drunk  as  usual  when  they  went  to  press  with  it. 

Neither  proposed  to  allow  the  other  to  get  ahead  of  him. 
They  made  a  nightly  division  of  the  cash  and  had  a  definite 
understanding  as  to  the  division  of  labor.  Each  in  turn  was  to 
build  the  fires,  and  in  order  that  there  might  be  no  mistakes 
they  arranged  a  calendar  and  placed  at  the  foot  of  the  bed. 
Commencing  with  B.  W.  B.,  alternating  with  W.  B.  W.,  there 
were  thirty  sets  of  initials,  representing  each  day  in  the  month. 
When  Winship  had  built  the  fire  he  rubbed  out  the  last  initial 
and  Budge  did  the  same  when  it  came  his  turn.  The  crossed 
letter  always  settled  the  question  as  to  who  was  to  get  up  next 
time  and  indicated  the  day  of  the  month. 

One  morning  Budge  got  up  and  built  the  fire,  cancelling  the 
B.  It  was  a  roasting  fire,  made  especially  for  a  temperature  of 
30  below.  The  frail  chimney,  built  of  sticks  and  mud,  sur- 
mounted by  a  barrel,  caught  fire.  Soon  the  fire  spread  until 
Winship 's  end  of  the  building  was  burning  at  a  lively  rate.  Win- 
ship  poked  his  elbow  in  Budge's  side,  he  having  fallen  asleep, 
who,  thinking  that  a  mule  had  kicked  him,  yelled,  ''Whoa." 
Another  nudge  partially  awakened  him,  when  Winship  said, 
"Billy,  she  is  afire  again."  Budge  protested  that  he  had  spoiled 
the  slickest  dream  that  he  had  ever  had  and  that  he  would  have 
had  it  all  fixed  in  a  minute  more  if  he  had  been  left  alone,  besides 
he  didn't  see  why  he  should  be  disturbed.  He  wanted  to  sleep. 
''The  fire  is  spreading,"  said  Winship.  "Better  get  up  and 
put  it  out  while  you  can  do  it  easy.  It  is  your  turn  to  get  up." 

"It  ain't  my  turn  to  get  up,"  said  Budge.  "The  B.  is  crossed 

"It  is  your  fire,"  said  Winship,  "you  built  it,  you  had  better 
put  it  out.  It's  getting  too  hot." 

Budge  insisted  that  the  fire  was  Winship 's  by  right  of  dis- 
covery and  he  must  take  care  of  it. 

Higher  leaped  the  flames,  closer  and  closer  it  came  to  the 
Scotchman,  who  was  insisting  upon  his  rights  to  sleep  undis- 


turbed  after  building  the  fire.  His  own  part  of  the  shanty  was 
ablaze.  Coals  were  dropping  down  on  the  robes  under  which 
they  had  been  sleeping.  Winship  drew  the  robe  over  his  head. 

Finally  Budge  proposed  that  they  both  get  up.  ''That  is 
reasonable,"  replied  Winship,  "why  didn't  you  think  of  that 

They  both  got  out.  Some  of  the  bacon  and  other  things  were 

By  this  time  Grand  Forks  had  begun  to  grow.  Both  went 
to  the  Forks  and  entering  on  separate  lines  succeeded  in  business. 

Winship  sometimes  undertakes  to  tell  the  story  and  Budge 
tries  to  correct  the  proof,  but  giving  up  in  despair,  simply  writes 
on  the  margin,  "There  are  other  liars  in  the  valley  besides 
yourself. ' ' 

The  Guests  of  God. 

"Why  should  we  wear  black  for  the  guests  of  God?" — 

From  the  dust  of  the  weary  highway, 
From  the  smart  of  sorrow's  rod, 
Into  the  royal  presence 
They  are  bidden  as  guests  of  God. 
The  veil  from  their  eyes  is  taken, 
Sweet  mysteries  they  are  shown, 
Their  doubts  and  fears  are  over, 
For  they  know  as  they  are  known. 

For  them  there  should  be  rejoicing 
And  festival  array, 
As  for  the  bride  in  her  beauty 
Whom  love  hath  taken  away — 
Sweet  hour  of  peaceful  waiting, 
Till  the  path  that  we  have  trod 
Shall  end  at  the  Father's  gateway, 
And  we  are  the  guests  of  God. 

— Mary  F.  Butts,  in  Youth's  Companion. 

James  Anderson  DeLaney,  who  died  at  his  home  in  Grafton 
April  2,  1902,  at  the  age  of  75  years,  was  born  March  17,  1827, 


in  the  north  of  Ireland,  that  refuge  of  Huguenots  when  so  cru- 
elly driven  from  France.  His  father  was  a  descendant  of  these 
exiles.  His  mother, .  Mary  Anderson,  was  of  Scottish  descent. 
He  was  brought  to  America  while  a  young  child,  growing  up  on 
the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  He  early  went  to  Philadelphia, 
where  he  was  apprenticed  to  learn  coach  building.  Returning, 
he  embarked  in  a  successful  mechanical  business  in  Peterboro, 
Ontario,  where,  at  the  age  of  23,  he  married  Miss  Anne  Wilson. 
His  prosperity  was  interrupted  by  an  unfortunate  fire.  Undis- 
mayed, he  began  again  in  Smith's  Falls,  where,  by  help  of  older 
sons,  he  soon  acquired  a  fortune.  Another  disastrous  conflagra- 
tion swept  away  his  gains  and  he  then  determined  to  seek  a 
new  venture  in  the  West.  Thus  in  '78  he  became  a  member  of 
the  pioneer  band  in  the  "land  of  the  Dakotas."  He  aided  ma- 
terially in  founding  Grafton,  selling  the  townsite  as  surveyed. 

At  the  mature  age  of  fifty-four  he  applied  himself  to  reading 
law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the  United  States  court  at 
Washington,  D.  C. 

Having  lost  his  companion  some  years  since,  he  married  a 
lady  near  his  own  age  of  New  England  birth,  who  happily  cared 
for  and  cheered  the  last  declining  years  of  his  life,  in  which 
he  has  suffered  much  but  very  patiently.  She,  with  his  four 
adult  sons,  survives  him.  Mr.  DeLaney  expressed  himself  as 
fortified  and  supported  by  the  Christian's  hope. 

Funeral  services  were  held  at  his  home  in  Grafton  April  4th. 
His  remains  were  sent  to  Grand  Forks  for  burial  in  the  family 
plat,  where  a  monument  already  stands.  Revs.  Twichell,  Mc- 
Donald and  Newcomb  officiated.  The  pall  bearers  were  Messrs. 
James  McDonald,  J.  L.  Cashel,  Peter  Cooper,  H.  H.  Mott,  Provost 
and  J.  A.  Douglas. 

Biographies  of  Old  Settlers  Deceased— Continued. 

Charles  Turner  Cavalier  (by  Hon.  George  B.  Winship).  Yes- 
terday morning  there  was  profound  sorrow  in  Grand  Forks  when 
the  news  was  received  of  the  death  of  Charles  T.  Cavalier,  of 
Pembina,  a  man  known  to  every  old  settler  in  the  Red  River 
valley.  Charles  Turney  Cavalier  died  at  his  home  in  Pembina 
at  midnight  on  Sunday,  July  27,  aged  eighty-four  years,  four 


months  and  twenty-two  days,  and  thus  passed  to  the  great  beyond 
the  earliest  white  resident  of  North  Dakota,  and  also  one  of  the 
earliest  and  oldest  of  the  settlers  of  Minnesota. 

Though  naturally  suffering  to  some  extent  from  the  infirmi- 
ties of  advancing  age,  yet  his  mind  was  bright  and  he  was  phys- 
ically active  to  the  very  last.  His  last  illness  was  only  twelve 
hours,  and  a  few  minutes  before  his  death  he  was  upon  his  feet. 
He  ate  his  usual  breakfast  on  Sunday  morning,  and  on  Saturday 
was  walking  about  town,  though  not  feeling  very  well. 

He  had  no  desire  to  live  longer.  He  felt  and  often  expressed 
himself  that  he  had  lived  his  life  and  could  be  of  no  further 
use  in  the  world,  though  he  was  willing  to  wait  until  he  was 
called.  He  died  as  he  would  have  wished,  without  that  long  con- 
finement on  a  bed  of  suffering,  which  would  have  been  so  irksome 
to  one  of  his  active  outdoor  habits. 

A  complete  history  of  Mr.  Cavalier's  life  would  be  a  history 
not  only  of  North  Dakota,  but  would  include  that  of  the  whole 
of  this  now  great  Northwest;  for  when  he  started  westward, 
Illinois  was  the  frontier  state  and  Chicago  had  a  population  of 
only  5,000. 

The  following  short  sketch  is  intended  mostly  as  a  matter 
of  dates,  and  the  reader  will  be  able  to  realize  from  these  how 
large  a  part  this  modest,  kindly  old  pioneer  has  taken  in  laying 
the  foundations  of  these  great  states  of  Minnesota  and  the 
Dakotas : 

Mr.  Cavalier  was  born  in  Springfield,  Ohio,  March  6,  1818, 
and  was  the  son  of  Charles  and  Rachel  (Trease)  Cavalier,  natives 
of  Maine  and  Pennsylvania.  He  attended  public  schools  until 
he  was  seventeen,  and  then  removed  to  Mount  Carmel,  111.,  and 
learned  the  saddler's  trade.  He  came  west,  down  the  Ohio,  via 
St.  Louis,  then  a  city  of  18,000,  by  steamboat,  and  thence  up 
the  Mississippi  to  St.  Paul,  landing  there  in  May,  1841.  The 
succeeding  year  he  went  through  the  Minnesota  wilderness  to 
Fond  du  Lac,  near  the  present  city  of  Duluth.  St.  Paul  at  that 
time  was  a  village  with  a  church  and  a  few  French  people.  At 
Minneapolis  a  government  sawmill  was  operated  by  soldiers  from 
Fort  Snelling.  Mr.  Cavalier  opened  the  first  harness  shop  in 


St.  Paul.  A  few  years  later  he  sold  out  the  harness  shop  and,  in 
company  with  Dr.  Dewey,  established  the  first  drug  store. 

November  6,  1849,  Governor  Ramsey  appointed  Mr.  Cavalier 
territorial  librarian,  which  position  he  held  until  October,  1850, 
when  he  was  appointed  by  President  Millard  Fillmore  as  col- 
lector of  customs  for  the  district  of  Minnesota  and  inspector 
of  revenue  for  the  post  of  Pembina.  In  pursuance  of  this  ap- 
pointment he  came  to  Pembina,  and  crossed  the  Red  river  on 
August  16,  1851,  so  that  at  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  been 
here  nearly  fifty-one  years,  and  over  sixty-one  years  since  he 
landed  at  St.  Paul. 

While  the  duties  of  collecting  revenue  at  that  early  period 
were  not  in  themselves  very  exacting,  yet  Mr.  Cavalier's  position 
was  really  far  more  than  a  simple  collector  of  revenues.  He  was, 
in  fact,  a  sort  of  general  government  agent  among  a  large  popu- 
lation of  semi-nomadic  half-breeds  and  wandering  Indian  tribes. 
The  feuds  of  the  rival  fur  companies  and  private  traders,  the 
Sioux  massacre,  the  subsequent  events,  the  first  Riel  rebellion, 
the  political  organization  and  the  opening  up  of  this  valley  to 
settlement  and  commerce,  were  all  incidents  of  Mr.  Cavalier's 
leading  position  as  a  government  official  and  early  settler. 

Mr.  Cavalier  occupied  the  position  of  collector  four  years, 
and  then  turned  his  attention  to  trade.  He  had  a  store  for  a 
time  at  Walhalla,  and  also  at  Fort  Garry,  returning  to  Pembina 
in  1864,  where  he  has  since  resided.  In  that  year  the  first  post- 
office  was  started  and  Mr.  Cavalier  was  appointed  postmaster, 
which  office  he  held  until  1885,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
E.  K.  Cavalier,  who  is  the  present  postmaster. 

In  addition  to  his  official  duties,  Mr.  Cavalier  was  also  asso- 
ciated with  Commodore  Kittson  and  W.  H.  Forbes  at  one  time, 
and  with  Messrs.  Kittson,  Culver  Farmington  and  Sargent  in 
the  fur  trade  for  many  years.  These  years  were  doubtless  the 
most  exciting  ones  in  a  life  replete  with  adventurous  incident. 
It  was  during  this  time  that  he  made  regular  trips  to  St.  Paul 
with  trains  of  from  80  to  100  pelts.  These  trips  were  long  and 
wearisome  and  often  dangerous  from  bands  of  roving  Indians  and 
standing  stampeding  herds  of  buffalo. 

Mr.  Cavalier  in  1863  returned  to  Pembina,  he  having,  in  the 


discharge  of  his  business  cares,  resided  both  at  St.  Joseph,  about 
thirty  miles  to  the  westward,  at  the  foot  of  the  Pembina  moun- 
tains, and  at  Winnipeg.  The  original  plat  of  the  city  of  Pem- 
bina was  laid  out  by  Mr.  Cavalier,  and  this  was  added  to  in  the 
shape  of  an  extensive  addition  in  1878,  when  railroad  connec- 
tions with  the  centers  of  trade  showed  the  need  of  enlarging  the 
limits  of  the  city. 

In  his  earlier  days  Mr.  Cavalier  was  a  regular  correspondent 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institute  of  Washington,  D.  C.  His  sketches 
of  pioneer  days  and  graphic  descriptions  of  scenes  and  charac- 
ters are  the  delight  of  his  friends  and  neighbors  and  the  old  set- 
tlers generally.  These  sketches,  which  have  been  mostly  for 
local  papers,  are  in  the  plain,  blunt,  straightforward  and  to-the- 
point  style  of  the  western  plainsman,  but  have  a  deep  under- 
current of  humor  wholly  his  own. 

Mr.  Cavalier  married  Miss  Isabella  Murray,  of  Kildonan, 
Man.,  March  13,  1857.  Five  children  were  born  to  them,  of 
whom  there  survive  Edmund  K.,  Albert  D.  and  Lulah  Cavalier, 
who  with  their  mother  reside  at  Pembina. 

The  funeral  was  held  on  Thursday,  services  being  held  at 
Grace  church,  Pembina,  at  two  p.  m.  Many  old  friends  of  Mr. 
Cavileer  from  Grand  Forks  and  other  points  in  the  state  attended. 

Alexander  Griggs,  "the  Father  of  Grand  Forks,"  was  widely 
known  in  the  Northwest.  He  was  born  in  Marietta,  Ohio,  in 
October,  1838,  and  was  the  son  of  William  and  Esther  Griggs. 
He  removed  with  his  parents  when  a  boy  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and 
later  his  family  removed  to  Grand  Forks,  where  his  parents  died. 

In  December,  1865,  Mr.  Griggs  was  married  to  Miss  Ettie  I. 
Strong,  a  native  of  Brooklyn. 

Mr.  Griggs  was  reared  and  educated  in  St.  Paul,  but  at  an 
early  age  began  running  on  the  boats  of  the  Mississippi  river, 
and  at  the  age  of  twenty  had  been  promoted  to  the  command 
of  a  boat.  He  continued  there  until  1870,  and  then  in  company 
with  others  went  to  the  Eed  river  with  a  view  of  establishing  a 
line  of  steamers  to  ply  between  Winnipeg  and  Fargo.  In  1871 
the  company  was  organized  and  was  known  as  the  Hill,  Griggs 
&  Co.  Transportation  &  Navigation  Company.  This  year  he  went 


to  where  Grand  Forks  is  now  located  and  entered  a  claim  to 
the  land  on  which  is  now  located  the  old  town  of  Grand  Forks, 
he  giving  it  that  name  on  account  of  the  junction  at  this  place 
of  the  Red  Lake  river  with  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  He  con- 
tinued to  run  a  line  of  steamers  on  the  latter  river  between  Grand 
Forks  and  Winnipeg  until  1890. 

He  was  always  active  in  the  upbuilding  of  his  adopted  home 
city  and  state ;  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Second  National 
Bank,  and  was  the  active  president  for  many  years.  He  was 
also  president  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  East  Grand  Forks 
for  a  number  of  years,  establishing  the  gas  works  of  the  city  in 
company  with  William  Budge,  and  was  a  large  owner  of  shares 
in  the  Grand  Forks  roller  mills.  He  served  the  state  as  railroad 
commissioner  for  some  years,  was  the  third  postmaster  of  Grand 
Forks,  and  was  mayor  of  the  city.  His  active,  energetic  life  and 
public  spirit  endeared  him  to  the  people  of  the  city  and  state,  and 
his  counsel  was  always  eagerly  sought.  In  December,  1892,  on 
account  of  failing  health,  he  left  here  and  located  on  the  upper 
Columbia  river,  where  he  established  a  line  of  boats  for  passen- 
ger and  freight  transportation  service.  The  change  of  location, 
however,  failed  in  its  object,  the  regaining  of  health,  and  he  suc- 
cumbed on  the  25th  of  January,  1903. 

John  R.  Jardine  was  born  at  Haysvale,  Ontario,  January  22, 
1846,  his  parents  having  emigrated  to  this  place  from  Dumfres- 
shire,  Scotland,  during  the  previous  year.  In  1850  the  family 
removed  to  Bruce  county,  Ontario,  where  Mr.  Jardine  remained 
until  he  came  to  Fargo,  N.  D.,  March  12,  1880.  At  Fargo,  that 
same  year,  his  only  child,  John  A.  Jardine,  was  born.  When 
first  coming  to  Fargo,  Mr.  Jardine  took  a  homestead,  but  devoted 
his  time  to  bridge  construction,  being  one  of  the  best  known 
bridge-builders  in  the  state.  He  died  at  Fargo,  July  11,  1906, 
after  a  brief  illness,  suffering  from  an  abscess,  which  was  not 
thought  to  be  serious  until  the  morning  of  his  demise.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  Presbyterian  church  and  a  prominent  Mason. 
He  was  one  of  the  sturdy  Scotch  pioneers,  whose  word  was 
always  as  good  as  his  bond. 

Dennis  W.  Driscoll  was  born  at  Guelph,  Ontario,  on  Septem- 
ber 22,  1849,  and  was  the  son  of  John  J.  and  Julia  Driscoll, 


natives  of  Canada.  His  father  died  during  Mr.  Driscoll's  infancy, 
and  in  1856  he  removed  with  his  mother  to  Detroit,  Mich.,  where 
he  received  his  early  education.  In  1870  he  removed  to  Boone 
county,  Iowa,  where  he  worked  at  the  potter's  trade  until  1875, 
when  he  removed  to  La  Crosse,  Wis.,  and  engaged  in  the  farm 
implement  business.  He  came  to  North  Dakota  in  1879  and 
located  at  Pembina,  where  he  became  a  member  of  the  firm  of 
Johnson,  Holmes  &  Co.,  agricultural  implement  dealers. 

When  Walsh  county  was  formed  in  1881,  he  went  to  Acton 
in  the  interests  of  the  company,  and  later  in  the  same  year  he 
took  up  his  residence  in  Grafton,  where  he  lived  up  to  the  time  of 
his  death,  with  the  exception  of  about  six  and  one  half  years, 
which  he  spent  on  his  stock  farm  in  Acton — from  1890  to  1897. 

In  1882  Mr.  Driscoll  was  married  to  Miss  Clara  K.  Hogg,  a 
native  of  Nova  Scotia. 

Mr.  Driscoll's  sterling  qualities  were  recognized  by  his  party 
in  1898,  and  he  was  nominated  and  elected  to  the  office  of  state 
treasurer,  which  office  he  held  for  one  term,  filling  it  with  hon- 
esty and  fearlessness  to  a  degree  that  has  seldom  been  equaled, 
and  never  excelled  in  this  state.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he 
was  treasurer  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association,  which  association 
he  helped  to  organize.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian 
church  and  belonged  to  the  Masonic  fraternity,  being  a  charter 
member  of  Grafton  Chapter,  E.  A.  M.  During  late  years  he  had 
followed  the  real  estate  and  insurance  business,  and  was  always 
foremost  in  the  projects  tending  to  the  betterment  of  our  city 
and  the  surrounding  country. 

Mr.  Driscoll  passed  away  from  this  earth  to  that  land  from 
whose  bourne  no  traveler  returns,  on  Saturday  evening,  February 
4,  1904,  at  his  home  in  Grafton,  and  none  of  all  those  who  had 
known  him  during  life  has  a  word  save  of  respect  for  him  living 
— and  regret  for  him  dead.  His  life  as  a  public  servant,  as  a 
private  citizen,  and  as  the  head  of  a  household,  was  above  re- 
proach— each  act  of  his  life  being  the  page  of  an  open  book,  the 
story  of  a  life  well  lived. 

Mr.  Driscoll  had  been  in  failing  health  for  six  months  previous 
to  his  decease,  the  immediate  cause  of  his  death  being  heart 


William  Campbell  was  a  native  of  the  isle  of  Islay,  Scotland, 
being  born  there  in  1826,  and  resided  with  his  parents  there  until 
he  was  about  fourteen  years  of  age,  when,  with  a  brother,  he 
came  to  Canada,  working  in  and  near  Collingwood,  and  when  of 
sufficient  age  he  took  up  land  near  that  place,  which  he  farmed 
a  number  of  years. 

In  1879  he  removed  with  his  family  to  Pembina  county,  he 
and  his  sons  taking  up  land  north  of  Bathgate.  He  was  a  hard- 
working man,  careful  in  business  transactions,  and  successful 
beyond  the  average,  gaining  a  competency  and  retiring  from 
active  farming  operations  in  1897.  He  was  taken  with  heart 
failure  in  February,  1906,  and  on  the  30th  day  of  March,  1906, 
died  at  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Charles  H.  Lee,  at  Wal- 
halla,  N.  D.  Mr.  Campbell  was  greatly  respected  by  all  who 
knew  him,  and  he  was  sought  by  many  for  his  advice.  In  sick- 
ness he  was  always  first  at  his  neighbor's  and  last  to  leave.  Hun- 
dreds of  friends  in  Pembina  county  regretted  his  death  and  have 
reason  to  remember  the  kindly,  sympathetic  old  friend. 

William  J.  Anderson  was  born  in  Elgin  county,  Canada,  May 
20,  1854.  He  was  reared  and  educated  in  Le  Sueur  county, 
Minn.,  going  there  with  his  mother,  and  in  1862,  on  account  of 
the  Indian  troubles  in  Minnesota,  they  moved  to  St.  Paul,  where 
Mr.  Anderson  attended  the  public  schools.  He  followed  various 
callings  until  1875,  when  he  came  to  Grand  Forks  as  the  agent 
for  the  Red  River  Transportation  Company,  and  the  following 
year  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace.  He  continued  with  the 
transportation  company  until  1879,  and  the  following  year  was 
appointed  receiver  of  the  Grand  Forks  land  office.  He  opened 
the  office  April  20,  1880,  and  worked  in  that  capacity  eight  years. 
He  then  began  the  study  of  law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
in  1887. 

He  was  elected  county  auditor  in  1888  and  served  four  years. 
He  was  an  efficient  and  popular  public  official.  He  was  elected 
mayor  of  Grand  Forks  in  1890  and  served  two  years,  and  he 
always  proved  himself  worthy  of  the  confidence  placed  in  him 
by  the  people.  He  was  one  of  the  judges  at  the  World's  Fair 
Columbian  Exposition  in  1893,  in  the  agricultural  department. 


He  was  married  in  1879  to  Josephine  Russell,  a  native  of  Wis- 
consin. Two  children  were  born,  Raymond  G.  and  Virginia  E. 

About  a  year  before  his  death  Mr.  Anderson  was  appointed 
deputy  auditor  in  the  postoffice  department  and  took  up  his  resi- 
dence at  Washington,  D.  C.,  where  he  died  suddenly  on  Feb- 
ruary 9,  1906.  He  left  a  widow  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Fred  I. 
Lyons,  of  Bowbells,  N.  D.,  and  a  son  in  Washington. 

Mr.  Anderson  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  being 
a  Knight  Templar,  and  he  also  held  membership  in  the  Knights 
of  Pythias,  of  which  order  he  was  deputy  grand  chancellor  at 
one  time. 

Politically  he  was  a  Republican,  and  had  been  identified  with 
the  movements  of  that  party  during  his  entire  career.  He  had 
been  president  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Association  of  the  Red  River 
Valley,  and  was  one  of  the  best  known  citizens  of  the  state. 

William  Ackerman,  auditor  of  Grand  Forks  county,  died 
shortly  after  seven  o'clock  last  night,  at  the  family  home  on 
Chestnut  street. 

While  this  announcement  had  been  anticipated  for  several 
days,  it  was  no  less  a  shock  to  the  citizens  last  night  when  it 
was  announced  that  the  dean  of  the  court  house  official  family 
had  been  summoned  to  his  long  home. 

Familiarly  known  as  "Bismarck,"  from  the  fact  that  he  was 
a  native  of  Germany,  Mr.  Ackerman  probably  enjoyed  as  wide 
an  acquaintance  as  any  man  in  the  county,  and  the  announce- 
ment of  his  death  will  carry  sorrow  into  every  home  in  which  he 
was  known  either  personally  or  because  of  his  long  service  to  the 
county,  covering  a  period  of  eighteen  years  or  more. 

"Bismarck"  Ackerman  was  one  of  God's  own  noblemen,  a 
splendid  type  of  man  who  came  to  a  new  country  at  an  early  age, 
fought  for  his  adopted  country  through  the  Civil  War  and  at 
its  close  re-enlisted  for  a  service  that  covered  almost  a  score  of 
years,  carrying  him  through  the  period  of  Indian  outbreaks  that 
characterized  the  early  settlement  of  North  Dakota,  he  being 
located  with  his  regiment  at  Fort  Abercrombie  for  several  years. 

Had  Mr.  Ackerman  lived  until  August  20  of  this  year  he 
would  have  been  sixty  years  of  age.  He  was  born  in  the  Grand 



Duchy  of  Hesse,  Germany,  and  came  to  this  country  when  quite 

He  enlisted  in  the  volunteer  service  in  New  York  state,  in 
Company  C,  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-first  N.  Y.  Volunteers,  on 
November  20,  1863,  and  was  honorably  discharged  July  26,  1865. 
Immediately  at  the  close  of  the  war  of  the  rebellion  he  re-enlisted 
in  the  regular  army,  being  stationed  at  Fort  Abercrombie  for 
several  years,  and  later  going  to  Texas,  where  he  served  as  a 
clerk  at  department  headquarters.  His  final  discharge  from 
the  army  was  on  March  3,  1885,  and  shortly  after  that  time  he 
came  to  North  Dakota  and  located  at  Larimore,  where  he  lived 
several  years.  From  there  he  went  to  Lakota,  where  he  assisted 
in  opening  the  books  of  Nelson  county.  He  came  to  Grand  Forks 
in  1887,  and  his  first  employment  was  in  the  office  of  the  register 
of  deeds.  From  there  he  went  to  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  the 
district  court,  and  from  there  to  the  office  of  the  county  auditor, 
being  appointed  deputy  auditor  by  W.  J.  Anderson.  In  that 
capacity  he  served  until  1900,  when  he  was  elected  county 
auditor,  being  re-elected  at  the  general  election  last  year. 

Mr.  Ackerman  was  married  while  stationed  at  Fort  Aber- 
crombie to  Miss  Martha  Anderson,  who  survives  him,  together 
with  seven  children — Mrs.  George  Nelson,  William  C.,  E.  C., 
Andrew,  Ella,  Nellie  and  Earl,  the  youngest  thirteen  years  of  age. 

Every  member  of  the  family  was  at  home  when  the  final 
summons  came,  making  the  first  break  in  the  household  circle. 

Mr.  Ackerman  was  a  prominent  member  of  Willis  A.  Gorman 
Post,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  in  which  he  served  in  various 
official  capacities.  He  was  department  commander  for  North 
Dakota  and  was  adjutant  for  several  terms.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  Masonic  lodge,  as  well  as  the  Elks  and  Eagles, 
being  the  first  president  of  the  latter  lodge. 

His  discharge  from  the  Civil  War  service  shows  that  he  was 
engaged  in  the  battles  of  Fish  Bend,  Sabin  Crossroads,  Pleasant 
Hill,  in  Louisiana;  Harper's  Ferry,  Md. ;  Berry ville,  Misher's  Hill 
and  Cedar  Creek,  in  Virginia. 

Mr.  Ackerman  was  a  man  of  the  strictest  integrity,  a  capable 
official,  and  a  man  who  had  aided  during  his  residence  in  the  city 


in  every  act  that  helped  to  build  up  the  municipality,  serving  for 
nearly  a  dozen  years  as  a  member  of  the  city  council. 

In  his  death  the  city  loses  a  good  citizen,  the  county  a  capable 
and  painstaking  official,  and  his  family  a  kind  and  indulgent 
husband  and  father — a  man  who  was  wrapped  up  in  a  family 
that  now  has  the  entire  sympathy  of  the  citizens  of  county  and 
city  in  their  bereavement. — "Grand  Forks  Herald"  of  May 
17,  1905. 

John  D.  Wallace  settled  at  Drayton,  N.  D.,  in  1881,  and  until 
two  years  ago  had  been  one  of  the  most  prominent  and  best 
known  citizens  of  Pembina  county.  He  was  a  man  strong  in  body 
and  strong  in  mind.  In  public  affairs  of  his  own  town,  county 
and  state,  he  took  a  leading  part.  In  addition  to  numerous 
municipal  and  school  district  offices,  he  served  two  terms  in  the 
legislature  and  two  terms  as  county  judge  of  Pembina  county. 
He  was  a  strong  supporter  of  the  prohibition  law  and  all  laws 
that  tended  to  uplift  the  public  socially  and  morally.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  Methodist  church,  and  here,  as  elsewhere,  he 
was  an  earnest  worker  and  leader.  In  every  respect  he  was  a 
manly  man.  As  a  friend,  he  was  one  who  was  always  steadfast 
and  to  be  depended  on.  He  was  open  and  above  board  in  all 
his  dealings,  and  every  one  might  always  know  where  he  stood, 
politically  or  upon  any  other  question.  In  his  home  town  no 
man  was  more  alive  to  local  interests  or  tried  harder  to  build  up 
the  city.  He  was  always  a  good  citizen,  and  entered  heartily 
into  all  good  enterprises. 

In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  here  he  was  stricken  with  a  kid- 
ney trouble.  The  news  from  California  reports  that  he  suffered  a 
minor  operation  from  which  he  had  about  recovered  when  kidney 
trouble  set  in  and  he  died  in  a  short  time. 

In  California  he  has  two  brothers,  Albert  and  Frank,  and  a 
sister,  Mrs.  R.  H.  Young,  wife  of  a  former  editor  of  "The  Pem- 
bina Pioneer  Express."  His  immediate  family  consisted  of  four 
boys  by  his  first  wife,  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Dr.  Healy,  of  Grand 
Forks,  and  a  boy  and  girl  by  his  second  wife,  who  survives  him. 
Two  of  Mr.  Wallace's  sons  were  soldiers  in  the  First  Minnesota 
in  the  Philippines,  and  a  brother  was  killed  in  the  war  with  Spain. 
As  a  husband  and  father  Mr.  Wallace  was  particularly  kind  and 


loving,  and  spared  no  pains  to  give  his  children  the  best  possible 
education.  Mr.  Wallace  was  an  honored  member  of  the  Masonic 
order  and  was  also  a  Workman.  He  was  made  a  Mason  in  the 
Pembina  lodge,  and  afterward  assisted  in  forming  the  Drayton 
lodge  as  a  charter  member. 

A  good  man  has  gone. 

James  H.  Bosard  was  born  at  Osceola,  Pa.,  April  21,  1845,  and 
died  November  1,  1907.  He  was  a  son  of  Colonel  Andrew  K.  and 
Hittie  Bosard,  the  former  a  native  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  latter 
of  New  Hampshire.  His  father  was  a  farmer  and  cabinetmaker 
and  was  assistant  provost  marshal  in  Pennsylvania  during  the 
rebellion.  He  was  a  colonel  of  the  Pennsylvania  state  militia 
for  some  time.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania  and 
served  in  the  war  of  1812  as  a  non-commissioned  officer.  James 
H.  Bosard  was  educated  in  the  public  schools  of  his  native  state 
and  graduated  from  the  Pennsylvania  state  normal  school.  After 
graduation  he  taught  school  for  two  years  in  New  York,  and  in 
1868  began  reading  law  in  the  office  of  M.  F.  Elliott  at  Wells- 
borough,  Pa.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1870  and  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  law  for  seven  years  as  a  partner  of  Elliott. 

Mr.  Bosard  came  to  Grand  Forks  in  May,  1879,  and  had  been 
a  resident  of  the  city  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion here  ever  since.  He  had  long  been  recognized  as  one  of  the 
foremost  members  of  the  state  bar,  and  had  been  identified  with 
much  important  litigation.  He  was  also  in  constant  demand 
as  counsel  in  outside  litigation.  He  was  state's  attorney  of 
Grand  Forks  county  in  1891-2  and  city  attorney  of  Grand  Forks 
in  1894-5. 

Mr.  Bosard  was  for  several  years  the  honored  president  of 
the  North  Dakota  Bar  Association,  and  was  for  some  time  also 
vice-president  for  North  Dakota  of  the  National  Bar  Association. 

Mr.  Bosard  was  a  lifelong  Eepublican  and  took  an  active 
part  in  the  councils  of  his  party.  He  was  a  forceful  and  enter- 
taining platform  speaker  and  his  services  were  always  in  demand 
during  a  political  campaign.  He  was  the  Republican  nominee 
for  district  judge  in  1904,  but  was  defeated  by  Judge  Fisk. 

Mr.  Bosard  engaged  in  farming,  besides  looking  after  his 
extensive  law  practice,  and  made  a  specialty  of  dairying.  He 


was  widely  known  as  one  of  the  leading  breeders  of  Jerseys  in 
the  Northwest.  He  was  one  of  the  directors  in  the  State  Fair 
Association  and  of  the  Grand  Forks  County  Agricultural  Asso- 
ciation. He  devoted  largely  of  his  time  and  ability  towards  pro- 
moting the  success  of  these  enterprises. 

Mr.  Bosard  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  having 
passed  the  Knight  Templar  degree,  and  was  also  a  prominent 
member  of  the  Foresters. 

Mr.  Bosard  was  married  in  1872  to  Miss  Rebecca  Faulkner, 
of  Erie,  Pa.  He  leaves  a  widow  and  six  children — Florence  H., 
now  Mrs.  J.  Sidle  Lawrence,  of  Los  Angeles,  Cal. ;  Robert  H., 
now  practicing  law  at  Minot ;  Helen  D.,  now  Mrs.  diaries  Farns- 
worth,  wife  of  Major  Farnsworth,  U.  S.  A.,  stationed  at  Fort 
Wayne;  Gerald  F. ;  Sarah  K.,  now  Mrs.  Ray  Jackson,  of  Grand 
Forks,  and  Daphne. 

Rev.  John  Scott.  Few  names  are  better  known  to  the  pioneer 
residents  of  the  Red  River  valley  than  that  of  the  Rev.  John 
Scott,  who  was  for  years  engaged  in  ministering  to  the  spiritual 
wants  of  the  early  residents  of  the  northern  part  of  the  present 
state  of  North  Dakota.  Mr.  Scott  was  born  in  Northumberland, 
England,  December  22,  1824.  He  came  with  his  parents  to 
Canada,  the  family  locating  in  the  county  of  Durham.  After 
attending  school  there  he  engaged  in  teaching  and  provided 
himself  with  means  to  enter  college.  He  graduated  from  Hamil- 
ton College,  and  then  offered  himself  to  the  Presbyterian  Board 
of  Missions  for  missionary  service.  He  was  appointed  to  take 
charge  of  the  field  at  Bath,  Canada.  He  was  married  just  before 
commencing  his  work,  and  through  more  than  a  half  century  of 
missionary  effort  his  wife  labored  with  him  in  missionary  work. 
He  remained  at  Bath  for  six  years  and  was  then  sent  to  Napance, 
where  he  was  stationed  eighteen  years.  Emerson,  Manitoba,  was 
his  next  appointment,  and  he  was  in  charge  there  for  ten  years, 
preaching  also  part  of  the  time  at  Pembina.  He  became  a  resi- 
dent of  North  Dakota  in  1884,  preaching  at  Walhalla,  and  also 
occasionally  at  the  military  post  at  Pembina.  From  1892  to  1894 
he  was  pastor  at  Pembina,  when  he  was  compelled  by  failing 
health  to  relinquish  his  pastorate.  He  devoted  much  time  and 
zeal  to  the  establishment  of  a  sanitarium  and  hospital,  but  did 


not  live  to  see  his  project  realized.    A  hospital  was  established 
soon  after  his  death  at  Hannah. 

In  1876  and  for  several  years  thereafter  Mr.  Scott  was  chap- 
lain of  the  military  post  at  Pembina.  He  also  frequently 
preached  in  the  village,  before  there  was  any  church  there  except 
the  Catholic  mission.  William  Moorhead  was  at  that  time  the 
proprietor  of  a  saloon  known  as  the  "Bobber's  Roost."  Mr. 
Moorhead  threw  open  his  saloon  for  his  services,  and  Mr.  Scott 
has  remarked  that  he  never  had  more  attentive  or  courteous 
audiences  to  hear  his  preaching  than  gathered  at  Robbers'  Roost. 
Mr.  Scott  frequently  made  preaching  trips  as  far  west  as  the 
Turtle  mountains,  making  the  journey  of  two  or  three  weeks, 
usually  with  pony  and  buckboard.  His  stopping  places  en  route 
usually  included  John  Otten's,  at  Smugglers'  Point,  about  twenty 
miles  west  of  Pembina ;  William  Hyde 's,  at  Hyde  Park ;  0.  Neil- 
son 's,  at  Bay  Center;  and  at  St.  Joe  he  was  entertained  by  J.  P. 
Mager,  H.  A.  Mayo,  Mrs.  Emmerling  and  others.  Later,  while 
stationed  at  Walhalla,  Mr.  Scott  was  instrumental  in  securing 
ground  for  a  cemetery  and  monuments  to  mark  the  resting-places 
of  the  martyred  missionaries  of  1852. 

Hon.  John  E.  Haggart,  deceased,  formerly  United  States  mar- 
shal for  North  Dakota,  was  one  of  the  leading  men  of  the  state. 
He  was  born  in  St.  Lawrence  county,  New  York,  April  19,  1846, 
a  son  of  John  and  Mabel  (Northrop)  Haggart,  also  natives  of 
the  Empire  state.  The  grandfather,  Gilbert  Haggart,  was  born 
in  Glasgow,  Scotland,  and  on  his  emigration  to  the  United  States 
located  in  New  York,  where  he  followed  farming  throughout  life. 
The  father  was  also  an  agriculturist,  was  major  in  the  state 
militia,  and  was  quite  a  prominent  man  in  New  York.  He  was 
twice  married  and  had  three  sons. 

Reared  on  the  home  farm  in  much  the  usual  manner  of 
farmer  boys  of  his  day,  John  E.  Haggart  was  educated  in  the 
country  schools.  In  1863  he  entered  the  employ  of  the  govern- 
ment in  the  coast  construction  corps,  and  spent  about  a  year  and 
a  half  with  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  after  which  he  returned  to 
New  York.  In  1867  he  came  west  and  crossed  the  plains,  start- 
ing from  Leavenworth,  Kan.  The  following  winter  was  spent  in 
southern  Colorado  and  New  Mexico,  and  he  then  came  to  what  is 


now  Wyoming,  where  he  conducted  a  lumber  yard  for  the  Union 
Pacific  railroad  until  1870.  In  1871  he  landed  four  miles  below 
the  present  city  of  Fargo,  N.  D.,  and  in  August  of  that  year  took 
up  a  claim  on  the  Sheyenne  river.  He  was  one  of  the  most 
extensive  land  owners  in  the  state,  having  1,960  acres  in  all  in  the 
home  farm.  He  raised  from  35,000  to  40,000  bushels  of  wheat 
annually,  and  in  1898  harvested  37,750  bushels.  He  was  one  of 
the  thirteen  to  organize  and  put  in  operation  the  Fargo  Southern 
railroad,  of  which  he  was  a  director. 

In  1875  was  celebrated  the  marriage  of  Mr.  Haggart  and 
Miss  Betsy  J.  Hertsgaard,  and  to  them  were  born  nine  children, 
as  follows :  Gilbert  W.,  Mabel  E.,  Maggie  I.,  John  C.,  Estella  M., 
Alexander  M.,  George  E.,  William  H.  R.,  and  Daniel. 

Mr.  Haggart  was  the  first  man  to  be  made  a  Mason  in  this 
state,  being  initiated  into  the  order  in  1873,  from  which  time 
he  was  a  Koyal  Arch  Mason,  a  Knight  Templar,  a  thirty-second- 
degree  Scottish  Rite  Mason,  and  a  member  of  the  Ancient  Ac- 
cepted Order  of  the  Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine.  He  was  a 
stanch  supporter  of  the  Republican  party  and  served  on  the 
county  and  state  central  committees.  In  1874  he  was  elected 
sheriff  of  Cass  county,  and  filled  that  office  for  twelve  consecu- 
tive years  in  a  most  capable  manner.  He  was  elected  the  first 
city  marshal  of  Fargo,  and  in  1889  was  elected  to  the  state  senate, 
of  which  he  was  a  prominent  and  influential  member  until  1898, 
when  he  resigned  to  accept  the  office  of  United  States  marshal 
for  North  Dakota.  He  was  well  qualified  to  fill  that  office,  as  he 
had  previously  served  as  deputy  for  eight  years.  He  filled  a 
number  of  other  public  positions  of  honor  and  trust,  being  a  mem- 
ber of  the  state  prison  board  and  other  important  boards.  He  also 
assisted  in  locating  the  agricultural  college  at  Fargo,  and  did 
much  to  help  that  institution,  introducing  in  the  senate  all  the  bills 
in  its  behalf,  including  the  one  on  which  the  college  has  been 
erected.  Himself  a  farmer,  he  early  saw  the  benefits  of  such  an 
institution,  and  there  was  not  one  who  felt  more  closely  asso- 
ciated with  the  institution  than  he  did.  As  senator  from  the 
third  judicial  district  he  wielded  an  influence  that  secured  its 
location  at  Fargo,  and  he  bent  every  energy  to  the  upbuilding  of 
that  institution. 


September  22,  1905,  John  E.  Haggart  passed  from  this  life  to 
that  of  rest,  leaving  behind  a  multitude  of  friends.  His  death 
was  sudden  and  he  is  mourned  by  a  host  of  sorrowing  ones  left 
to  bless  his  memory. 

Major  Alanson  William  Edwards  was  born  in  Lorain  county, 
Ohio,  August  27,  1840,  and  his  father  removed  his  family  to 
Macoupin  county,  Illinois,  in  1848. 

Major  Edwards  attended  the  county  schools  and  was  a  stu- 
dent at  McKendree  College,  Lebanon,  111.,  in  1856-7.  After  leav- 
ing school  he  was  railroad  and  express  agent  and  telegraph 
operator,  and  when  the  war  broke  out  was  the  operator  at  Gilles- 
pie,  111.,  and  one  night,  while  he  sat  in  his  office,  he  heard  the 
telegraphic  instrument  click  off  that  famous  message  of  General 
Dix,  "If  any  man  attempts  to  haul  down  the  American  flag,  shoot 
him  on  the  spot."  The  event  fired  his  patriotism,  so  that  on  the 
first  call  for  troops,  April  15,  1861,  he  volunteered,  but  was 
rejected,  as  he  weighed  some  300  pounds.  He  continued  with  the 
railroad  company  until  1862,  when  he  enlisted  and.  went  into 
Camp  Palmer  at  Carlinville,  111. 

General  Charles  Ewing,  who  was  a  brother-in-law  of  General 
Sherman,  then  a  captain  in  the  regular  army,  was  the  one  to 
muster  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-second  Illinois  Infantry, 
and  young  Edwards  made  out  the  muster  rolls,  a«  he  was  an 
expert  penman.  Captain  Ewing  inquired  who  had  made  up  the 
rolls,  and,  on  being  informed,  asked  Edwards  to  read  off  the 
names  as  he  watched  the  men  move  off.  When  the  name  of  an 
absentee  was  called,  there  being  no  response,  Captain  Ewing 
would  step  up  to  Edwards'  shoulder,  put  a  check  opposite  the 
name  on  the  roll,  and  when  he  filled  out  the  muster  rolls,  would 
draw  a  red  line  through  the  names  of  all  the  men  where  a  check 
mark  appeared.  Young  Edwards  took  lunch  with  Captain  Ewing, 
who  told  him  he  could  not  muster  him  into  the  army  because  of 
his  weight,  and  so  when  it  came  to  calling  the  roll  of  Company  I, 
Edwards  skipped  his  own  name,  and  as  there  was  no  check  mark 
opposite,  he  was  duly  mustered  into  the  service  by  Captain 

Two  years  afterwards  he  was  adjutant-general  on  General 
Vandeveer's  staff,  who  commanded  the  district  of  Marietta.  He 


had  often  met  General  Sherman  and  knew  him  well,  and  General 
Sherman  and  staff,  which  included  General  Ewing,  came  to  the 
headquarters  of  General  Vandeveer,  and  Sherman  said,  "Ed- 
wards, you  know  my  brother-in-law,  Charlie,"  and  then,  turning 
to  Ewing,  said : ' '  General  Ewing,  this  is  Captain  Edwards. ' '  Gen- 
eral Ewing  looked  at  Edwards  and  said:  "No,  I  have  never  met 
the  captain  before."  An  hour  or  so  afterwards,  General  Sherman 
and  staff  came  to  dine  at  the  headquarters  table,  and  General 
Sherman  said:  "Edwards,  how  is  that  about  Charlie  mustering 
you  into  service?"  and  the  major  told  the  story,  which  was 
greatly  enjoyed  by  all,  with  the  possible  exception  of  General 

Major  Edwards  served  in  the  western  army  as  a  private,  be- 
ginning at  Columbus,  Ky.  He  was  a  clerk  in  the  office  of  the 
adjutant-general  of  the  district  of  Jackson,  and  for  General  G.  M. 
Dodge  at  Corinth,  Miss. 

In  April,  1863,  by  order  of  the  war  department,  General 
Dodge  organized  the  First  Alabama  Cavalry  from  loyal  refugees 
driven  from  their  homes  in  the  mountains  of  northern  Alabama 
by  Confederate  conscripting  officers,  and  Edwards  was  appointed 
lieutenant-adjutant  and  promoted  to  captain  of  L  troop.  He 
served  with  General  Vandeveer  as  A.  A.  A.  G.,  district  of  Rome 
and  of  Marietta,  Ga.,  and  was  on  Kenesaw  mountain  with  Gen- 
eral Sherman  when  he  signaled  General  Corse  to  "hold  the  fort," 
while  Captain  Flint,  of  Company  E,  First  Alabama  Cavalry,  was 
aide  to  General  Corse  and  wrote,  at  Corse's  dictation,  the  answer 
about  "losing  his  cheek,  but  able  to  whip  all  h — 11  yet." 

On  the  march  through  Georgia  to  the  sea,  Major  Edwards  com- 
manded Company  M  of  his  regiment  and  for  thirty-seven  days 
did  not  draw  a  ration,  but  gained  some  fifty  pounds  in  weight. 

At  Savannah  he  was  detached  from  his  company  by  order  of 
General  Sherman  and  assigned  to  duty  A.  A.  G.  Ninth  division, 
Fifteenth  corps,  and  served  with  General  Corse  until  after 
the  grand  review  at  Washington,  being  finally  mustered  out  by 
order  of  the  war  department,  July  11,  1865.  He  was  breveted 
major  by  order  of  congress,  March  18,  1865,  "for  gallant  and 
meritorious  service  in  the  field." 

Major  Edwards  was  present  at  the  preliminary  meeting  of 


the  officers  of  the  Army  of  Tennessee  to  organize  this  society 
at  Raleigh,  N.  C.,  April  25,  1865,  and  he  became  a  member  of  the 
G.  A.  E.  in  Post  No.  6  at  Bunker  Hill,  there  being  only  five  earlier 
posts  organized. 

He  returned  to  his  old  Illinois  home  after  the  war  and  resus- 
citated "The  Union  Gazette"  at  Bunker  Hill,  a  paper  he  pub- 
lished before  going  to  the  war,  which  suspended  while  he  was 
away.  In  1868  Major  Edwards  secured  an  interest  in  "The 
Carlinville  Free  Democrat,"  a  Eepublican  paper  started  by  Sena- 
tor John  M.  Palmer,  and  was  made  warden  of  the  Illinois  state 
penitentiary  by  the  governor  for  the  term  of  1871-2. 

After  the  big  fire  in  Chicago  he  went  into  business  in  that 
city  and  was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trade  from  1875  to  1878. 

He  went  to  the  Black  Hills  in  1876,  going  out  via  Fargo,  and 
returned  to  this  city  in  1878  and  started  "The  Fargo  Eepub- 
lican," being  associated  with  Dr.  J.  B.  Hall.  He  later  sold  "The 
Eepublican"  and  started  "The  Daily  Argus"  in  1879. 

Territorial  Governor  Pierce  appointed  Major  Edwards  super- 
intendent of  the  semi-decennial  census  of  Dakota  territory  in 
1885,  and  in  1886  he  was  elected  mayor  of  the  city  of  Fargo. 

He  was  largely  instrumental  in  organizing  the  original  board 
of  trade  in  the  city  of  Fargo  in  1879,  and  was  its  secretary  for 
some  time. 

He  helped  to  organize  the  Fargo  Southern  Eailway  Company, 
which  organization  constructed  122  miles  of  road  from  Fargo  to 
Ortonville,  and  was  elected  secretary  and  assistant  manager.  The 
road  was  built  in  1883-4  and  is  now  a  part  of  the  Milwaukee 

Major  Edwards  was  a  member  of  the  first  board  of  the  North 
Dakota  penitentiary  and  was  made  its  president  and  directed  the 
construction  of  the  nucleus  of  the  present  building. 

He  was  elected  a  member  of  the  state  legislature  in  1895  and 
received  credit  for  maintaining  the  prohibition  law,  though  strong 
efforts  were  made  to  secure  its  repeal. 

Major  Edwards  left  "The  Argus"  in  1891  and  started  "The 
Daily  Forum,"  November  17  of  that  year,  in  connection  with 
Mr.  Plumley,  and  in  1894  "The  Forum"  purchased  "The  Eepub- 


liean,"  the  first  paper  started  by  the  major,  and  the  two  were 

In  March,  1902,  the  major  was  made  American  consul-general 
at  Montreal,  which  position  he  resigned  July  1,  1906,  in  conse- 
quence of  poor  health,  and  returned  to  Fargo,  where  he  has  since 

The  major  married  at  Carlinville,  111.,  in  1870,  to  Elizabeth 
Kobertson,  and  they  have  six  sons  and  one  daughter,  all  living. 
The  sons  are  Harry  Goodell,  stenographer  for  the  district  court 
at  Fargo;  William  Eobertson,  advertising  manager  of  "The 
Forum";  Alanson  Charles,  living  in  New  York  city;  John  Palmer, 
assistant  manager  of  "The  Forum";  George  "Washington,  musi- 
cal instructor  in  Danville  (Ky.)  Female  Seminary;  Eichford  Eob- 
erts,  collector  in  this  city;  and  the  daughter  is  Marie  Eosenfeld 
Belknap,  who  also  resides  in  Fargo. 

Major  Edwards  had  always  taken  much  interest  in  politics 
and  was  known  as  a  hard  fighter.  He  once  said:  "I  know  no 
reason  to  be  ashamed  of  my  record  in  the  war,  or  as  a  citizen. 
No  man  can  be — for  something — without  antagonism.  I  am  in- 
clined to  a  doctrine  of  being  for  my  friends — and — the  other 

During  his  residence  of  thirty  years  in  Fargo,  no  one  has  done 
more  to  build  up  the  territory,  the  state  and  the  city  than  Major 
Edwards,  and  his  death,  which  occurred  February  14,  1908,  was 
sincerely  mourned  by  an  extremely  wide  circle  of  warm  admirers. 
His  work,  however,  lives  after  him. 


H.  L.  Bolley, 

Professor  Botany  and  Zoology  of  North  Dakota  Agricultural  Col- 
lege and  Botanist  and  Plant  Pathologist  of  North 
Dakota  Experiment  Station. 

Previous  to  the  admission  of  North  Dakota  as  a  state  very 
little  had  been  done  in  the  line  of  botanical  investigation  aside 
from  the  Pacific  Railway  surveys,  which  included  a  geological 
and  biological  section  and  record  the  observations  and  collection 
of  a  large  number  of  plants  characteristic  of  the  Dakotas,  as  well 
as  of  the  great  plains  to  the  southward.  I  find  no  account  of 
any  botanical  collections  within  the  state  until  1889,  when  we 
have  a  short  record  made  by  A.  B.  Seymore,  now  of  Harvard,  en- 
titled "A  List  of  Fungi  Collected  in  1884  Along  the  Northern 
Pacific  Railroad."  The  list  includes  collections  made  under 
date  of  August  21  to  September  23,  and  the  points  visited  were 
the  ones  along  the  railroad  from  St.  Paul  to  Sand  Point,  Idaho. 
The  plants  listed  in  this  publication  for  North  Dakota  are  taken 
from  points  near  Fargo,  Valley  City,  Jamestown,  Bismarck  and 
Mandan,  and  include  the  following  groups:  Chytridiaceae,  Pero- 
nospereae,  Erysipheag,  Uredineae  and  Ustilagineae.  The  publica- 
tion, essentially  a  list,  names  some  of  the  most  important  of  the 
native  rusts  and  smuts  found  in  the  state  and  is  recorded  in  the 
proceedings  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  Vol.  24. 

The  next  regular  collection  of  which  we  have  definite  record 
was  undertaken  by  Prof.  Patton,  of  the  University  of  North  Da- 



kota,  and  Prof.  C.  B.  Waldron,  of  the  North  Dakota  Agricultural 
College.  During  the  summer  of  1890,  the  Agricultural  College 
established  under  the  management  of  temporary  board,  and  Mr. 
Waldron  was  hired  to  begin  preliminary  work.  As  there  were 
no  buildings  or  other  equipments,  the  summer  was  spent  in  va- 
rious parts  of  the  state,  in  company  with  Prof.  Patton,  making 
notes  upon  the  native  grasses.  The  collections  made  at  that  time 
are  now  a  part. of  the  University  Hervarium  and  formed  the 
nucleus  for  the  herbarium  of  the  North  Dakota  Agricultural  Col- 
lege and  Experiment  Station.  This  collection  listed  many  of  the 
native  grasses  of  the  state  and  was  afterwards  much  enlarged 
by  the  collections  made  by  Prof.  H.  L.  Bolley  and  assistants  in  the 
years  1890-1893.  This  study  of  native  grasses  showed  that  the 
state  was  possessed  of  a  very  extensive  generic  flora  of  valuable 
forage  plants.  In  all,  as  completed,  the  grasses  of  the  state  re- 
port for  this  collection  up  to  1893  showed  some  fifty  genera  and 
124  species.  The  collection  was  afterward  developed  to  form  an 
extensive  herbarium  collection  at  the  Agricultural  College,  con- 
sisting of  many  duplicates  collected  from  almost  all  the  various 
topographic  regions  of  the  state,  the  object  being,  as  quickly  as 
possible,  to  learn  the  character  of  the  native  grasses  before  they 
should  be  disturbed  by  cultivation  following  the  influx  of  set- 
tlers. Besides  the  herbarium  specimens  which  have  been  of  much 
value  as  exchange  specimens  in  enlarging  the  herbarium,  there 
was  also  made  a  bunch  collection  so  taken  as  to  show  the  root 
systems,  leaves  and  fruits  of  each  of  the  native  grasses.  These 
were  photographed  while  fresh  and  cured  in  a  dry  room  in  the 
absence  of  sunlight,  thus  leaving  the  specimens  their  normal 
color.  This  fine  collection  was  prepared  for  exhibit  at  the 
World's  Fair  in  Chicago,  by  Prof.  H.  L.  Bolley  and  Mr.  A.  B. 
Lee,  then  principal  of  the  Fargo  High  School.  The  fair  commis- 
sion prepared  a  beautiful  set  of  oak  cases  and  the  collection  was 
put  under  glass  and  attracted  world  wide  attention.  It  was  of 
special  use  to  the  state  at  that  time  in  convincing  the  people  of 
the  eastern  and  southern  states  of  the  grass  growing  powers  of 
our  North  Dakota  prairies. 

At  the  University  of  North  Dakota  much  attention  has  been 
given  to  the  teaching  of  botany  under  able  direction  of  Prof.  M. 


A.  Brannon,  but  this  teaching  work  has  been  so  exacting  upon 
the  working  force  that  investigation  has  necessarily  suffered. 
The  same  statement  might  apply  to  the  others  of  the  newer  edu- 
cational institutions  of  the  state.  Prof.  Brannon  has  published 
a  number  of  botanical  papers  of  considerable  interest  to  students. 
One  of  the  papers  on  the  "Distribution  of  the  Spermatophytes  of 
North  Dakota  in  Relation  to  the  Drainage  Basins  of  the  State," 
was  issued  in  the  University  Student  in  the  year  1899.  Prof. 
Brannon  also  published  through  the  department  of  agrostology 
of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  in  the  year  1897,  a  report 
upon  grasses  and  forage  plants  of  North  Dakota.  This  report 
was  afterwards  reissued  in  the  report  of  the  North  Dakota  Com- 
missioner of  Agriculture  in  1898.  A  number  of  university  pro- 
fessors have  published  many  important  papers  upon  matters  of 
investigation  in  scientific  journals,  including  "The  Annals  of 
Botany,"  "Botanical  Gazette  and  Science." 

At  the  State  Normal,  Miss  Perrine  has  made  extensive  collec- 
tions of  plants  of  the  state  and  built  up  a  herbarium  of  consider- 
able interest,  containing,  besides  a  collection  of  the  native  plants 
of  the  state,  many  plant  specimens,  collected  by  Miss  Perrine  in 
other  regions. 

A  number  of  the  best  high  schools  of  the  state,  including  those 
of  Fargo,  Grand  Forks,  Larimore,  Jamestown  and  Dickinson, 
are  fairly  well  equipped  and  are  now  giving  good  primary  train- 
ing in  botanical  science,  which  must  eventually  have  a  strong  in- 
fluence upon  the  future  of  botanical  investigation  in  this  state. 

At  the  Agricultural  College  of  North  Dakota  Prof.  H.  L. 
Bolley  has  been  in  charge  of  the  botanical  work  since  the  per- 
manent organization  of  the  college  and  experiment  station.  At 
that  time  Prof.  C.  B.  Waldron  at  his  own  request  was  made 
horticulturist  and  entomologist  of  the  college  and  station.  Just 
previous  to  the  time  of  organization  of  the  institution  the  head 
of  the  botanical  department  was  assistant  botanist  of  the  Indiana 
experiment  station  and  chanced  to  receive  from  Prof.  Seymore 
his  interesting  pamphlet  upon  fungi  collected  along  the  route  of 
the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  and  being,  at  that  time,  much  in- 
terested in  the  rusts  and  smuts  of  cereal  grains  and  grasses,  the 
little  pamphlet  regarding  the  specimens  found  in  North  Dakota, 


associated  with  that  of  the  extended  grain  fields  which  this  new 
state  was  opening  up,  largely  inclined  the  writer  to  consider  the 
tender  of  the  position  now  held  at  the  agricultural  college. 

Because  of  facilities  furnished  by  the  government  agricul- 
tural experiment  station,  it  has  been  possible  to  conduct  some 
botanical  investigations  which  have  proven  of  much  interest  to 
the  people  of  the  state  and,  in  some  cases,  the  work  has  been 
effective  in  improving  farming  methods  throughout  the  agricul- 
tural world.  There  has  been  one  other  element  which  has  greatly 
aided  in  the  development  of  these  investigations,  namely,  the  even 
quality  of  the  soil  on  the  experimental  plots  and  the  further  fact 
that  much  of  the  land  throughout  the  state  is  practically  virgin. 
The  writer  quickly  recognized  in  these  conditions  a  new  field  for 
the  study  of  plant  diseases  in  regard  to  farm  crops,  especially 
cereals.  These  are  grown  on  such  an  extensive  scale  and,  as  the 
lands  are  yet  new  it  was  comparatively  free  from  crop  disease 
characteristic  of  older  states.  For  example,  in  the  early  nineties 
potato  scab,  rot  and  blight  were  to  be  found  only  in  garden 
plots  and  where  potatoes  had  been  grown  upon  the  same  area 
for  a  number  of  consecutive  years.  It  was  easy,  therefore,  to 
plan  experiments  regarding  the  influence  of  certain  chemicals 
as  applied  to  soil  and  as  applied  to  seed  tubers,  looking  towards 
the  determination  of  the  cause  of  the  disease  and  the  means 
essential  to  prevention.  The  writer  while  at  the  Indiana  ex- 
periment station,  had  already  demonstrated  that  potato  scab  was 
of  parasitic  origin ;  and  under  the  fine  conditions  afforded  by  the 
experiment  station  plots  in  the  new  land  of  North  Dakota,  it 
was  quickly  demonstrated  that  the  disease  could  be  controlled 
by  the  use  of  proper  seed  tuber  treatment.  The  results  of  these 
experiments,  covering  a  number  of  years,  are  that  practically  all 
potato  growers  who  practice  intensive  and  extensive  cultivation 
now  treat  their  seed  tubers  either  by  the  corrosive  sublimate  or 
the  formaldehyde  methods,  originated  at  this  experiment  station. 
The  original  method  of  treatment  was  known  as  corrosive  subli- 
mate method,  in  which  one  ounce  of  this  chemical  was  used  to 
each  six  gallons  of  water  and  the  potatoes  soaked  for  an  hour  and 
one-half  before  cutting.  Later,  after  the  formaldehyde  treatment 


for  smut  was  discovered,  it  was  found  also  to  be  satisfactory  for 
this  work  with  potatoes. 

Few  lines  of  botanical  investigation  have  given  economic  re- 
turns to  the  people  equivalent  to  those  brought  about  by  the  de- 
velopment of  the  formaldehyde  treatment  of  seed  grain  for  the 
prevention  of  cereal  smuts.  It  took  continued  investigation  and 
experimentation  covering  a  period  of  practically  nine  years  be- 
fore the  people  of  the  northwest  generally  accepted  the  method 
proposed.  It  is  now  universally  used  by  the  cereal  growers 
throughout  the  world.  The  treatment  consists  essentially  in  the 
moistening  of  seed  grain  over  the  entire  surface  with  a  solution 
of  formaldehyde  made  at  the  strength  of  one  pound  to  forty-five 
gallons  of  water.  This  treatment  is  now  used  for  disinfecting 
all  sorts  of  seeds,  including  flax,  all  cereals,  garden  seeds  and 
grass  seeds.  It  not  only  has  been  found  effective  against  smuts 
but  practically  eliminates  every  other  type  of  fungus  disease 
which  attacks  by  way  of  the  seed  at  the  time  of  germination. 
The  treatment  has  largely  replaced  the  original  method  of  pre- 
venting potato  scab.  The  only  time  in  which  the  treatment  is 
not  effective  is  in  the  case  of  seeds  which  are  internally  attacked, 
as  in  the  case  of  some  of  the  flax  diseases  or  when  soil  is  already 
contaminated,  as  in  the  case  of  loose  smuts  of  wheat  and  corn 
and  potato  scab  on  land  badly  infected.  Continuous  series  of 
investigation,  however,  prove  that  if  seed  potatoes  or  seed  grain 
is  treated  every  year  that  these  diseases  finally  disappear  from 
the  land.  Extensive  experiments  were  necessary  in  order  to 
demonstrate  the  strength  of  solution  which  could  be  used  with- 
out injury  to  the  various  types  of  seeds  and  still  be  destructive 
to  the  germs  of  disease.  The  formaldehyde  treatment  owed  its 
discovery  to  the  observed  facts  that  treatments  in  previous  use 
brought  reduced  yields  and,  in  the  case  of  oat  smut,  to  the  fact 
the  spores  of  the  disease  were  found  to  be  inside  of  the  husks. 
The  effort  was  to  find  a  chemical  which  would  reach  these  with- 
out destroying  the  seed,  trying  a  number  of  volatile  oils  and 
finally  gases.  This  last  line  of  work  was  so  leading  in  its  char- 
acter that  formaldehyde,  a  gas  in  solution,  was  finally  selected 
for  trial  with  splendid  success. 

One  can  get  a  fair  conception  of  the  money  value  of  such 


experimental  work  by  going  out  into  the  field  of  oats  or  of  wheat 
and  observing  the  percentage  of  stools  which  are  attacked.  He 
will  there  find,  in  the  case  of  untreated  grain,  very  often  as  high 
as  10  to  20  per  cent  of  the  oat  crop  destroyed.  A  very  con- 
servative estimate  would  be  2  per  cent  for  the  average  year, 
previous  to  the  proper  practice  of  seed  disinfection.  The  annual 
value  of  the  oat  crop  of  the  United  States  approximates  $350,- 
000,000.  The  spring  wheat  crop  of  the  United  States  approxi- 
mates 500,000,000  bushels  per  year  and  the  winter  wheat  crop 
approximately  250,000,000  bushels.  Stinking  smut  of  wheat  has 
been  known  to  take  50  per  cent  of  the  crop  and  previous  to  the 
introduction  of  treatment,  2  per  cent  of  the  crop  would  be  a  very 
conservative  estimate  for  damages  wrought.  The  potato  crop 
of  the  United  States  reaches  annually  the  value  of  $200,000,000. 
The  damage  by  disease  known  as  scab  may  readily  be  placed  at 
from  one-tenth  to  one-twentieth  of  the  crop  where  untreated. 
In  treated  crops  the  yield  is  increased  at  least  one-tenth,  includ- 
ing the  extra  value  added  because  of  the  smooth  character  of 
the  potatoes. 

The  next  important  investigation  of  the  Department  of 
Botany  of  the  experiment  station,  in  point  of  time,  was  placed 
upon  the  disease  of  flax.  Several  types  of  fungus  were  discovered 
new  to  literature  of  diseases  and  methods  of  making  use  of  the 
formaldehyde  treatment  for  the  prevention  of  this  disease  have 
been  determined  and  are  now  in  use  by  the  farmers  of  the  north- 
west ;  indeed,  by  nearly  every  flax  growing  country  in  the  world. 
Previous  to  these  investigations,  it  was  supposed  that  soil  grew 
tired  of  the  flax  crop,  becoming  exhausted  in  its  good  elements. 
This  theory  has  been  wholly  disposed  of  and  people  are  grad- 
ually learning  that  the  flax  crop  is  no  more  destructive  to  the 
soil  than  other  grain  crops ;  in  fact,  not  quite  so  exhausting.  The 
discovery  makes  it  possible  for  the  flax  crop  to  become  a  per- 
manent one  in  any  community.  Numerous  other  lines  of  botan- 
ical investigation  at  the  experiment  station,  though  of  lesser  im- 
portance, add  much  to  the  knowledge  of  the  farmer  regarding 
crop  rotation  and  production.  The  investigations  upon  tree  feed- 
ing and  tree  medication  have  attracted  much  interest  in  the 
fruit  growing  regions  and  the  organization  of  methods  of  field 


spraying  for  the  eradication  of  mustard,  king-head  and  other 
weeds  without  injury  to  the  growing  crops,  it  is  believed  will 
prove  to  be  of  even  more  an  economic  success  in  extensive  cereal 
culture  regions  than  has  marked  the  development  of  the  formal- 
dehyde treatment.  It  has  been  recognized  that  the  treatment  is 
absolutely  reliable  for  the  eradication  of  the  common  weed 
known  as  mustard.  This  alone  means  several  millions  of  dol- 
lars to  the  farmers  of  North  Dakota  per  year,  and  practically  all 
other  weeds  which  are  wet  by  the  solution  are  largely  destroyed 
at  the  same  time.  While  Canada  thistle  cannot  be  killed  with 
one  application,  it  is  believed  that  the  farmers  have  found  in  this 
method  of  attack  a  means  which  eventually  will  rid  the  land  of 
this  pest. 

Extended  bacteriological  studies  have  been  made  of  the  soil 
of  North  Dakota  and  the  experiment  station  workers  are  now 
able  to  give  forth  quite  definite  information  regarding  proper 
means  of  handling  the  crop  as  to  crop  rotation,  soil  fertilization, 
etc.  More  time  has  been  given  to  the  study  of  the  problem  of 
rusting  of  cereal  grains  than  to  any  other  question.  So  far  it 
has  been  impossible  to  name  specific  treatments  which  are  as 
directly  effective  as  those  indicated  for  some  of  the  other  crop 
diseases.  The  knowledge  obtained,  however,  is  of  none  the  less 
value.  The  rust  of  cereal  grains,  including  flax,  have  been  worked 
out  fully  as  to  their  life  histories,  and  extensive  experiments 
have  been  conducted  with  a  view  to  a  statement  of  working  prin- 
ciples of  agriculture  which  will  be  most  effective  in  controlling 
this  destructive  parasite.  These  ha;ve  been  published  in  outline  in 
Bulletin  68  of  the  North  Dakota  Experiment  Station  and  it  is 
believed  that,  if  the  farmers  practice  the  general  principles  there 
laid  down,  the  rust  scourges  in  this  region  will  be  very  largely 
eliminated.  The  breeding  methods  advised  indicate  clearly  that 
it  will  be  possible  not  only  to  get  flax  which  is  resistant  to  wilt 
disease  and  soil  troubles,  but  to  procure  wheats  sufficiently  resist- 
ant to  rust  to  mature  crops  of  seed  unreduced  in  yield. 

It  would  be  a  matter  of  negligence  on  the  part  of  the  writer 
should  he  fail,  at  this  time,  to  call  attention  to  the  many  investi- 
gations being  conducted  along  agricultural  and  horticultural 
lines  upon  matters  of  plant  production  which  are  essentially 


botanical  in  all  features.  Botanical  investigation  is  no  longer  a 
narrow  one  embodying  only  the  ideas  of  plant  classification  and 
indefinite  philosophical  teachings,  but  embraces  all  those  fields 
of  practical  work  which  use  plant  materials  or  are  concerned 
with  the  production  of  crops  whether  horticultural  or  agricultural. 
In  the  matter  of  tree  planting  in  the  state,  the  first  experiments 
were  gradually  carried  out  under  the  "tree  claim"  act  by  settlers 
as  best  they  could  under  the  conditions.  The  writer  has  often 
heard  this  act  of  congress  highly  criticized  as  unfortunate  and 
as  having  done  little  good.  Personally,  I  am  not  of  that  opinion. 
A  great  many  mistakes  were  made  in  the  planting  and  some 
mistakes  were  made  in  selection  of  kinds  of  trees  to  be  planted 
and  doubtless  many  persons  obtained  land  under  the  act  who  did 
not  wholly  fulfill  the  requirements.  Nevertheless,  to-day  the 
state  is  dotted  throughout  the  whole  eastern  half  by  many  fine 
groves  of  trees,  in  part  breaking  the  bleak  winds  of  winter  and 
certainly  tempering  the  atmospheric  conditions  at  many  local 
points  during  the  summer  season.  Furthermore,  the  eye  does 
not  of  necessity  now  have  to  rest  upon  a  bleak  expanse  of  terri- 
tory. Over  a  larger  portion  of  the  state  these  groves  may  be 
seen  in  all  directions  and  though  they  may  not  have  quite  reached 
the  requirements  of  the  law  they  stand  as  mute  advisers  to 
those  who  would  like  to  add  to  the  wealth  and  beauty  of  the  state 
by  further  planting.  Fortunately,  the  state  and  the  general 
government  has  liberally  provided  for  present  and  future  inves- 
tigations in  tree  culture.  At  the  Agricultural  College  continuous 
experimental  plantations  are  , being  placed  and  arrangements 
have  been  made  for  teaching  and  investigation  in  forestry  at  the 
Forestry  School  located  at  Bottineau.  Prof.  Waldron  in  the 
eighteen  years  in  which  he  has  been  at  work  at  the  Agricultural 
College,  has,  I  believe,  demonstrated  that  North  Dakotans  need 
not  have  any  feeling  of  fear  in  regard  to  the  future  of  tree  plant- 
ing and  tree  culture  in  the  state.  The  college  ground  from  this 
time  forward  will  present  an  object  lesson  of  the  trees  and  shrubs 
which  may  be  utilized  and  of  the  methods  most  satisfactory  in 
developing  them.  In  the  lines  of  pure  horticulture  and  vegetable 
growing,  progress  has  been  made  and  many  kinds  and  varieties 
have  been  tested  and  developed  and  proved  to  be  hardy  and  satis- 


factory  producers  of  fruits  and  vegetables.  Along  agricultural 
lines  numerous  varieties  of  the  different  sorts  of  cereals  have 
been  tested  and  those  which  have  given  promise  have  been  put 
under  special  breeding  tests  by  the  department  of  agriculture  at 
the  Agricultural  College,  and  many  new  varieties  more  especially 
suited  to  the  cropping  conditions  of  the  state  have  been  bred 
and  increased  for  distribution  to  the  farmers  of  the  state. 

Botanical  investigations  in  the  state  it  is  believed  may  be 
said  to  have  been  not  only  productive  in  its  results  but  progres- 
sive, and  to  be  indicative  of  rapid  and  highly  remunerative 
growth  in  the  near  future. 


Prof.  J.  H.  Sheppard. 

The  Red  River  Valley  has  not  improperly  been  called  the  Nile 
of  the  New  World.  Nature  set  apart  this  valley  in  the  making 
for  a  fertile  country.  The  great  glacier  powdered  and  ground 
the  rock  substance  into  so  fine  a  dust  that  it  retains  the  moisture 
and  preserves  the  plant  growth  in  the  splendid  way  that  a  clay 
soil  and  sub-soil  always  help  the  growth  of  small  grain  crops. 

The  slopes  and  descents  were  such  as  to  bank  up  the  water 
in  the  great  Lake  Agassiz,  so  that  the  finest  of  the  assorted 
particles  that  were  being  carried  by  the  running  water  were  de- 
posited for  the  soil  of  the  Red  River  Valley. 

The  geologist  tells  us  that  for  a  long  time  the  water  over- 
flowed south  and  drained  off  through  the  Mississippi  River  and 
its  tributaries  as  it  passed  over  the  edge  of  a  great  basin  where 
all  current  had  ceased  in  it  and  the  finest  of  the  sediment  had 
settled  in  the  still  water.  Later  when  the  ice  receded  by  thawing, 
the  water  drained  north  through  Lake  Winnipeg  and  Hudson 
Bay.  The  glacial  water  from  the  higher  lands  thus  deposited 
its  finer  sediment  before  overflowing  the  northern  dam  formed 
by  the  retreating  ice  sheet,  thus  causing  another  layer  of  deposit 
of  the  finest  sediment  which  the  slowest  moving  water  carries  in 

Conjecture  alone  tells  us  what  next  occurred,  but  it  was 
probably  not  long  before  grass  sprang  up  and  clothed  the  soil 
with  a  verdure  that  annually  turned  back  great  tussocks  of  stems 
and  leaves  to  decay  and  become  incorporated  with  this  fine 
.grained  soil.  This  process  evidently  continued  for  ages,  season 
after  season,  as  few  soils  contain  so  much  humus  and  decayed 



vegetable  matter  as  that  of  the  Ked  River  Valley.  The  highly 
plumed  vetch  and  other  leguminous  wild  plants,  which  still  dot 
our  unbroken  prairies,  must  have  entrapped  air  nitrogen  season 
after  season  through  the  centuries,  which  have  come  and  gone 
until  the  land  was  almost  surcharged  with  that  material  so 
precious  to  the  crop  producer. 

The  buffalo  had  his  part  in  adding  fertility  by  consuming 
the  grass  and  other  forage  and  by  adding  to  the  soil  the  last 
balance  of  the  sum  total  of  the  fertility  which  he  had  taken  from 
it  when  he  left  the  world  and  his  great  brown  carcass  lay  silent 
and  spectre-like  on  the  prairie.  This  mass  of  buffalo  flesh  and 
bones  gradually  returned  to  the  soil  the  fertility  which  had  been 
gathered;  first  by  the  flesh  and  skin  decomposing,  then  the  hair, 
the  bones,  and  finally  the  hoofs  and  horns.  Thus  gradually  year 
by  year  the  deceased  buffalo  gave  back  the  plant  food  ingredients 
which  he  had  gathered  up,  in  the  economic  and  gradual  manner 
followed  by  the  modern  benefactor,  who  is  considered  most  wise 
in  his  offerings  to  charity.  The  badger,  jack-rabbit,  gopher,  and 
multitudinous  smaller  beasts  have  added  their  pittance  of  fertility 
as  time  has  passed  in  similar  manner  to  that  described  for  the 
buffalo,  and  while  the  quantity  added  by  each  individual  may 
seem  infinitesimal,  in  the  aggregate  it  represents  a  large  factor 
in  the  production  of  the  highly  fertile  soil  of  the  Eed  River 
Valley.  Our  older  settlers  recall  the  time,  when  a  man  could 
sell  his  labor  for  good  wages  by  gathering  buffalo  bones  to  be 
shipped  east  for  commercial  fertilizers,  which  must  mean  that  the 
entire  fertility  of  which  these  are  the  last  remnants  must  have 
been  no  mean  factor  in  the  source  of  supply. 

The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  established  trading  posts  at  an 
early  date  and  while  this  very  indirectly  concerns  the  agriculture 
of  the  valley,  it  aided  by  proving  to  all  men  that  it  was  possible 
to  live  with  a  considerable  degree  of  comfort  in  this  section 
of  the  country. 

A  Scotch  gentleman — Lord  Selkirk — purchased  Red  River 
Valley  land  in  1811  and  the  following  season  sent  a  colony  of 
Scotch  refugees  to  settle  upon  it  and  engage  in  agricultural  pur- 
suits. They  experienced  great  trouble  with  the  Indians  and  with 
the  fur  trading  companies,  as  both  looked  upon  them  as  intruders. 


In  1817  Lord  Selkirk  came  to  the  colony  bringing  them  agri- 
cultural implements  and  seed  grain.  The  season  was  far  advanced 
when  he  arrived  and  while  the  settlers  broke  land  and  seeded 
grain,  the  season  was  too  far  advanced  and  the  conditions  too 
severe  to  secure  a  crop,  and  the  records  state  that  they  moved 
to  the  vicinity  of  Pembina — where  the  hunting  was  good — to 
spend  the  winter.  The  following  spring  they  returned  to  Fort 
Garry,  the  point  which  they  had  left  the  previous  season,  pre- 
pared the  land  and  sowed  a  crop.  The  grain  sprang  up  in  a 
manner  which  gladdened  the  hearts  of  this  much  vexed  pioneer 
band,  but  a  swarm  of  locusts  settled  down  upon  it  and  destroyed 
every  vestige  of  it  in  a  single  night.  These  locusts  laid  their  eggs 
in  the  soil  of  Selkirk's  land  and  as  a  result  were  more  numerous 
in  the  year  1818  than  they  had  been  the  previous  season.  The 
growing  of  crops  was  consequently  impossible.  Again  this  colony 
moved  to  Pembina  to  live  upon  the  products  of  the  chase. 

That  season  Lord  Selkirk  purchased  two  hundred  fifty 
bushels  of  seed  grain  from  the  United  States  and  brought  it  in 
for  the  use  of  the  colonists.  This  wheat  cost  Lord  Selkirk  a 
thousand  pounds  sterling.  He  secured  the  seed  wheat  together 
with  some  seed  oats  and  barley  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  Wisconsin 
and  transported  it  from  that  point  to  Fort  Garry,  by  boat.  The 
boat  was  brought  up  the  Mississippi  and  Minnesota  Rivers  to 
Lake  Traverse  and  from  there  into  Big  Stone  Lake,  where  through 
good  fortune  the  water  was  unusually  high,  so  that  the  passage 
was  safely  made.  From  that  point  the  shipment  passed  down  the 
Red  River  to  old  Fort  Garry,  where  it  was  received  by  the 
Scotch  settlers  with  great  rejoicing.  This  shipment  of  wheat 
is  said  to  be  the  original  source  of  supply  of  the  Scotch  fife  wheat 
of  the  Northwest.  The  seed  was  sown  by  the  colonists  in 
1820  and  brought  a  good  crop — the  first  grain  crop  produced 
in  the  Red  River  Valley. 

This  stubborn  Scotch  colony  remained  and  prospered  in  the 
region  of  Fort  Garry  and  their  descendants  are  said  to  occupy 
that  portion  of  the  Red  River  Valley  to  this  day. 

The  plows  of  that  time  were  crude,  being  of  the  old  British 
type  and  constructed  entirely  of  iron.  They  were  also  of  unusual 
length,  measuring  from  ten  to  twelve  feet  from  the  tip  of  the 



iron  handles  to  the  extremity  of  the  beam.  The  share  is  said 
to  have  been  shaped  like  a  mason's  trowel  and  the  net  results 
of  the  efforts  of  the  colonists  with  this  crude  implement  has  well 
been  called  a  "scratched"  soil. 

The  success  of  the  Selkirk  colony  was  such  that  after  the 
season  of  1820,  they  were  never  without  wheat  enough  to  supply 
the  Hudson  Bay  Company  for  their  outposts,  what  they  needed 
for  their  own  use,  and  to  allow  them  to  follow  the  frugal  plan 
of  retaining  enough  for  food  and  seed  to  carry  them  over  a  two 
year  period,  in  case  a  second  scourge  of  locusts  should  overtake 

Their  grain  was  cut  with  sickles  and  bound  with  willow  withes. 
The  colonists  followed  the  old  country  practice  of  stacking  their 
grain  in  the  barnyard,  vying  with  one  another  in  the  excellence 
of  the  stacks  produced  and  casual  visitors  report  that  in  calling 
at  their  homes,  you  could  not  fail  to  be  impressed  with  their 
great  thrift  upon  seeing  wheat,  oats,  barley  and  field  peas  snugly 
stacked  in  their  barnyards.  They  threshed  their  grain  with 
flails  during  the  winter  season  and  cleaned  it  from  the  chaff  by 
the  laborious  winnowing  process.  Later  in  their  experience  they 
were  so  thrifty  as  to  supply  flour  to  the  settlers,  who  established 
themselves  at  points  further  south  in  the  valley.  Their  mills 
were  run  by  wind  power  and  their  bolting  apparatus  was  very 
crude,  but  their  patrons  were  delighted  with  the  source  of 
supply  and  they  had  no  difficulty  in  affecting  business  arrange- 
ments nor  in  selling  their  products. 

In  1851  another  settlement  was  begun  in  the  Red  River  Valley 
at  Pembina.  On  this  date,  Mr.  Charles  Cavalier  arrived  and 
induced  a  number  of  persons  to  settle  a  colony  in  the  vicinity 
of  Pembina.  There  is  said  to  have  been  only  four  white  men  in 
the  community  and  nearly  two  thousand  halfbreeds  represented 
the  balance  of  the  settlement.  The  halfbreeds  were  descended 
from  the  Hudson  Bay  employees,  who  had  been  working  in  this 
country  for  half  a  century  at  that  time. 

Charles  Cavalier  set  out  promptly  to  learn  all  he  could  from 
the  Selkirk  settlers  and  after  visiting  nearly  every  family  en- 
gaged in  farming  in  the  community,  he  pronounced  it  the  most 
prosperous  and  want-satisfied  settlement  which  he  had  met.  He 


stated,  however,  that  the  French  halfbreeds  at  Pembina,  pro- 
ceeded on  the  basis  of  never  carrying  a  surplus  and  otherwise 
intimated  that  they  were  rather  unthrifty.  Mr.  Cavalier  states 
that  he  counted  fifteen  windmills  used  for  grinding  flour  in  the 
Selkirk  settlement  in  1851.  He  also  states  that  while  the  bolting 
apparatus  was  not  of  the  best,  that  the  flour  was  sweet  and  made 
bread  of  a  very  high  quality.  It  thus  seems  that  as  early  as  1851, 
the  flour  from  the  Scotch  fife  No.  1  hard  wheat  made  a  favorable 

The  Pembina  settlement  secured  a  supply  of  No.  1  hard  seed 
wheat,  oats,  barley  and  field  peas  from  the  Selkirk  colony,  in 
addition  to  a  supply  of  flour.  The  flour  was  sold  to  them  at  ten 
shillings  per  hundred  weight. 

Scourges  of  grasshoppers  occurred  in  the  settlement  occa- 
sionally and  were  very  severe.  Wild  pigeons,  blackbirds,  and 
other  feathered  visitors  took  toll  from  their  grain  crops  according 
to  the  reports,  but  they  state  that  the  soil  produced  abundantly 
and  there  was  enough  grain  for  all.  Thus  the  Red  River  Valley 
seemed  at  this  early  date  and  with  the  crude  tillage  given  by 
the  halfbreeds  to  have  proved  itself  capable  of  producing  crops 
in  great  abundance  and  of  impressing  those  who  were  the  bene- 
ficiaries of  its  fruitfulness. 

For  a  time  the  Pembina  settlers  in  most  part  adopted  a  very 
simple  and  short  system  of  crop  rotation,  if  it  may  be  dignified 
by  that  name.  In  any  event,  the  plan  supplied  them  with  a 
reasonable  amount  of  food  and  was  suited  to  the  ideas  of  the 
large  halfbreed  element  of  the  population.  Their  cropping  system 
consisted  in  planting  potatoes  and  caring  for  them  until  late 
summer,  or  until  such  time  as  the  buffalo  herd  would  be  in  good 
condition  for  slaughter.  The  entire  settlement  would  then  effect 
an  organization,  elect  or  choose  some  of  the  older  men  as  officers, 
send  out  a  detachment  of  scouts  to  locate  the  buffalo  herd  and 
upon  their  return  with  a  favorable  report,  set  out  to  secure  a 
supply  of  meat  for  their  families.  The  officers  or  captains  were 
mounted  on  their  poorer  horses  and  it  was  a  rule  of  the  organiza- 
tion that  no  man  should  advance  faster  than  these  officials,  which 
plan  gave  all  members  of  the  organization  a  chance  to  get  a 
supply  of  buffalo  to  take  home.  They  advanced  cautiously  until 


they  got  near  the  herd,  then  at  the  signal,  each  man  set  out  after 
them,  securing  as  many  as  he  could.  The  matter  of  deciding  who 
the  carcasses  belonged  to,  which  were  left  on  the  prairie  as  each 
hunter  pursued  the  herd,  killing  one  after  the  other,  was  rather 
readily  determined  by  their  being  in  continuous  strings  or  lines. 
According  to  their  records,  at  least,  there  was  no  trouble  in 
making  their  settlements.  Bargains  were  frequently  made  during 
the  hunt,  when  a  hunter  with  a  poorer  or  slower  horse  could  come 
up  to  one  who  had  a  larger  detachment  of  buffalo  ahead  of  him 
than  he  could  hope  to  kill,  by  which  the  unfortunate  secured  the 
right  to  aid  in  the  slaughter  for  a  specified  sum  and  receive  half 
of  the  product  from  that  time  forward.  A  procession  of  Bed 
River  carts  followed  the  hunters  and  after  slaughter  was  com- 
pleted, the  buffalo  were  dressed  and  the  meat  loaded  into  the 
carts  and  taken  back  to  Pembina,  cured  and  put  down  for  future 

At  the  proper  time  the  potatoes  were  dug  and  pitted  in  prep- 
aration for  winter.  Latet*  in  the  fall,  after  this  process  was 
completed  the  buffalo  hunt  was  again  put  on,  after  which  the 
season's  work  was  completed.  This  three  crop  system  of  rotation 
enabled  the  early  Pembina  settlers  to  live  with  no  uncertainty 
as  to  a  supply  of  food  and  they  subsisted  in  comfort  if  not  in 

In  the  early  fifties  a  mail  route  was  established  between 
Fort  Garry,  the  Selkirk  settlement,  and  Fort  Abercombie  and 
was  soon  extended  to  Breckenridge.  The  mail  stations  enroute 
mentioned  south  of  Pembina  are  Frank  La  Rose,  Twelve  mile 
point,  Bowesmont,  Longpoint,  Hugh  Biggiotoff,  Kelly  point, 
Turtle  River,  Jo.  Caloskey,  Grand  Forks,  John  Stewart,  Buffalo 
Coulie,  Frog  Point,  Goose  Prairie,  A.  Sargent,  Elm  River,  John- 
son, Georgetown,  Hudson  Bay  Company,  Oak  Point,  24  mile 
point,  McCouleyville,  and  Breckenridge.  This  mail  route  was 
made  by  dog  train  and  while  there  were  settlers  at  each  point, 
no  grain  was  grown  at  any  of  the  above  named  stations  and 
contractors  hauled  their  feed  supplies  from  St.  Cloud. 

This  bit  of  history  affects  agriculture  to  the  extent  that  it 
shows  the  lack  of  faith  of  the  early  settler  in  the  capacity  of 
the  Red  River  Valley  soil  to  produce  a  crop  and  possibly  also 


in  the  live  stock  in  the  form  of  dogs,  which  were  used  as  motive 
power  by  the  mail-carriers.  These  dogs  were  graded  in  price 
according  to  their  intelligence  and  capacity.  They  were  driven 
in  three  dog-tandem  teams  and  a  good  leader  was  worth  $20.00, 
while  dogs  not  thus  capable  were  worth  $10.00  or  less. 

In  the  early  sixties,  General  Sibley  was  sent  by  the  War 
Department  to  drive  the  Indians  back  on  the  Minnesota  frontier, 
where  they  were  harrassing  the  settlers.  He  did  so  and  after 
finishing  his  season's  warfare,  wrote  up  a  brief  report  of  his 
expedition,  in  which  he  went  out  of  his  way  to  say,  of  this  plains 
country,  which  at  least  included  the  Red  River  Valley:  "It  is 
fit  only  for  the  Indians  and  the  devil." 

In  1899,  the  writer  met  J.  C.  Simpson,  then  Mayor  of  Fremont, 
Nebraska,  who  related  that  in  the  fall  of  1871,  he  was  in  Moor- 
head,  Minnesota,  then  the  end  of  the  Northern  Pacific  road.  He 
heard  the  conversation  of  business  men  there  and  in  St.  Paul, 
and  stated  that  it  was  the  general  opinion  of  conservative  busi- 
ness men  that  the  soil  of  the  Red  River  Valley  was  sour,  cold  and 
of  no  value  for  agricultural  purposes,  other  than  grazing.  While 
in  Moorhead,  a  soldier  from  Ft.  Abercrombie  strolled  into  the 
hotel  carrying  a  common  grain  sack  in  his  hand  and  after  standing 
about  in  the  bar-room  for  a  time,  poured  out  about  a  peck  of 
vegetables,  radishes,  beets,  onions,  etc.,  of  very  fine  quality,  on 
the  floor  saying,  that  he  had  grown  them  at  Ft.  Abercrombie. 
The  guests  of  the  hotel  were  very  much  interested  and  crowding 
about  the  soldier,  looked  over  the  vegetables  in  great  surprise. 
Their  exclamations  were  very  pointed  and  in  the  case  of  some 
there  was  evident  doubt  of  the  statement  that  he  had  actually 
grown  them  at  Ft.  Abercrombie.  A  little  later  a  man  who  was 
slightly  under  the  influence  of  liquor  approached  the  soldier  and 
said:  "You  say  you  grew  those  vegetables  at  Ft.  Abercrombie?" 
"Yes."  Again  he  repeated  the  question  and  was  answered  in 
the  affirmative.  Then  with  an  oath  he  said:  "If  you  say  you 
grew  those  at  Ft.  Abercrombie,  you  are  a  liar."  Upon  hearing 
which  the  soldier  whipped  out  a  revolver  and  sent  the  doubter 
to  another  world.  Mr.  Simpson  was  a  revenue  collector  at  the 
time  and  must  have  been  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  judgment, 
and  he  like  the  rest  was  surprised  and  even  doubtful  as  to 


whether  any  soil  in  the  Red  River  Valley  would  ever  produce 
crops  of  value  in  the  form  of  those  exhibited  by  the  soldier. 

In  the  fall  of  1871,  the  Great  Northern  and  Northern  Pacific 
railroads  reached  the  Dakota  line,  and  the  next  season  began  to 
extend  their  roads  in  North  Dakota.  Upon  entering  this  state 
the  Northern  Pacific  was  given  a  very  large  grant  of  public  land 
as  a  bonus  for  putting  in  their  system  of  road. 

As  a  result  of  the  failure  and  bankruptcy  of  Jay  Cook,  the 
great  railroad  magnate,  in  1873,  a  panic  in  Northern  Pacific  stock 
resulted  and  the  price  of  it  became  exceedingly  cheap.  In  conse- 
quence the  lands  granted  for  the  Northern  Pacific  road  were  sold 
at  a  very  small  pittance. 

In  1875,  Oliver  Dalrymple  secured  an  equipment  and  financial 
support  in  St.  Paul  and  proceeded  to  the  Red  River  Valley  to 
begin  farming  operations.  It  is  said  that  the  business  men  of 
St.  Paul  considered  it  a  wild  goose  chase,  a  scheme  of  the  most 
hazardous  sort,  and  a  sheer  waste  of  time  and  money  to  engage 
in  extensive  farming  operations  in  such  a  country.  Mr.  Dalrymple 
secured  Northern  Pacific  land  at  a  cost  of  from  40  to  60  cents  per 
acre  and  succeeded  with  one  or  two  other  gentlemen  in  getting 
control  of  75,000  acres  of  it.  He  put  in  his  first  crop  in  1876,  upon 
the  growth  and  harvest  of  which  the  fame  of  the  Red  River 
Valley  as  a  farming  country  was  liberally  advertised.  The 
Northern  Pacific  railroad  seeing  a  chance  to  have  the  country 
tributary  to  their  lines  develop  into  a  prosperous  community 
which  would  be  profitable  to  them,  lent  their  good  offices  in  adver- 
tising the  results  secured  by  Oliver  Dalrymple.  As  one  of  the 
early  settlers  put  it :  '  *  Mr.  Dalrymple  turned  over  the  sod,  sowed 
a  crop  of  wheat  on  it,  got  a  magnificent  yield  and  then  we  all 
come."  Not  long  ago  Mr.  Dalrymple  said  relative  to  his  farm: 
"The  land  immediately  took  on  a  value  of  $5.00  per  acre  in  1875 
— and  has  increased  a  dollar  per  acre  per  annum  since,  and  has 
a  present  value  of  from  $30.00  to  $40.00  per  acre.  In  my  judg- 
ment it  will  continue  this  rise  in  value  at  the  same  rate  during 
the  next  twenty-five  years."  Mr.  Dalrymple  has  continued  to 
operate  on  a  large  scale,  but  has  diversified  his  crops  recently  to 
a  very  great  extent.  Not  long  ago  the  report  of  the  farm  showed 
that  they  were  growing  a  thousand  acres  of  corn  per  year,  which 


indicates  that  they  are  adopting  the  better  methods  of  maintaining 
soil  fertility  as  insuring  a  permanent  agricultural  production. 

Before  the  railroad  had  reached  Fargo,  so  that  the  townsite 
was  located,  James  Holes,  filed  on  a  homestead  beside  what  later 
proved  to  be  the  townsite  and  he  was  the  first  to  develop  a  market 
gardening  business  in  the  upper  part  of  the  valley. 

J.  L.  Grandin  heard  of  the  settling  and  development  of  the 
new  country  and  remembered  that  his  firm  had  taken  some 
Northern  Pacific  stock  as  security,  which  had  never  been  re- 
deemed and  which  he  had  stowed  away  in  their  vault  as  well- 
nigh,  if  not  entirely  valueless  paper.  Taking  this  stock  from  the 
pigeon  holes,  he  proceeded  to  North.  Dakota  and  placed  it  on 
land.  He  started  a  second  enterprise  on  similar  lines  to  those 
under  way  by  Oliver  Dalrymple,  and  seconded  the  evidence  in 
favor  of  the  value  and  possibilities  of  the  new  country.  The 
levelness  of  the  land,  the  ease  with  which  it  could  be  broken 
and  tilled,  the  high  degree  of  productiveness  and  its  rapid  increase 
in  value,  all  helped  to  make  these  large  enterprises  extremely 
popular  and  profitable.  The  increase  in  value  of  land  alone,  quad- 
rupled the  capital  in  a  very  few  years,  which  followed  by  the 
steady  advance  of  a  dollar  an  acre  per  annum  has  never  left  the 
owner  in  doubt  about  the  value  of  the  investment. 

Mr.  James  J.  Hill,  President  of  the  Great  Northern  Railroad, 
early  became  familiar  with  the  Red  River  Valley  region  and  was 
strongly  impressed  with  its  value  and  its  possibilities.  He  is  also 
a  great  believer  in  permanent  high  grade  agriculture  and  has 
constantly  argued  and  aided  in  every  way  possible  the  farming 
of  the  Red  River  Valley  region.  While  he  has  probably  never 
plowed  a  furrow  nor  seeded  an  acre  of  land  in  this  section  of 
the  country,  he  has  been  a  great  aid  to  the  agricultural  develop- 
ment through  the  means  mentioned  above. 

After  a  short  while  the  valley  was  filled  with  settlers  who 
engaged  in  farming  operations,  particularly  wheat  growing,  but 
for  two  decades  little  attention  was  paid  to  the  seed  used  or  to 
the  preparation  of  the  land,  other  than  plowing  and  harrowing  it 
preceding  the  planting  of  the  grain.  The  only  rest  or  change 
which  was  administered  to  the  soil  was  an  occasional  fallowing. 

In  the  early  eighties  James  Holes  of  Fargo  began  work  upon 


fife  seed  wheat  improvement,  and  at  about  the  same  time  his 
irteighbor,  L.  H.  Haynes,  began  a  similar  but  a  more  scientific  and 
systematic  improvement  of  blue  stem  wheat. 

Mr.  Holes  found  a  splendid  single  plant  of  fife  wheat  growing 
in  an  oat  field  and  saved  the  seed  from  it.  This  foundation  plant 
was  the  progenitor  of  a  splendid  lot  of  fife  seed  wheat  which  was 
grown  under  rotation  and  careful  farming  methods,  and  kept 
(it)  pure  and  made  (it)  of  high  grade  and  quality.  It  was  sent 
out  in  large  quantities  by  Mr.  Holes  and  became  the  chief  fife 
seed  wheat  of  the  valley.  Many  other  men  such  as  D.  L.  Wellman, 
Frazee,  Minn. ;  Thomas  Bolton,  Park  River,  N.  D. ;  Messrs.  Rysting 
and  Houston,  together  with  many  others  followed  the  two  gentle- 
men first  named,  in  keeping  up  a  high  standard  of  seed  wheat  for 
planting  in  the  valley  and  elsewhere  in  the  adjoining  states. 

L.  H.  Haynes  work  on  the  blue  stem  variety  was  very  sys- 
tematic and  scientific  in  conception  and  prosecution.  The  seed 
was  planted  a  berry  in  a  place  in  order  that  he  might  study  the 
entire  plant  and  so  that  each  should  have  the  same  conditions 
under  which  to  grow  and  also  that  he  might  keep  a  pedigree 
record  of  the  performance  of  the  individual  plants,  generation 
after  generation.  The  greater  portion  of  the  seed  from  the  best 
plants  was  sowed  in  rows,  that  which  the  best  rows  produced 
in  small  plats,  their  product  upon  larger  ones,  and  then  it  was 
taken  to  his  fields  which  had  never  been  seeded  to  any  other  grain 
than  Haynes  pedigreed  blue  stem.  Mr.  Haynes  had  no  criticism 
from  his  purchasers  on  the  lines  of  not  sending  out  pure  blue 
stem  and  as  he  did  good  farming  there  is  no  record  of  criticism 
from  a  purchaser  on  the  point  of  foul  seed.  Mr.  Haynes  had  a 
warehouse  in  Fargo  and  shipped  in  his  grain  from  the  west  edge 
of  the  valley,  screened  it  and  had  it  sacked  and  shipped  from 
the  warehouse  under  his  personal  supervision.  The  fame  of  his 
pedigreed  wheat  spread  far  and  wide,  and  he  shipped  large 
quantities  of  it  to  other  states  and  some  even  to  other  countries. 
He  was  very  much  interested  in  disseminating  good  seed  grain 
and  apparently  took  as  much  pleasure  in  shipping  a  few  sacks 
to  a  small  farmer  who  wished  a  start  of  seed  as  he  did  in  sending 
a  carload  to  a  large  land  owner  who  wanted  to  seed  it  on  a 
thousand  acres. 


In  October,  1890,  the  North  Dakota  Experiment  Station  was 
established  at  Fargo,  in  the  Red  River  Valley,  and  in  '92  began  the 
work  on  wheat  breeding  and  seed  improvement  for  that  region. 
This  institution  gathered,  from  every  known  source,  seed  grain 
of  all  kinds,  especially  wheat,  and  after  a  thorough  trial  found 
that  the  fife  strain  descending  from  Mr.  Holes'  breeding  but 
modified  to  some  extent  by  some  of  the  other  breeders,  and  the 
strain  descending  from  the  Haynes  Pedigreed  Blue  Stem  were  the 
best  available  and  hence  used  them  as  foundation  stock.  The 
work  of  this  institution  has  continued  from  that  time  to  this 
upon  lines  similar  to  those  instituted  by  Mr.  Haynes,  except  that 
improved  and  more  rapid  methods  of  planting,  harvesting  and 
caring  for  the  single  plants  have  been  instituted  and  a  more 
comprehensive  and  complete  pedigree  record  has  been  kept.  At 
this  date  after  seventeen  years  of  work  by  the  Station,  the  pedi- 
grees of  its  stronger  yielding  wheats  of  both  the  fife  and  blue 
stem  strains,  trace  to  the  Haynes  and  Holes  foundation  stock. 
North  Dakota  Experiment  Station  No.  66,  a  variety  of  fife  wheat 
which  has  been  disseminated  very  widely  through  the  valley 
and  Minnesota  163,  both  sprang  from  the  nursery  at  the  North 
Dakota  Experiment  Station  and  trace  to  the  Holes  fife  wheat  as 
foundation  stock.  They  have  been  phenomenal  yielders,  out- 
doing their  parent  sorts  by  two  bushels  or  more  per  acre  and 
now  produce  nearly  the  entire  fife  wheat  crop  of  the  valley. 

The  Minnesota  Station  has  been  very  active  since  about  1890 
in  an  attempt  to  improve  seed  grain  for  the  State  of  Minnesota 
and  has  given  considerable  direct  attention  to  the  Red  River 
Valley,  having  as  early  as  1891,  grown  wheat  at  Glyndon,  Minn., 
in  order  to  have  it  under  Red  River  Valley  conditions.  Later, 
it  established  a  sub-experiment  station  at  Crookston,  in  order  that 
the  wheat  varieties  might  be  given  special  study  on  Red  River 
Valley  soil. 

Experiment  Station  activities  in  seed  improvement  have  not 
been  limited  to  wheat,  as  North  Dakota  No.  388  Tartarian;  No. 
666,  Sixty  Day  varieties  of  oats;  No.  871  and  No.  172,  barley; 
No.  100  and  No.  950,  or  Golden  Dent  corn ;  No.  155,  flax ;  No.  39  and 
No.  47,  potatoes,  attest.  This  experiment  station  activity  in 
seed  improvement  has  added  materially  to  the  agricultural  possi- 


bilities  of  the  state  and  probably  accounts  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  grain  yield  during  the  first  twenty-five  years  of  actual 
cropping.  The  efforts  of  the  North  Dakota  Station  in  attempting 
to  produce  strains  of  wheat  immune  to  rust  and  of  flax,  immune  to 
the  flax  wilt,  indicate  the  activity  of  these  institutions  in  their 
attempt  to  produce  valuable  sorts  of  grain  capable  of  meeting 
the  necessities  of  the  region. 

Diversification  of  crops  has  been  studied  by  the  crop  growers 
during  the  past  ten  years.  Twenty-five  years  ago  a  man  that 
spoke  of  stock  on  a  North  Dakota  farm  was  understood  to  mean 
work  horses  and  mules.  Live  stock  is  still  too  scarce  in  the  Red 
River  Valley,  but  enough  cattle,  sheep  and  hogs  are  kept  for  the 
term  live  stock  to  be  applied  more  widely  than  to  work  horses. 

The  advent  of  successful  corn  and  clover  growing  which  are 
discussed  later  have  been  largely  responsible  for  the  change. 
Weeds  have  begun  to  encroach  upon  Red  River  Valley  farmers, 
who  have  not  diversified  their  crops  and  their  soil  has  de- 
teriorated in  fertility  and  in  mechanical  condition. 

As  already  noted  potatoes  were  grown  in  the  valley  as  a  part 
of  the  cropping  system  by  the  Selkirk  settlers  at  a  very  early 
date  and  exclusively  by  the  Pembina  settlers  a  little  later. 
The  North  Dakota  potato  has  enjoyed  an  enviable  reputation  for 
quality  for  some  years.  Seed  potatoes  from  the  valley  are 
shipped  as  far  south  as  Memphis  Tenn.,  and  Kansas  City,  Mo., 
in  considerable  quantity.  The  potato  bug  and  potato  diseases 
have  finally  come  into  the  valley,  but  are  not  yet  serious  as  com- 
pared with  most  other  potato  growing  regions. 

Dairy  interests  in  the  valley  have  slowly  but  gradually  de- 
veloped and  with  the  incoming  of  the  diversification  of  crops, 
they  are  making  more  rapid  advancement.  Dairying  is  destined 
to  be  a  more  important  industry  as  time  passes,  since  conditions 
prevail  here  which  produce  the  highest  quality  of  dairy  products. 

Gradually  the  growing  of  corn  is  coming  into  the  cropping 
scheme  of  the  Red  River  Valley  farmer  as  a  means  of  securing 
cheap  roughage  to  carry  his  live  stock  through  the  winter,  to 
put  his  land  in  high  mechanical  condition,  free  it  from  weeds, 
and,  as  a  result  of  all  these  features,  improve  the  yield  of  the  small 
grain  crops  which  follow.  The  early  settler  would  not  believe 


that  a  variety  of  corn  existed  which  would  ripen  in  this  northern 
latitude,  but  recent  school  childrens'  contests  of  corn  growing, 
exhibits  made  at  fairs  and  at  the  corn  show  more  recently  held, 
thoroughly  demonstrate  how  mistaken  was*  the  idea  of  the 
early  settler.  The  North  Dakota  Experiment  Station  has  dis- 
covered that  a  simple  change  to  corn  or  potatoes  every  fourth 
season  as  compared  with  continuous  cropping  to  wheat  will 
produce  as  much  total  grain  as  continuous  wheat  seeding  will 

Bed  clover  has  gradually  found  its  way  into  the  Bed  Biver 
Valley  and  seems  to  be  very  much  at  home  in  this  region.  The 
early  settler  found  that  clover  did  only  fairly  well  with  him 
and  gave  up  the  growing  of  it  as  a  practical  crop  for  the  state. 
The  North  Dakota  Experiment  Station  made  regular  and  very 
successful  trials  with  it,  found  that  in  most  cases  the  land  did 
not  need  inoculation  with  the  tubercle  bacteria  and  finally  in- 
duced the  farming  population  gradually  to  attempt  the  growth 
of  red  clover  for  a  second  time  in  the  history  of  the  valley.  A 
wave  of  red  clover  is  just  now  passing  over  the  valley  and 
scarcely  a  community  can  be  found  that  does  not  have  one  or 
more  fields  of  it  growing  in  thrifty  condition.  Some  have  been 
discouraged  with  it  because  of  the  fact  that  it  frequently  winter 
kills  the  second  season,  but  this  can  scarcely  be  considered  un- 
fortunate since  the  regular  plowing  up  of  the  clover  fields,  means 
that  a  rotation  of  crops  is  assured  on  all  the  fields  of  the  farm 
and  that  the  yield  of  grain  will  consequently  be  increased. 

Alfalfa  is  now  being  tried  in  various  parts  of  the  Bed  Biver 
Valley  and  while  many  places  are  not  sufficiently  well  drained 
for  this  crop  to  succeed,  it  is  making  a  very  good  showing  in 
many  sections  where  it  is  planted  in  reasonably  well  located  soil 
and  it  is  probably  destined  to  have  a  part  in  the  cropping  sys- 
tem of  North  Dakota,  in  a  small  way  at  least. 

Gardening  and  fruit  growing  have  received  very  slight  at- 
tention from  the  Bed  Biver  Valley  farmers  until  the  immediate 
present.  Only  a  few  of  the  earlier  settlers  put  out  shelter  belts 
of  trees  and  without  such  protection,  the  growth  of  small  fruits 
is  difficult  if  not  impossible.  During  the  last  few  seasons,  the 
growing  of  strawberries,  currants,  gooseberries,  and  raspberries 


has  greatly  increased  and  fruit  growing  seems  to  be  a  very 
contagious  operation,  since  it  adds  to  the  list  of  supplies  avail- 
able to  the  farmers'  family,  a  luxury  which  could  not  be  pur- 
chased on  the  market  under  any  consideration. 

While  gardening,  as  already  noted,  was  taken  up  by  some 
of  the  very  early  settlers  in  the  vicinity  of  the  larger  towns, 
it  has  had  a  slow  growth  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  towns 
and  cities  of  the  valley  even  now  are  amply  supplied  with  this 
class  of  products,  grown  in  their  immediate  vicinity.  Agri- 
cultural operations  in  the  valley  have  been  so  simple,  easy,  and 
have  been  practiced  on  such  a  wholesale  scale  that  our  people 
have  been  slow  to  take  up  anything  that  could  be  considered 
tedious  or  irksome  and,  as  a  consequence,  this  very  lucrative 
business  has  been  seriously  neglected.  Just  at  this  time,  how- 
ever, a  number  of  persons  in  the  vicinity  of  the  larger  centres 
in  the  valley  have  taken  up  market  gardening  operations  upon 
a  rather  extensive  scale  and  the  dawn  of  a  new  era  in  this  line, 
seems  to  be  at  hand.  Celery  of  a  very  high  grade  is  easily  pro- 
duced on  Red  River  Valley  land  and  is  said  by  experts  to  be 
equal  to  that  produced  in  the  vicinity  of  Kalamazoo,  Mich. 

The  cultivation  of  timothy  has  been  limited  in  general  to 
the  timber  claims,  planted  by  the  early  settler  to  secure  a  quarter 
section  of  land.  A  few  of  the  more  thoughtful  land  owners  have 
groves  of  great  value  and,  while  the  best  judgment  has  not  been 
used  in  the  class  of  trees  secured,  the  land  which  has  been 
devoted  to  tree  growth  has  in  the  aggregate  produced  as  much 
value  per  acre  per  annum,  as  that  which  has  been  sown  to  small 
grain  and  other  sale  crops.  With  cedar  fence  posts  selling  at 
18  to  25  cents  apiece  and  with  wood  bringing  from  $6.00  to 
$8.00  a  cord,  a  cutting  from  one  of  these  older  tree  plantations 
brings  in  a  large  harvest  in  value  and  can  be  properly  taken  care 
of  at  a  time  when  the  activities  of  the  farm  are  the  lightest  of 
any  season  in  the  year. 

Drainage  has  been  a  mighty  problem  in  the  Red  River  Valley 
during  years  of  irregular  precipitation.  The  settlers  are  rapidly 
learning  to  co-operate  in  putting  in  open  ditches  and  strong 
water  carrying  major  channels  into  which  the  individual  laterals 
may  be  drained.  The  United  States  Government  and  the  experi- 


ment  stations  located  at  Fargo  and  Crookston  are  co-operating 
in  making  a  study  of  the  feasibility  of  under  drainage.  The 
matter  of  putting  in  drainage  systems  under  public  supervision 
and  under  specific  taxation  of  the  land  benefited  is  gradually 
being  equitably  adjusted  and  will  soon  doubtless  be  worked  out 
in  such  reasonable  form  as  to  be  readily  accepted  by  the  inter- 
ested parties. 

With  this  fertile  section  of  country  thoroughly  drained,  it 
will  prove  the  most  reliable  cropping  region  in  the  Northwest, 
if  not  indeed,  in  the  entire  country.  The  history  of  this  drainage 
progress  has  been  first  a  series  of  efforts  on  private  account, 
later  a  co-operative  plan  of  building  good  roads,  well  rounded 
up  with  helpful  drainage  ditches  at  each  side  upon  each  section 
line.  Numerous  plans  for  co-operation  have  been  tried,  many 
of  which  are  successful  in  removing  the  surplus  water  from  the 
land,  but  were  unsatisfactory  to  those  concerned  by  reason  of 
their  believing  them  to  be  unfair  in  the  pro-rata  of  taxes  levied, 
in  proportion  to  the  benefit  received.  Many  plans  for  compre- 
hensive drainage  have  been  tried,  but  it  must  still  be  considered 
in  the  evolutionary  stage.  An  item  of  public  interest  which 
represents  so  much  of  added  production  and  consequent  wealth 
to  an  entire  community  must  soon  find  a  basis  for  adoption. 
When  the  Red  River  Valley  is  once  drained  of  surplus  water 
and  the  suggestions  given  above  for  the  growing  of  corn,  leg- 
uminous crops,  and  the  keeping  of  live  stock,  put  into  practice, 
its  production  of  grain  in  a  ten  year  period  should  be  increased 
at  least  fifty  per  cent. 

The  Red  River  Valley  does  not  lend  itself  to  irrigation  and 
ordinarily  does  not  suffer  from  the  lack  of  such  a  system.  The 
fine  grained  soil  of  the  valley  is  extremely  retentive  of  moisture 
and  seldom  suffers  from  drouth  where  it  has  been  reasonably 
cropped  and  cultivated  during  the  years  preceding  the  time  when 
the  light  rainfall  occurs. 

The  valley  has  many  organizations  which  influence  agri- 
culture, that  are  of  joint  service  to  this  and  all  other  regions  of 
the  commonwealth  to  which  the  two  halves  of  the  valley  belong. 
Prominent  among  these  is  the  Grain  Growers'  Convention,  now 
nearly  a  decade  old,  which  is  an  organization  held  together  by 


strictly  common  need  and  interest.  It  has  neither  by-laws  nor 
constitution,  adjourns  subject  to  the  call  of  its  officers  annually, 
but  is  strongly  attended  and  wields  a  mighty  influence  for  the 
betterment  of  agricultural  conditions  in  the  valley  and  all  other 
sections  embraced  by  the  organization. 

The  Live  Stock  Breeders'  Association  of  North  Dakota,  Min- 
nesota, and  Manitoba  are  three  organizations  which  are  rendering 
splendid  service  for  the  agriculture  of  the  Red  River  Valley. 

The  Poultry  Breeders'  Associations  of  the  three  common- 
wealths also  represent  agricultural  productive  features  of  the 
Red  River  Valley,  which  are  in  the  aggregate  of  great  value. 

Potato  growers'  associations  which  have  sprung  up  in  the 
Red  River  Valley  are  dual  in  their  purpose,  embracing  the  fea- 
tures of  exchanging  ideas  and  gaining  information  and  of  co- 
operation in  matters  of  marketing  their  products.  They  have 
proven  most  helpful  in  both  these  directions  and  with  all  have 
been  very  helpful  to  the  districts  in  which  they  have  been 

Three  dairymen's  associations  have  taken  an  interest  in  the 
Red  River  Valley  and  while  the  citizens  of  this  region  have 
been  slow  to  take  to  that  type  of  production,  these  organizations 
should  be  credited  with  the  good  they  have  done,  for  the  cause 
they  represent  and  for  having  laid  the  foundation  for  the  future 
development  of  a  lasting  and  lucrative  feature  of  agricultural 

Horticultural  societies  representing  the  states  and  province 
which  embrace  the  Red  River  Valley  have  been  active  in  season 
and  out  of  season  in  their  endeavor  to  improve  the  horticultural 
conditions  and  to  stimulate  the  production  of  horticultural  crops 
in  this  region.  These  organizations  deserve  great  credit  for 
their  activity,  ingenuity  and  persistence  and  while  their  tangible 
results  are  not  as  great  as  might  reasonably  have  been  expected, 
the  future  citizen  of  the  valley  owes  them  a  debt  of  gratitude 
which  will  never  be  paid. 

The  corn  growers  of  the  upper  valley  have  during  the  last 
ten  years  gradually  taken  on  activity,  and  while  they  have  not 
yet  effected  permanent  organization,  they  have  held  corn  shows, 
and  interested  growers  in  exhibiting  at  fairs  and  shows,  in  such 


a  way  as  to  form  all  the  preliminaries  which  precede  effective 
and_  active  agricultural  organizations.  The  interest  which  has 
been  aroused  by  the  extension  departments  of  the  North  Dakota 
Agricultural  College  and  the  Minnesota  University,  in  school 
gardens  and  agricultural  crop  growing  contests  which  have 
centered  strongly  about  corn  have  been  features  of  agricultural 
organizations,  which  must  not  be  overlooked  in  recounting  the 
effect  of  organized  agricultural  movements  in  the  Red  River 

Among  the  state  and  provincial  organizations  for  the  benefit 
of  agriculture,  the  numerous  county  fairs,  which  dot  this  level 
region,  the  state  fair  of  North  Dakota  and  the  Winnipeg  Ex- 
position of  Manitoba,  represent  this  very  effective  form  of  agri- 
cultural education  and  stimulation  for  the  Red  River  Valley 
region  and  do  their  work  in  a  very  exhaustive  way. 

The  Agricultural  College  of  North  Dakota  at  Fargo,  with  the 
Government  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  for  the  State  of 
North  Dakota,  the  Agricultural  School  and  Minnesota  Sub-Ex- 
periment Station  at  Crookston,  and  the  Manitoba  Agricultural 
College  at  Winnipeg,  represent  educational  and  investigational 
institutions  in  the  interests  of  agriculture  in  the  valley  territory. 
What  these  institutions  have  meant  for  the  uplift  of  agriculture 
in  the  valley  cannot  be  measured.  And  it  is  but  fair  to  guess 
that  they  have  only  passed  through  the  preliminary  stages  of 
their  usefulness  to  this  great  agricultural  region. 

The  Farmers'  Institute  of  Minnesota  has  been  doing  work  in 
the  Red  River  Valley  for  a  score  of  years,  and  that  of  North 
Dakota  has  been  in  active  form  for  a  decade.  Manitoba  has  a 
similar  form  of  organization  which  is  doing  a  like  kind  of  active 
work  in  the  interests  of  grown-up  farmers,  their  wives  and 
families.  This  form  of  state  education  reaches  productive  agri- 
cultural citizens  who  are  beyond  school  age.  It  touches  briefly 
on  the  problem  with  which  he  is  most  concerned  or  by  which 
he  is  perplexed  at  the  time  when  this  traveling  corps  of  in- 
structors visits  him.  The  direct  effect  of  this  educational  organ- 
ization on  the  production  of  the  valley  is  probably  the  greatest 
of  any  single  organization — if  I  may  be  pardoned  for  assuming 
to  assign  specific  degrees  of  benefit  and  influence  to  a  single 


item  of  organization  by  itself — in  point  of  fact,  all  of  the  agri- 
cultural organizations  in  this  region  work  in  harmony  and  largely 
with  a  unity  of  purpose.  The  farmers'  institute  corps  use  the 
facts  secured  by  the  investigator,  translate  them  into  the 
language  of  the  crop  producer,  leave  out  the  technical  features, 
in  which  he  is  not  interested  and  cannot  understand,  and  fre- 
quently show  more  explicitly  than  the  experimenter  knew  how 
these  elements  of  information  may  be  applied  to  the  production 
of  agricultural  wealth.  The  various  agricultural  organizations 
are  attended  by  the  farmers'  institute  corps  and  the  specific 
information  brought  out  in  their  discussions  along  particular 
lines  of  agriculture  are  carried  through  the  community  and  dis- 
seminated from  point  to  point  until  all  of  the  citizens  are  ap- 
prised of  the  new  methods  discovered  or  of  the  revision  of  the 
old  which  have  lately  been  brought  out. 

The  Red  River  Valley  has  been  traversed  by  white  men  for  a 
century.  Eighty  years  ago  it  demonstrated  its  capacity  to  pro- 
duce potatoes  and  grain  crops  under  reasonable  conditions  and 
has  consistently  done  so  ever  since. 

Geologic  forces  combined  to  give  it  a  soil  of  fine  grain,  level 
and  almost  wholly  devoid  of  waste  land.  Its  capacity  for 
production  is  not  known,  since  intensity  of  cultivation  and 
diversity  of  crops  will  bring  results  and  show  capabilities  not  now 

Sufficient  time  has  not  elapsed  to  write  more  than  an  intro- 
duction to  the  history  of  the  Red  River  Valley.  He  who  records 
its  status  a  century  hence  will  look  upon  this  as  a  generation  of 
squatters,  who  have  not  been  surrounded  by  a  dense  enough 
population  to  enable  them  to  develop  its  resources  to  even  a 
moderate  degree. 

Organizations  in  the  interests  of  agriculture  in  the  Red  River 
Valley  are  numerous  and  effective,  which  fact  cannot  fail  to  aid 
in  improving  the  production  of  the  country.  The  population 
is  increasing  and  the  farming  is  slowly  growing  more  intense, 
both  of  which  changes  indicate  that  increased  production  may 
be  anticipated. 

J.  H.  Shepperd,  North  Dakota  Agricultural  College. 




By  Hon.  George  N.  Lamphere. 

Published  in  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society  Collections, 
Volume  X,  1905. 

Description  of  the  Red  River  Valley. 

I  have  not  deemed  it  entirely  relevant  to  my  subject  to  discuss 
the  topography,  the  geology,  or  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  the 
Red  River  valley.  And  for  another  reason  than  its  relevancy,  I 
have  omitted  any  discussion  thereof  because  they  have  hereto- 
fore been  treated  by  the  honored  secretary  of  this  Society,  War- 
ren Upham,  in  a  paper  read  at  its  annual  meeting  in  1895  (Min- 
nesota Historical  Society  Collections,  vol.  VIII,  pages  11-24). 

The  Red  River  valley,  as  this  term  is  commonly  used,  is  a 
broad  and  flat  prairie  plain  reaching  ten  to  twenty  miles  on  each 
side  of  the  Red  River  of  the  North,  having  thus  about  half  of  its 
expanse  in  Minnesota  and  the  other  half  in  North  Dakota.  It 
extends  three  hundred  miles  from  south  to  north,  continuing  in 
Manitoba  to  Lake  Winnipeg.  Inclosed  by  the  higher  land  on  each 
side,  and  pent  in  at  the  north  by  the  barrier  of  the  receding  ice- 
sheet  at  the  end  of  the  Glacial  period,  this  valley  plain  was  cov- 
ered in  that  geologic  epoch  by  a  vast  lake,  which,  with  the  com- 
plete disappearance  of  the  ice-sheet,  was  drained  away  to  Hudson 
bay.  To  this  glacial  lake  Mr.  Upham  has  given  the  name  of  Lake 

*An  Address  at  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society, 
January  8,  1900. 



Agassiz;  and  its  survey  and  description  are  the  subject  of  a  vol- 
ume prepared  by  him  and  published  by  the  United  States  Geolog- 
ical Survey.  The  closing  chapters  of  that  work  should  be  con- 
sulted by  any  who  seek  information  concerning  the  general  ag- 
ricultural capabilities  of  this  very  fertile  district,  or  concerning 
its  water  supply  and  its  hundreds  of  artesian  wells. 

Wheat  Raising  in  the  Selkirk  Settlement. 

The  beginning  of  wheat  raising  in  the  Red  River  valley  was 
in  the  Selkirk  settlement  north  of  the  boundary  line,  near  Fort 
Garry,  now  Winnipeg. 

In  1811  the  Earl  of  Selkirk  purchased  from  the  Hudson  Bay 
Company  a  vast  tract  of  land  in  Manitoba,  including  the  land 
afterward  occupied  by  the  Selkirk  settlement.  The  purchase  was 
subject  to  the  Indian  claim  to  its  title.  About  the  time  of  this 
purchase  there  was  a  compulsory  exodus  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  county  of  Sutherland,  Scotland,  from  the  estates  of  the 
Duchess  of  Sutherland;  and  Lord  Selkirk  took  a  large  number 
of  these  evicted  persons  under  his  protection  and  forwarded  them 
to  settle  on  the  land  he  had  purchased  on  the  Red  River.  They  ar- 
rived on  the  bay  in  the  fall  of  the  year,  and  spent  the  winter  at 
Churchill,  on  the  western  shore  of  the  bay.  In  the  following 
spring  they  advanced  inland,  crossed  Lake  Winnipeg,  and  ascend- 
ed the  Red  River  of  the  North.  They  intended  to  make  their  home 
at  the  confluence  of  the  Assiniboine  and  Red  rivers,  but  on  arriv- 
ing there  found  that  the  X.  Y.  and  the  Northwest  Companies  of 
Canada,  which  were  opponents  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company, 
regarded  them  as  invaders  and  also  as  proteges  of  the  latter. 
The  Indians  also  objected  to  the  cultivation  of  their  hunting 
grounds,  and  were  instigated  to  hostile  proceedings  against  the 
newcomers  by  the  representations  of  the  Canadian  companies. 

The  year  1812  passed  without  any  satisfactory  progress  being 
made  toward  settlement,  and  the  immigrants  spent  the  following 
winter  in  great  distress  at  Pembina,  whither  they  were  driven  by 
the  Indians.  By  some  means,  however,  they  were  able  to  mollify 
their  opponents,  and  were  permitted  to  return  in  the  spring.  They 
built  log  houses  and  began  the  cultivation  of  the  land  on  the  bank 
of  the  river.  Within  a  year  they  were  attacked  by  the  partisans 


of  the  companies,  who  burnt  their  houses  and  killed  some  of  their 
number.  Afterward,  being  reinforced  by  a  company  of  additional 
immigrants  from  Scotland,  the  settlers  returned  to  the  places  from 
which  they  had  been  driven,  and  recommenced  their  labors.  The 
hostility  of  the  companies  toward  these  poor  immigrants  was 
continued,  their  property  was  destroyed  and  men  were  captured 
and  killed.  At  length,  on  June  19,  1816,  the  adherents  of  the  two 
parties  met  at  Seven  Oaks,  in  the  center  of  the  settlement,  under 
such  circumstances  that  a  small  battle  occurred,  in  which  about 
twenty  men,  among  whom  was  Governor  Semple,  were  killed. 

In  1817  Lork  Selkirk  came  over  and  visited  the  settlement. 
Besides  having  a  desire  to  see  how  the  settlers  were  prospering, 
he  desired  to  negotiate  for  the  extinguishment  of  the  Indian  title 
to  the  land  he  had  purchased.  After  much  difficulty  he  negoti- 
ated a  treaty  with  the  Chippewas  and  Crees,  which  treaty  was 
signed  July  18,  1817.  The  consideration  was  the  annual  payment 
of  200  pounds  of  tobacco,  half  to  the  Chippewas  and  half  to  the 
Crees.  The  conditions  in  the  territory  at  this  time  were  so 
wretched  that  the  Canadian  government  interfered  and  appointed 
a  commissioner  to  make  investigation,  who  recommended  an  am- 
icable settlement  and  a  union  of  interests  by  the  companies,  which 
had  been  reduced  to  the  verge  of  bankruptcy.  It  was  a  long  time, 
however,  before  action  was  taken.  Lork  Selkirk  died  in  1821, 
and  the  Right  Honorable  Edward  Ellice  succeeded  to  his  rights. 
He  was  one  of  the  principal  stockholders  of  the  Northwest  Com- 
pany, and  the  Canadian  government  consulted  with  him  and 
under  its  auspices  he  instituted  negotiations,  which,  after  many 
difficulties,  resulted  in  a  harmonious  union  between  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company  and  the  Northwest  Company,  the  latter  having 
before  combined  with  the  X.  Y.  Company.  This  agreement  went 
into  effect  in  1821,  and  from  this  date  the  opposition  to  the  settlers 
was  withdrawn. 

Lord  Selkirk,  on  his  arrival  in  1817,  had  provided  the  set- 
tlers with  agricultural  implements,  seed  grain,  and  other  neces- 
saries, but  the  season  was  so  far  advanced  that  little  produce 
was  grown  in  1817  and  a  famine  ensued.  The  people  again  re- 
turned to  Pembina,  where  they  passed  the  winter,  subsisting  as 
best  they  could  on  the  produce  of  the  chase.  The  next  spring 


they  went  back  to  their  lands,  ploughed  and  seeded  them,  and 
entertained  high  hopes  for  a  bountiful  harvest,  but  were  to  be 
sorely  disappointed,  as  an  army  of  locusts  made  its  appearance 
and  in  one  night  destroyed  every  vestige  of  verdure  in  the  fields. 
The  locusts  left  their  eggs  and  in  1819  were  more  numerous  than 
in  the  preceding  year,  making  agriculture  impossible.  The  set- 
tlers again  took  refuge  at  Pembina,  and  Lord  Selkirk  imported 
250  bushels  of  seed  grain  from  the  United  States  at  an  expense  of 
£1,000,  and  this,  which  was  sown  in  the  spring  of  1820,  produced 
a  plentiful  crop  in  the  autumn  of  that  year.  Thus  it  may  be  said 
that  the  first  wheat  that  was  ever  successfully  grown  and  har- 
vested in  the  Red  River  valley  was  in  the  season  of  1820  by  the 
Selkirkers.  I  am  principally  indebted  for  the  facts  as  above  set 
forth  to  the  book  entitled  "Red  River, "  by  J.  J.  Hargrave,  printed 
by  John  Lovell,  Montreal. 

The  methods  of  cultivation  in  the  Selkirk  settlement  were 
rude  and  primitive.  Their  plow  was  English  or  Scotch,  made  all 
of  iron  from  the  tip  of  the  beam  to  the  end  of  the  handles,  and 
was  ten  or  twelve  feet  long.  Its  share  was  shaped  like  a  mason's 
trowel.  With  this  drawn  by  one  horse,  enough  ground  was 
scratched  every  spring  to  raise  suificient  wheat  to  feed  all  the 
blackbirds  and  pigeons  in  the  Red  River  valley,  and  leave  a  sur- 
plus large  enough  to  meet  the  wants  of  the  people  of  the  settle- 
ment ;  also  to  sell  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  all  they  needed  for 
their  outposts  in  the  British  Northwest  possessions,  and  still  leave 
a  surplus  sufficient  for  food  and  seed  for  two  years,  which  was 
stored  up  to  be  used  in  case  of  emergency  or  failure  of  crop  in 
the  coming  seasons.  The  grain  was  cut  with  sickles,  the  bundles 
tied  with  willow  withes  and  stacked  in  the  barnyard,  to  be  flailed 
out  during  the  winter  and  cleaned  by  the  winds,  men,  and  women 
and  children  all  giving  a  helping  hand  in  this  work. 

In  August,  1851,  Charles  Cavalier  arrived  at  Pembina.  At 
that  date  the  Red  River  valley,  except  the  Selkirk  settlement,  was 
a  howling  waste  throughout  its  whole  length  and  breadth.  Then 
there  were  only  four  white  men  in  that  section,  namely,  Norman 
W.  Kittson,  Joseph  Rolette,  George  Morrison,  and  Charles  Cav- 
alier. There  were  1,800  to  2,000  half-breeds,  and  Mr.  Cavalier 
says  that,  as  he  was  born  among  the  "Wyandotte  Indians  in  Ohio 


and  brought  up  near  them,  the  Indians  at  Pembina  were  not  much 
of  a  curiosity  to  him,  but  the  half-breed  was  a  new  phase  of  the 
genus.  "To  this  day,"  says  he,  "I  have  not  fully  made  up  my 
mind  whether  the  cross  between  the  white  man  and  the  red  man 
was  much  of  an  improvement,  as  with  but  few  exceptions  the 
Indian  blood  predominates." 

In  those  early  days  bread  was  a  rarity,  and  pemmican,  dried 
buifalo  meat,  fish  and  a  few  potatoes  constituted  the  food  supply. 
Charles  Cavalier  and  Commodore  N.  W.  Kittson  planned  a  trip 
to  the  Selkirk  settlement,  where  they  were  told  they  would  find 
bread  in  abundance.  They  set  out  in  the  same  year  (1851)  and  in 
a  day  and  a  half's  sail  down  the  river  in  a  canoe  reached  Fort 
Garry  and  St.  Boniface,  where  they  received  a  hospitable  wel- 
come from  Vereck  Marion,  Mr.  Kittson 's  father-in-law.  They 
visited  the  Roman  Catholic  bishops  and  clergy  and  found  them 
pleasant  and  agreeable  gentlemen.  They  also  visited  the  Sisters 
of  Charity  at  the  hospital,  who  gave  them  a  warm  welcome  and 
showed  them  through  the  whole  establishment.  Kittson  having 
returned  to  Pembina,  Mr.  Cavalier,  in  company  with  Mr.  Marion, 
visited  the  office  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  where  they  met 
also  Major  Campbell,  who  was  in  command  of  a  company  of 
British  xtroops  stationed  near  Fort  Garry.  With  Marion,  who  was 
an  old  settler  and  acquainted  with  every  one,  Cavalier  went  on  a 
tour  of  inspection  and  gathered  all  the  information  possible  in 
his  limited  time  in  order  to  tell  his  friends  on  his  return  about 
this  isolated,  almost  unheard-of  community,  and  how  they  made 
life  endurable  in  their  frigid  northern  climate. 

From  Fort  Garry  to  the  Lower  Fort  the  two  men  called  at 
almost  every  house,  and  found  a  happy,  prosperous,  English- 
speaking  people,  mostly  of  Scotch  descent  from  the  immigrants 
sent  over  by  Lord  Selkirk.  A  few  of  other  nationalities  were  also 
there.  They  were  very  kindly  and  hospitable  people.  The  two 
men  called  upon  Bishop  Anderson  of  the  English  church,  and 
found  him  to  be  "a  fine  old  English  gentleman  all  of  the  olden 
time."  With  him  they  visited  the  colleges,  one  for  males  and  the 
other  for  females,  where  the  youth  received  a  classical  education, 
and  which  institutions  are  still  in  existence.  Here  Mr.  Cavalier 
first  met  Donald  Murray,  one  of  the  original  Selkirk  settlers,  who 



had  once  settled  at  South  Pembina  and  had  remained  there  until 
it  was  determined  to  be  south  of  the  international  boundary  line, 
and  whose  daughter  is  now  Mr.  Cavalier's  wife.  Mr.  Cavalier 
somewhat  enthusiastically  says  that  his  impression  at  that  time 
was  that  he  had  never  seen  a  more  prosperous  community  in  the 
States  than  was  the  Selkirk  settlement.  There  was  not  a  family 
that  was  not  well  off  as  to  all  the  wants  of  life.  The  latch  string 
of  every  door  hung  on  the  outside,  and  all  who  called  were  wel- 
come to  the  best  the  larder  contained,  and  when  leaving  were 
asked  to  come  again.  Sectarianism  was  unknown  among  them, 
there  being  only  one  church,  the  Episcopal.  Though  the  Scotch 
were  mostly  Presbyterians,  yet  when  Dalton  Black  settled  among 
them  and  an  Episcopal  church  was  built  for  them,  there  was  no 
ill  feeling  shown  on  either  side.  Their  houses  were  all  built  of 
logs  and  built  for  comfort,  convenience,  and  warmth.  Many  of 
them  are  yet  occupied,  but  the  changes  caused  by  Canadian  im- 
migration have  had  a  large  influence  in  changing  their  manner 
of  life.  However,  they  are  today  the  same  good  people  and  live 
up  to  their  religion. 

The  half-breeds  of  the  Selkirk  settlement,  speaking1  English, 
are  not  nomads  like  those  of  French  extraction,  but  take  to  the 
ways  of  their  fathers  and  are  workers  and  tillers  of  the  soil. 
Nearly  all  have  homes  and  lands  of  their  own,  educate  their  chil- 
dren, and  have  something  laid  by  for  a  rainy  day;  while  the 
French  half-breeds,  who  are  mostly  of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith, 
believe  that  "sufficient  unto  the  day  is  the  evil  thereof." 

As  the  harvest  of  that  season  (1851)  was  nearly  finished  and 
the  barnyards  were  filled  with  large  and  bountiful  stacks  of  wheat 
and  barley,  and  a  stack  or  two  of  oats  and  peas,  it  was  a  rich 
sight,  and  there  was  no  fear  of  starvation  for  two  or  more  years, 
even  should  the  crops  fail.  The  land  system,  which  gave  a  strip  of 
land  six  chains  wide  fronting  the  Red  River  and  extending  back 
two  miles,  gave  the  settlement  the  appearance  of  a  long,  strag- 
gling village  along  the  road  from  Fort  Garry  to  the  Lower  Fort ; 
and  as  the  dwellings,  barns  and  stock  were  in  close  view  all  the 
way,  the  picture  was  a  most  beautiful  and  interesting  one,  such 
as  is  nowhere  seen  in  the  States  and  rarely  even  in  old  Europe. 

The  Selkirkers  generally  had  large  families  and  old  and  young 


worked  together  on  the  homesteads.  While  like  other  farmers 
they  suffered  from  drouth,  grasshoppers,  and  frosts,  yet  they 
usually  secured  good  crops,  and  saved  a  reserve  for  two  or  three 
years,  an  amount  for  seed,  and  sold  the  surplus  to  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company.  Occasionally  they  would  have  poor  crops  and 
perhaps  be  compelled  to  use  their  reserve,  or  even  to  borrow  from 
the  Hudson  Bay  Company  for  seed  and  food.  The  company, 
whose  interest  it  was  to  be  liberal,  as  they  depended  upon  these 
farmers  for  their  supplies  of  wheat  for  their  support,  loaned  wil- 
lingly, but  required  the  payment  from  the  succeeding  crop.  A 
government  never  existed,  in  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Cavalier,  that 
got  on  better  with  settlers  than  the  much  abused  Hudson  Bay 

Early  Flouring  Mills ;  Grasshoppers. 

At  that  time,  as  before  noted,  all  grain  was  cut  with  sickles 
and  bound  with  willow  withes  by  the  women  and  children. 
Wheat,  barley,  and  oats,  were  threshed  on  a  barn  floor  with  a 
flail  during  the  winter  season,  and  were  winnowed  with  a  large 
wind  scoop  resting  on  the  breast ;  and  it  was  remarkable  how  fast, 
with  a  good  wind,  the  grain  could  be  cleaned.  The  wheat  was 
ground  in  large  windmills,  bolted  fine  and  clean,  and  made  excel- 
lent bread.  The  flour  was  not  like  the  flour  of  these  days,  and 
modern  cooks  would  probably  turn  up  their  noses  at  it,  but  it  was 
to  the  taste  as  good  as  our  best. 

Mr.  Cavalier  in  his  rambles  on  that  trip  counted  fifteen  wind- 
mills, all  grinding  out  flour  at  a  lively  rate,  which  at  that  time 
sold  for  eight  or  ten  shillings  per  hundred  weight. 

The  old  settlers  told  of  a  grasshopper  scourge  at  a  date  for- 
gotten by  them,  that  made  a  clean  sweep  of  every  growing  thing, 
and  that  grasshoppers  were  piled  up  by  the  winds  and  waves  four 
feet  deep  on  the  shores  of  lake  Manitoba  and  Shoal  lake.  They 
stated  that  after  the  grasshoppers  had  done  all  the  damage  they 
could,  as  everything  was  eaten,  the  Catholic  clergy  got  up  a  pro- 
cession and  said  prayers,  and  on  the  next  day  the  hoppers  quit 
hopping,  took  to  their  wings,  and  flew  away  to  the  northward 
and  were  seen  no  more. 

Mr.  Cavalier  says  the  first  time  he  saw  grasshoppers  was  in 


1854.  He  was  in  camp  one  night  on  White  Bear  Lake,  now  lake 
Whipple,  and  took  an  early  start  toward  St.  Cloud.  It  had  rained 
during  the  night  and  all  were  wet,  so  at  nine  o  'clock  they  turned 
out  on  the  bank  of  Long  lake  and  spread  their  clothes  and  other 
things  to  dry.  They  made  a  fire  to  cook  breakfast.  Mr.  Cavalier, 
on  looking  around  for  his  blankets,  etc.,  saw  nothing  but  a  squirm- 
ing mass  of  grasshoppers,  all  as  busy  as  if  they  had  struck  a 
bonanza.  They  were  not  able  to  get  out  of  that  mass  of  grass- 
hoppers until  they  had  traveled  about  twenty  miles.  On  the  re- 
turn they  struck  them  at  St.  Cloud,  and  they  had  cleaned  the 
country  quite  thoroughly  on  their  flight  east.  On  crossing  the 
Red  River  and  between  that  and  the  Wild  Rice  river  they  struck 
the  forerunners  of  another  cloud  of  grasshoppers,  and  did  not  get 
clear  of  them  until  they  arrived  home  at  St.  Joseph,  now  Walhalla. 
For  gluttony  the  hopper  takes  the  cake,  Mr.  Cavalier  says,  and 
relates  that  they  ate  the  seat  of  his  saddle  and  the  tops  of  his 
boots.  He  threw  a  plug  of  tobacco  to  them,  and  within  an  hour 
they  had  eaten  that. 

In  1870  another  visitation  of  grasshoppers  appeared,  and  in 
that  year  and  the  year  following  their  ravages  were  disastrous. 
In  1874  they  came  again  and  stayed  three  years,  eating  every- 
thing in  the  Red  River  valley,  and  the  settlers  were  obliged  to 
haul  their  flour  from  St.  Cloud.  Minneapolis  and  St.  Paul  sent 
relief  to  carry  the  poor  through,  which  saved  many  from  actual 

Thus  the  Selkirkers,  with  the  simplest  and  rudest  of  agricul- 
tural implements,  were  always  prosperous,  and  want  was  un- 
known among  them.  Through  them  we  learned  that  the  Dakota 
lands  were  not  the  barren  wastes  and  howling  desert  of  dry, 
drifting  sand  that  our  school  books  had  taught  us,  and  that  the 
Red  River  valley  contained  a  mine  of  wealth  greater  than  any 
discovered  mine  of  silver  and  gold.  This  we  were  slow  to  realize, 
but  have  at  length  made  the  Red  River  valley  the  most  bountiful 
granary  of  the  world.  The  windmills  of  that  famous  pioneer 
settlement  have  done  their  last  grinding;  most  of  the  old  hand 
labor  implements  have  been  laid  aside;  and  the  new  and  im- 
proved forms  of  farm  machinery,  so  efficient  and  so  exact  as  to 
give  almost  the  appearance  of  having  human  intelligence,  have 


taken  their  place.  These  are  run  or  propelled  by  horse  and  steam 
power,  and  the  labor  of  one  man  has  become  as  that  of  many. 
Mr.  Cavalier  reminiscently  says:  "I  was  here  for  years  living 
by  the  proceeds  of  the  chase,  never  dreaming  that  this  mode  of 
livelihood  would  ever  cease,  or  that  the  millions  of  buffaloes  that 
roamed  the  prairies  would  ever  be  exhausted,  and  that  we  old 
settlers  would  soon  be  seeking  other  means  of  support." 

The  settlers  south  of  the  line  had  to  depend  upon  the  Selkirk 
settlement  for  their  bread  and  butter.  Old  Father  Belcourt,  of 
St.  Joseph,  near  the  Pembina  mountain,  a  Catholic  priest,  and  a 
rustler  in  all  things  for  himself  first  and  for  his  people  next,  built 
a  bull  mill  at  his  mission  at  St.  Joseph  and  ran  it  a  few  years 
with  oxen,  and  ground  what  little  wheat  the  half-breeds  raised. 
With  no  bolt  to  take  the  bran  out  of  the  flour,  it  had  to  be  run 
through  sieves  or  eaten  husks  and  all.  The  half-breeds  did  not 
furnish  wheat  enough  to  make  the  mill  pay,  and  they  could  not 
be  induced  to  greater  industry,  so  that  the  good  old  man  had  to 
give  the  mill  up.  The  result  was  that  the  half-breeds  returned 
to  the  coffee-mill  or  ate  the  grain  raw  or  roasted.  That  mill  was 
the  first.  George  Emerling  and  John  Mayn  built  the  next,  and 
that  mill  is  now  one  of  the  paying  concerns  of  Pembina  county 
at  "Walhalla,  having  all  the  new  improvements  in  merchant  mills. 

First  Mail  Route. 

The  first  public  business  tending  to  civilization  was  the  estab- 
lishing of  a  monthly  mail  between  Pembina  and  Fort  Aber- 
crombie.  It  was  a  kind  of  go-as-you-please,  sometimes  on  foot, 
with  the  mail  bag  on  the  man's  back,  sometimes  by  horse  and  cart, 
and  by  courier,  any  way  so  that  the  mail  was  carried,  and  in  those 
days  it  was  never  behind  time.  At  least  the  contractor  never  was 
docked  or  fined.  From  Pembina  the  mail  was  taken  to  Fort 
Garry,  and  that  office  had  to  use  Uncle  Sam's  stamps.  From  Fort 
Garry  the  route  was  to  Fort  Abercrombie  and  run  by  dog  trains, 
horse  and  cart,  and  one  year  by  ox  cart,  as  all  the  horses  from 
St.  Cloud  to  Fort  Garry  died  or  were  rendered  useless  by  an 
epidemic.  Sometime  in  the  sixties  Captain  Blakeley  and  Carpen- 
ter secured  the  contract  to  carry  the  mail  from  St.  Cloud  to 


Georgetown  on  the  Ked  Eiver,  and  afterward  had  it  extended  to 
Fort  Garry,  Selkirk  settlement. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  stations.  Beginning  at  Pembina 
and  going  up  or  south,  the  first  station  was  Frank  La  Eose's,  at 
Twelve  Mile  Point;  next  were  Bowesmont  and  Long  Point,  near 
Drayton,  Hugh  Biggiotoff;  and  Kelly  Point,  now  Acton.  Kelly 
was  an  old  driver  and  gave  it  up.  Gerard  was  station  agent  as 
long  after  as  the  route  was  in  existence.  Beyond  were  Turtle 
Eiver,  Jo  Caloskey ;  Grand  Forks,  John  Stewart  first,  and  several 
others  afterward;  Buffalo  Coulie,  unknown;  Frog  Point,  un- 
known; Goose  Prairie,  A.  Sargent;  Elm  Eiver,  Johnson;  George- 
town, Hudson  Bay  Company ;  Oak  Point,  unknown ;  Twenty-four 
Mile  Point,  McCauleyville,  and  Breckenridge.  At  none  of  the 
above  stations  was  a  handful  of  grain  raised.  The  contractors 
hauled  all  their  oats  from  St.  Cloud.  The  above  named  points 
were  all  the  settled  points,  and  there  was  not  a  settler  elsewhere 
on  the  river  from  Breckenridge  to  Pembina. 

Steamboats  on  the  Bed  River. 

In  1858,  Anson  Northup  got  the  steamboat  Pioneer  in  suc- 
cessful operation.  Mr.  Cavalier  says  he  was  then  living  at  St. 
Boniface,  Selkirk  settlement,  and  with  his  wife  made  a  trip  on 
her  to  Lower  Fort  Garry,  and  he  says  that  the  settlers  on  the 
bank  of  the  river  were  as  much  surprised  as  were  the  Indians  in 
their  villages  on  the  Minnesota  river  at  the  first  boat  when  she 
steamed  up  to  Mankato.  It  was  a  perfect  circus  all  the  way  down. 

The  International  made  her  appearance  within  three  or  four 
years  afterward  as  a  freight  boat  for  the  Hudson  Bay  Company, 
ostensibly  owned  by  Commodore  N.  W.  Kittson,  and  was  used  as 
long  as  there  was  need  of  a  boat  on  the  river.  She  was  all  the 
time  under  the  command  of  Captain  Frank  Aymond,  a  St.  Louis 
Frenchman  from  Ville  Eoche,  and  he  was  an  excellent  captain. 
Since  leaving  the  river  he  has  been  living  on  his  farm  some  four 
miles  above  Neche  on  the  Pembina  river,  where  he  expects  to  pass 
the  remainder  of  his  days  to  a  happy  old  age. 

The  Selkirk  came  next.  She  was  built  by  James  J.  Hill ;  and 
other  boats  were  built  to  supply  the  increased  demand.  Then 
followed  the  combination  known  as  the  Eed  Eiver  Transportation 


Company,  which  did  business  under  that  head  until  the  railroads 
successfully  shut  off  river  navigation. 

The  amount  of  business  that  these  boats  accomplished  was 
astonishing,  and  yet  they  did  but  little,  perceptibly,  toward  set- 
tling the  country,  as  there  were  only  three  or  four  points  on  the 
river  that  showed  a  beginning  of  what  was  to  come.  From  Fargo 
and  Moorhead  to  Grand  Forks  there  were  only  a  few  settlers; 
and  from  Grand  Forks  to  Drayton  a  few  had  settled  to  stay. 
Bowesmont  was  a  steamboat  landing,  but  never  has  amounted  to 
much.  Then  Joliette  commenced  to  grow  and  is  now  quite  a 
prosperous  community,  and,  last  but  not  least,  Pembina.  Back 
from  the  river  there  was  no  settlement  and  without  the  aid  of 
railroads  it  would  have  taken  an  age  to  build  up  the  country  to 
what  it  now  is. 

Prior  to  1878  there  had  been  a  few  shipments  of  wheat,  which 
had  been  picked  up  along  the  river  by  the  boats.  Frank  C. 
Myrick,  who  was  in  the  commission  business  from  1864,  made 
the  largest  shipment  on  one  of  the  boats  ever  made  from  Pembina. 
It  amounted  to  500  bushels  of  wheat,  which  he  had  collected  from 
the  back  country  on  the  Pembina  and  Tongue  rivers.  From  Grand 
Forks  to  Pembina  settlers  came  dropping  in  by  families  one  at 
a  time,  and  all  came  with  the  idea  that  wheat  was  the  only  staple 
to  be  cultivated  in  the  Red  River  valley,  all  of  which  they  had 
learned  from  the  remarkable  crops  raised  in  the  Selkirk  settle- 
ment with  primitive  tools  for  cultivation,  yielding  from  twenty 
to  fifty  bushels  per  acre.  In  one  instance  by  garden  cultivation 
as  an  experiment  on  the  ground  of  Deacon  James  McKay,  the 
yield  was  seventy-five  bushels  to  the  acre.  If  such  crops  are 
raised  in  Selkirk  with  the  imperfect  cultivation,  why  may  we  not, 
they  reasoned,  do  the  same  or  better  with  improved  machinery 
farther  south  in  the  valley  ?  For  a  few  years  they  did  so,  and  they 
continued  to  do  well  as  long  as  they  confined  themselves  to  the 
extent  of  land  they  could  properly  cultivate.  But  greed  was 
their  worst  enemy.  If  160  acres  panned  out  so  well,  why  would 
not  a  section  do  better?  And  there  they  made  a  mistake,  as  will 
be  explained  later. 


First  Wheat  Raising  Near  the  Pembina  River. 

During  the  period  thus  far  traced,  no  wheat  was  raised  south 
of  the  international  boundary  line.  The  settlers  there  lived  on 
fish,  flesh,  and  fowl.  They  raised  all  the  garden  vegetables 
needed,  and  bought  flour  from  the  Selkirk  settlement.  For  fresh 
meat  they  depended  upon  the  plains,  and  were  seldom  out  of  a 
supply.  Barley  was  raised  for  horse  feed,  and  some  oats  were 
raised,  but  the  blackbirds  devoured  most  of  the  oat  fields.  Hav- 
ing no  mills  to  grind  wheat,  the  settlers  on  the  south  side  of  the 
line  raised  none,  but  did  raise  squaw  corn  for  roasting  ears.  The 
few  cattle  were  kept  on  hay  in  winter,  and  the  Indian  ponies  dug 
theirs  out  of  the  snow,  save  in  a  period  of  unusually  cold  weather 
and  deep  snows,  when  they  were  fed  hay. 

In  1871  or  1872,  Charles  Bottineau,  who  had  tilled  ten  acres 
to  garden,  seeded  it  to  wheat,  and  claims  to  have  raised  fifty 
bushels  of  No.  1  hard  wheat  to  the  acre  upon  it.  His  place  was 
four  miles  above  Neche  on  the  north  side  of  Pembina  river.  Two 
years  later  Charles  Grant,  two  miles  west  of  Pembina,  raised  a 
small  field  of  wheat,  and  claims  to  have  averaged  forty  bushels 
to  the  acre,  all  of  which  they  hauled  to  the  Selkirk  settlement 
to  have  it  ground.  A  man  named  Vere  Ether  came  to  Pembina 
at  the  beginning  of  Kiel's  rebellion  (1869),  and  was  stopped  at  the 
boundary  line  by  Kiel's  scouts.  They  sent  him  back  to  wait  for 
a  more  convenient  time.  He  was  persuaded  to  take  a  preemption 
on  the  Pembina  river  a  few  miles  east  of  Neche.  He  opened  up 
his  farm  and  was  the  first  settler  there  who  made  wheat-raising 
his  chief  employment.  He  always  had  good  crops,  in  good  seasons 
forty  bushels  per  acre  and  never  less  than  fifteen  bushels. 

Pioneer  Farmers  Near  Moorhead  and  Fargo. 

One  of  the  oldest  settlers  and  farmers  in  the  Red  River 
valley,  south  of  the  international  line,  is  Honorable  R.  M.  Probst- 
field,  now  living  on  his  farm  three  and  a  half  miles  north  of 
Moorhead.  He  came  to  the  valley  in  1859,  and  located  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Sheyenne  river,  about  five  miles  south  of  George- 
town. In  October,  1860,  he  went  to  Europe,  and  returned  in  the 
spring  of  1861,  but,  owing  to  the  flooded  condition  of  the  valley 


that  spring,  he  was  unable  to  reach  his  location  until  June  10th. 
At  that  time  parties  by  the  name  of  Roundsville  and  Hanna  were 
on  the  land  where  Mr.  Probstfield  now  lives,  and  that  spring  they 
sowed  a  little  wheat  and  planted  potatoes.  Roundsville  and 
Hanna  were  called  away  and  they  made  arrangements  with  Mr. 
Probstfield  to  harvest  the  wheat  and1  dig  the  potatoes,  but  the 
Chippewa  Indians  threatened  to  drive  them  away  and  kill  their 
stock.  The  wheat  was  destroyed  by  hail.  Mr.  Probstfield  dug 
the  potatoes.  He  had  brought  some  cattle  from  St.  Paul,  and 
that  fall  he  cut  some  hay  on  the  place  now  occupied  by  Jacob 
Wambach.  The  Indians  never  molested  them,  as,  after  the  troops 
at  Fort  Abercrombie  had  given  them  a  whipping,  they  went  north 
into  the  British  possessions.  In  the  fall  of  1861  he  went  to  the 
post  at  Georgetown,  and  lived  there  until  March,  1863,  when 
General  Sibley  ordered  all  whites  to  go  to  Abercrombie.  This  was 
owing  to  the  Indian  uprising.  He  remained  at  Abercrombie  until 
June,  1863,  when  he  was  ordered  by  General  Sibley  to  remove  to 
St.  Cloud,  where  he  remained  until  May,  1864,  when  he  returned 
to  Georgetown.  The  Indians  had  burned  his  buildings  on  the 
Wambach  place,  on  the  Buffalo  river  near  Georgetown.  He  then 
opened  a  boarding  house  in  one  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company's 
buildings  at  Georgetown,  and  was  appointed  postmaster.  There 
were  twenty-five  men  there  at  work  building  barges,  who  lived 
in  the  military  quarters  and  boarded  with  him. 

From  1864  to  1868,  Mr.  Probstfield  was  the  Hudson  Bay  Com- 
pany's agent  at  Georgetown.  In  1862  the  company  seeded  some 
wheat,  but  it  was  not  harvested,  owing  to  the  abandonment  of 
the  post  on  account  of  the  Indian  scare.  The  company  leased 
its  boat,  the  International,  to  Harris,  Gaeger,  Mills  &  Bentley, 
until  the  post  was  again  opened  in  1864.  Roundsville  and  Hanna 
having  abandoned  their  farm,  in  Oakport,  Mr.  Probstfield  took  it 
as  his  homestead  and  occupied  it  in  May,  1869,  where  he  has 
ever  since  lived.  There  were  seventy-one  acres  in  the  place,  and 
he  afterwards  purchased  additional  land  at  $1.25  per  acre.  In 
1869  he  broke  land  for  a  garden,  and  seeded  oats  and  barley  and 
planted  potatoes.  He  also  kept  live  stock.  As  there  were  no 
threshing  machines  or  mills  in  the  country,  it  would  not  pay  to 
raise  wheat.  In  1874,  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  brought  a 


thresher,  a  horse  power  machine,  and  the  company's  agent  at 
Georgetown,  Walter  J.  S.  Traill,  offered  to  thresh  any  wheat  that 
was  grown.  Mr.  Probstfield  accordingly  broke  up  fifteen  acres 
and  seeded  it  to  wheat,  harvesting  twenty-eight  bushels  per  acre, 
which  was  sold  at  about  $1.50  per  bushel.  I  should  have  remarked 
that  during  the  years  1870  to  1873,  Mr.  Probstfield  cultivated  ten 
acres  to  oats,  barley,  corn  and  garden.  Moorhead  and  Fargo 
had  begun  to  be  established  in  1871,  and  these  places  afforded  an 
excellent  market  for  all  the  produce  grown. 

Nels  Larson  raised  some  wheat  also  in  1874,  on  land  about 
two  miles  north  of  Moorhead,  now  known  as  Dr.  Brendemuehl  7s 
farm.  Ole  Thompson,  Hogan  Anderson  (Hicks),  and  Jens  An- 
derson raised  wheat  south  of  Moorhead  the  same  year.  This 
wheat  was  sold  to  an  elevator  in  Fargo  that  was  built  before 
Bruns  &  Finkle  had  built  their  large  elevator  and  mill  in  Moor- 

In  1875,  Mr.  Probstfield  again  raised  wheat,  and  the  number 
who  were  engaged  in  the  industry  considerably  increased  that 
year.  In  the  spring  of  that  year  a  number  of  Norwegians  from 
Houston  county  came  up  and  looked  at  land  on  the  Dakota  side 
between  Georgetown  and  Argusville.  Finding  the  land  very  wet 
by  overflow  of  the  river,  they  returned  to  the  Minnesota  side, 
and  Mr.  Probstfield,  meeting  them,  asked  where  they  were  going, 
and  they  replied,  "Back  to  Houston  county."  He  was  cultivating 
potatoes,  and  he  said  to  them  that  if  they  would  put  two  young 
men  to  work  in  his  place,  he  would  go  with  them  and  show  them 
good  land  .that  had  been  surveyed.  They  agreed,  and  he  took 
them  over  to  the  Buffalo  river  about  six  or  eight  miles  east,  where 
they  located.  There  were  six  or  seven  families,  and  among  them 
were  Ole  Thortvedt,  Ole  Tauge,  Torgerson  Skree,  Ole  Anderson, 
and  others.  They  were  delighted  with  the  location  and  land,  and 
they  or  their  descendants  are  still  there  and  prosperous.  A.  G. 
Kassenborg,  A.  0.  Kragnes,  and  B.  Gunderson  and  others,  came 
a  little  later,  and  located  on  the  Buffalo  river.  Jacob  Wambach 
came  in  1874,  with  his  father-in-law,  Joseph  Stochen.  Contem- 
porary with  Mr.  Probstfield  was  E.  R.  Hutchinson,  who  settled 
where  he  still  resides,  about  two  miles  south  of  Georgetown  on 
the  river.  The  boom  began  about  1878,  when  the  immigration 


into  the  valley  was  very  large.  Wheat  sold  for  $1  and  above  until 
about  1882,  and  it  fell  until  it  reached  the  low  price  of  42  or  43 

One  of  the  oldest  settlers  in  the  valley  on  the  Dakota  side 
and  one  of  the  most  successful  farmers  is  James  Holes.  He  came 
in  July,  1871,  and  bought  out  the  claim  of  Ole  Hanson,  who  had 
a  cabin  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river  about  one  mile  north  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  surveyed  line.  Hanson  had  a  small  patch  of 
corn  and  potatoes.  No  corn  was  secured  that  year,  and  Mr. 
Holes  says  he  dug  about  half  a  barrel  of  potatoes.  The  Northern 
Pacific  railroad  had  laid  tracks  in  the  fall  of  1871  to  the  east  side 
of  the  river,  to  a  point  where  Moorhead  now  stands.  There  was 
no  bridge  as  yet,  and  owing  to  want  of  timber  the  bridge  was  not 
built  until  the  summer  of  1872.  The  first  engine  crossed  the  river 
July  4  (or  June  6),  1872.  Mr.  Holes  states  that  the  freight 
charges  for  wheat  to  Duluth  at  that  time  were  prohibitory  and 
this  discouraged  the  growing  of  it.  He  interviewed  the  general 
manager  and  made  such  representations  to  him.  The  charge  then 
was  $99  for  20,000  pounds.  This  was  exactly  30  cents  per  bushel. 
The  company  soon  after  (in  1873)  made  a  considerable  reduction. 
In  1872  Mr.  Holes  had  the  largest  cultivated  field  in  Cass  county. 
It  was  cropped  to  oats,  potatoes,  and  garden  vegetables,  and  con- 
tained twenty-four  acres.  There  were  good  markets,  and  Mr. 
Holes  shipped  his  produce  to  Fort  Buford,  Bismarck,  Winnipeg, 
and  Glyndon.  In  1873  he  pursued  the  same  employment.  In  1874 
he  seeded  fifteen  acres  of  wheat,  and  harvested  twenty  bushels  per 
acre.  The  season  was  dry,  and,  as  the  land  had  been  gardened,  it 
blew  out  badly,  which  caused  a  rather  light  yield  for  those  early 
years.  The  wheat  was  the  Scotch  Fife  variety,  and  he  sold  it  for 
seed.  In  1875  his  acreage  of  wheat  was  about  the  same,  but  hav- 
ing in  1876  broken  150  acres,  in  the  spring  of  1877  he  seeded  175 
acres  to  wheat  and  secured  an  average  of  twenty-seven  and  one- 
half  bushels  per  acre,  which  he  sold  at  $1  per  bushel.  As  this 
wheat  was  raised  on  land  worth  $5  per  acre,  the  profit  was  large. 

From  1878  to  1893,  Mr.  Holes  yearly  increased  his  acreage 
of  wheat  until  he  had  reached  1,600  acres,  which  has  been  about 
the  extent  of  his  yearly  wheat  cultivation  since.  His  land  is  now 
worth  $30  per  acre.  The  poorest  field  he  ever  harvested  was  ten 


bushels  per  acre,  and  the  best  forty-four  bushels.  His  average  has 
always  exceeded  ten  bushels,  but  never  exceeded  twenty-seven 
and  one-half  bushels.  The  price  has  ranged  from  $1.50  to  45  cents 
per  bushel.  Grasshoppers  prevailed  from  1871  to  1877,  and 
wreaked  more  or  less  damage  every  year.  In  May,  1876,  the 
settlers  burned  the  young  grasshoppers  in  the  prairie  grass,  which 
checked  them;  and  in  1877  they  all  flew  away,  and  this  part  of 
the  valley  has  not  been  troubled  with  them  since.  Mr.  Holes' 
crops  have,  in  the  twenty-eight  years  of  his  residence  here,  been 
injured  by  hail  four  seasons.  The  most  disastrous  hailstorm  was 
last  season,  when  he  lost,  as  he  figures  it,  about  16,000  bushels 
of  wheat  by  hail.  Mr.  Holes  states  as  his  judgment,  formed  after 
long  experience,  that  wheat  can  be  produced  at  a  profit  in  the 
valley  when  properly  cultivated,  excluding  from  the  calculation 
the  advance  in  price  of  land,  and  that  the  valley  is  one  of  the 
best  in  the  United  States  for  profitable  farming. 

Moorhead  was  the  terminus  of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad 
for  a  period  of  two  years,  and  a  large  amount  of  freight  was 
transferred  at  that  point  for  transportation  down  the  Red  River 
to  Winnipeg  and  other  places.  At  that  time  nine  steamers  were 
plying  on  the  river,  and  a  number  of  flatboats  were  used  in  con- 
nection. An  eye  witness  has  informed  me  that  he  has  seen  as 
many  as  eleven  hundred  Mennonite  immigrants  camped  at  Moor- 
head  and  bound  for  Manitoba  and  the  Northwest  Territory,  who 
pitched  their  tents  on  the  banks  of  the  Red  River,  awaiting  trans- 
portation by  boat  down. 

In  May,  1871,  there  were  a  few  settlers  at  Glyndon,  Muskoda, 
and  Hawley,  and  a  few  along  the  Red  River  within  the  present 
limits  of  Clay  county.  The  very  earliest  settlements  were  made 
at  Georgetown  by  Adam  Stein,  R.  M.  Probstfield,  and  E.  R. 
Hutchinson,  who  became  husbandmen  and  tillers  of  the  soil.  We 
have  the  gratification  of  knowing  that  they  are  still  living  wit- 
nesses of  the  fertility  of  the  Red  River  valley  soil  and  the  health- 
fulness  of  the  climate,  and  moreover  of  the  fecundity  of  mankind 
when  under  the  influence  of  both  these.  Mr.  Hutchinson  is  the 
father  of  seventeen  children,  Mr.  Probstfield  of  thirteen,  and  Mr. 
Stein  of  eight. 

It  may  be  of  interest  to  my  hearers  to  learn  the  particulars  as 


to  how  it  happened  that  these  three  pioneers  drifted  into  what 
is  now  one  of  the  most  famous  agricultural  regions  in  the  world, 
but  which  was  then  a  dreary  waste  uninhabited  save  by  Indians 
and  roamed  by  wild  beasts.  In  March,  1859,  a  party  of  capital- 
ists, consisting  in  part  of  Messrs.  Peter  Poncin,  Welch,  and  Bot- 
tineau,  of  Minneapolis,  and  Barneau,  John  Irvine,  and  Freuden- 
reich,  of  St.  Paul,  explored  the  Red  River  country;  and  their  in- 
vestigations convinced  them  that  a  point  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Sheyenne  river,  about  fourteen  miles  north  of  the  present  site  of 
Moorhead,  was  the  head  of  navigation  of  the  Red  River,  and  they 
judged  that  it  was  the  natural  point  for  a  townsite.  They  there- 
fore covered  a  plot  of  land  at  the  point  named  on  the  Minnesota 
side  of  the  Red  River  with  scrip,  and  laid  out  a  town  which  they 
named  La  Fayette,  and  they  sold  a  great  many  shares  in  this 
townsite  to  parties  east.  On  the  site  they  built  a  large  log  house, 
which  they  intended  for  a  tavern.  At  this  time  Mr.  Probstfield 
was  in  business  at  St.  Paul  in  partnership  with  George  Emerling, 
and  the  townsite  owners  induced  Mr.  Probstfield  to  go  up  to  La 
Fayette.  He  remained  there  for  a  year  or  more  and  soon  after 
preempted  a  claim  on  the  south  side  of  Buffalo  river,  not  far 
from  Georgetown.  In  1864  he  went  into  the  employ  of  the  Hud- 
son Bay  Company  at  Georgtown,  where  they  had  a  warehouse 
and  trading  post. 

Mr.  Stein  was  induced  in  July,  1859,  to  go  to  La  Fayette,  and 
he  afterwards  preempted  a  claim  near  Georgetown.  His  first 
work  was  in  cutting  prairie  grass  and  making  hay,  which  he  sold 
to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company;  and  later  he  worked  in  erecting 
buildings  at  Georgtown  for  that  company.  In  December,  1861, 
Mr.  Stein  enlisted  as  a  soldier  in  the  Fourth  Minnesota  regiment 
and  served  through  the  Civil  war.  After  his  return  from  the 
war,  he  settled  on  land  near  the  Hudson  Bay  Company's  build- 
ings at  Georgetown,  and  has  been  a  farmer  there  ever  since. 

The  first  steamboat  on  the  Red  River  was  built  at  La  Fayette, 
the  materials  for  which  were  transported  across  the  country  from 
Crow  Wing  on  the  Mississippi,  where  the  steamer  North  Star 
was  broken  up  for  that  purpose.  The  new  boat  was  named  the 
Anson  Northup.  With  the  party  who  came  across  the  country 
with  those  materials  was  E.  R.  Hutchinson,  who  helped  to  build 


the  boat,  and  for  a  number  of  years  he  was  engaged  in  boating 
on  the  Red  River  and  building  boats  thereon  and  also  on  the  Sas- 
katchewan. Mr.  Hutchinson  afterward  became  a  farmer  and  pre- 
empted land  not  far  from  the  old  site  of  La  Fayette,  where  he 
now  lives.  I  have  related  in  another  place  how  Mr.  Probstfield 
became  one  of  the  first  farmers  in  the  valley.  Besides  these  three 
men  on  the  north  of  the  line  of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  there 
were  on  the  south  Jens  Anderson  and  his  brother,  about  three 
miles  south  of  Moorhead.  Ole  Thompson  made  settlement  about 
the  same  time  on  the  river  about  eleven  miles  south. 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1871  Henry  A.  Bruns  went  from  St. 
Cloud  to  Brainerd,  which  was  then  the  western  end  of  the  North- 
ern Pacific  railroad  track.  From  Brainerd  he  rode  to  Oak  Lake, 
at  the  engineers'  headquarters  of  the  road,  where  he  met  General 
Thomas  L.  Rosser.  The  Northern  Pacific  had  surveyed  its  line 
to  the  Red  River  at  a  point  some  twenty-eight  miles  below  Moor- 
head.  Mr.  Bruns  was  prospecting,  looking  for  business  chances. 
He  then  returned  to  St.  Paul,  bought  a  load  of  provisions  and 
ready-made  clothing,  and  hauled  them  to  the  Red  River.  Where 
Mr.  Probstfield 's  house  now  stands  (about  three  and  a  half  miles 
north  of  Moorhead),  he  found  an  encampment  of  tents,  and  here 
he  met  H.  G.  Finkle,  J.  B.  Chapin,  and  John  Haggert.  This  was 
about  June,  1871.  Mr.  Bruns  opened  out  his  goods  in  a  tent,  and 
formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  Finkle.  They  remained  at  this 
point  (Oakport)  until  September,  when,  the  townsite  of  Moor- 
head having  been  staked  out,  all  those  at  Oakport  removed  there- 
to. At  Moorhead  they  did  business  in  tents  all  winter.  In  March, 
1872,  Mr.  Bruns  went  to  McCauleyville  and  bought  a  lot  of 
lumber,  hired  teams,  and  hauled  it  to  Moorhead.  Bruns  &  Finkle 
then  erected  a  frame  building,  of  21  by  50  feet.  They  continued 
to  do  business  in  this  building  until  1877,  when  they  built  a  large 
brick  store. 

We  have  given  this  somewhat  lengthy  introduction  of  Mr. 
Bruns  into  this  history  for  the  reason  that  he  was  a  pioneer  in 
promoting  the  industry  of  wheat  raising  in  the  Red  River  valley. 
In  the  winter  of  1871-2,  Mr.  Bruns  purchased  500  bushels  of  seed 
wheat,  which  he  gathered  along  the  Minnesota  river  and  farther 
south  and  east,  and  transported  it  hundreds  of  miles  by  sleds. 


which  wheat  he  distributed  among  the  farmers  of  Clay  and  Nor- 
man counties,  Minnesota,  and  Cass  and  Traill  counties,  Dakota. 
The  facilities  for  raising  wheat  that  year  being  poor  and  the 
grasshoppers  very  destructive,  there  was  no  surplus  from  the 
harvest  in  excess  of  the  amount  required  for  seed  the  next  year. 
Early  in  1874,  Mr.  Bruns  organized  a  stock  company  which 
erected  the  first  flouring  mill  and  sawmill.  This  mill  soon  demon- 
strated that  the  wheat  of  the  valley  was  of  superior  quality  for 
making  strong  flour  and  excellent  bread.  The  flour  was  awarded 
the  first  premium  at  the  Minneapolis  and  Minnesota  State  fairs 
two  consecutive  seasons.  The  sawmill  cut  timber  for  the  construc- 
tion of  the  steamboats,  the  Minnesota  and  Manitoba,  built  at 
Moorhead  in  1875,  by  the  Merchants'  Transportation  Company,  of 
which  James  Douglas,  brother  of  John  Douglas  of  St.  Paul,  was 
president.  They  were  the  best  boats  ever  on  Red  River.  This 
assisted  in  opening  up  Manitoba  and  the  Northwest  Territory 
markets.  Later  the  Upper  Missouri  and  Black  Hills  countries 
were  secured,  and  later  still  the  Yellowstone  country,  as  markets 
for  the  flour  of  this  mill.  It  created  a  market  for  the  wheat  pro- 
duced within  a  wide  radius,  and  for  a  number  of  years  took  all 
that  was  offered,  rarely  giving  less  than  $1  per  bushel. 

In  1878,  Bruns  and  Finkle,  seeing  the  necessity  for  more 
storage  for  the  rapidly  increasing  production  of  wheat,  erected  a 
large  steam  elevator  at  Moorhead,  with  a  capacity  of  110,000 
bushels.  It  was  the  first  steam  elevator  built  in  the  Red  River 
valley.  Mr.  Bruns  informs  the  writer  that  in  the  fall  of  1873  he 
shipped  the  first  carload  of  wheat  from  the  Red  River  to  Lake 
Superior,  which,  by  personal  hard  work  in  cleaning,  was  graded 
No.  2,  though  it  certainly  was  No.  1,  none  like  it  ever  having  been 
shipped  in  the  history  of  the  world  before.  Mr.  Bruns,  in  a  per- 
sonal letter,  says:  "In  the  fall  of  1874  I  commenced  to  grind 
about  all  the  wheat  then  grown  in  the  Red  River  valley,  and  in 
the  fall  of  1875  I  gathered  wheat  and  other  grain,  not  as  before 
by  the  thousand  but  by  the  tens  of  thousands  of  bushels,  and  with 
wheat  and  flour  of  my  own  grinding  supplied  the  Canadian  gov- 
ernment and  Mennonites  with  seed  and  bread  throughout  Mani- 

Of  the  pioneer  farmers  who  broke  land  extensively  and  opened 


farms  in  Clay  county  are  John  and  Patrick  H.  Lamb,  Franklin  J. 
Schreiber,  G.  S.  Barnes,  Lyman  Loring,  George  M.  Richardson, 
Captain  W.  H.  Newcomb,  A.  M.  Burdick,  W.  J.  Bodkin,  and 
Charles  Brendemuehl. 

Early  Wheat  Raising  Near  Fort  Abercrombie. 

Wheat  was  grown  near  Abercrombie,  on  the  east  or  Minne- 
sota side  of  the  river,  in  what  is  now  Wilkin  county,  about  as  early 
as  anywhere  in  the  valley,  except  in  the  Selkirk  settlement  and 
in  Pembina  county,  North  Dakota,  then  the  Territory  of  Dakota. 
Probably  the  first  man  to  sow  and  harvest  wheat  in  the  upper 
or  southern  part  of  the  valley  was  Honorable  David  McCauley. 
I  append  herewith  his  narrative  just  as  he  has  given  it  to  me. 

"I  came  to  Abercrombie  July  17,  1861,  to  act  as  post  sutler, 
postmaster,  and  agent  for  the  Northern  Transportation  Company. 
In  the  spring  of  1862,  I  sowed  a  few  acres  of  barley,  planted 
potatoes,  and  opened  up  a  garden,  which  were  destroyed  by  the 
Indians  in  August.  In  the  spring  of  1864,  I  crossed  over  on  the 
Minnesota  side  of  the  river  opposite  to  the  fort  and  commenced 
farming.  In  1865  I  sowed  some  seventy-five  acres  of  oats  and 
planted  a  few  acres  of  potatoes,  and  continued  to  sow  and  plant 
the  same  crops  until  1871.  There  was  no  market  for  wheat  until 
that  time,  nor  until  the  railroad  reached  Moorhead  or  Brecken- 
ridge.  In  the  spring  of  1872  I  put  in  a  few  acres  of  wheat,  and 
have  continued  the  same  up  to  the  present  time.  This  season 
(1899)  I  raised  10,000  bushels  of  wheat.  In  the  earlier  years  the 
yield  of  wheat  was  about  the  same  as  now.  The  land  that  I 
cultivated  in  1865  has  been  cropped  every  year  since  except  three, 
and  the  yield  in  1899  was  as  good  as  I  have  known  it.  I  know 
of  no  wheat  being  sown  in  the  valley  earlier  than  mine.  The 
following  are  some  of  the  men  who  sowed  wheat  soon  after  I 
did:  Edward  Connolly  and  Mitchell  Robert,  Breckenridge ; 
Loure  Bellman,  J.  R.  Harris,  and  J.  B.  Welling,  McCauley vill e ; 
Frank  Herrick  and  John  Eggen,  Abercrombie.  In  the  early  days 
the  only  market  for  oats  and  potatoes  was  Fort  Abercrombie." 

Development  by  Railroads. 

Prior  to  1878  there  were  no  settlements  away  from  the  Red, 
Red  Lake,  and  Pembina  rivers,  in  the  lower  or  northern  portion  of 


the  valley,  so  that,  in  treating  of  the  Minnesota  side  north  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  railroad,  it  is  apparent  that  no  wheat  was  grown 
on  that  side  (except  near  Moorhead)  until  the  completion  of  the 
St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  railroad  (now  the  Great  North- 
ern) to  St.  Vincent,  when  immigration  set  in,  bringing  settlers 
to  many  stations,  who  at  once  began  to  break  land  and  sow  it  to 
wheat.  The  district  between  the  railroad  and  Red  River  was 
first  settled. 

It  is  a  fact,  which  none  will  dispute,  that  the  building  of  rail- 
roads into  and  through  the  valley  has  been  the  most  important 
factor  in  settling  the  country  and  developing  the  resources  of 
this  fertile  plain.  Without  these  it  would  today  be  practically  un- 
populated and  undeveloped,  as  it  remained  for  fifty  years  after 
the  Selkirk  settlers  had  demonstrated  its  adaptability  to  cultiva- 
tion. There  might  have  been  a  fringe  of  settlements  along  the 
streams,  but  without  more  efficient  means  for  transporting  wheat 
and  other  agricultural  products  to  market,  there  could  not  have 
been  any  great  development  and  production. 

The  Dalrymple  Farm. 

Another  leading  factor  in  settling  the  country  has  been  the 
so  called  bonanza  farms.  Those  demonstrated  on  a  large  scale 
the  practicability  of  producing  wheat  at  a  profit  on  the  flat  lands 
of  the  valley.  They  advertised  the  results  of  great  operations, 
and  made  known  to  the  world  the  wonderful  possibilities  of  the 

The  first  of  these  was  the  Dalrymple  farm,  eighteen  miles 
west  of  the  Red  River,  opened  up  in  1875  and  subsequent  years. 
A  brief  description  of  this  farm  may  be  of  interest.  In  the  year 
1875,  a  number  of  large  holders  of  the  bonds  of  the  Northern 
Pacific  Railroad  Company,  supposed  to  be  the  Grandin  brothers, 
Messrs.  Cass,  Howe,  and  Cheney,  who  had  taken  the  bonds  at  par 
and  which  were  then  worth  only  ten  cents  on  the  dollar,  deter- 
mined to  save  as  much  as  possible,  and  exchanged  the  bonds  for 
a  great  block  of  the  company's  lands  in  the  Red  River  valley.  In 
March,  1875,  Oliver  Dalrymple,  an  experienced  farmer  of  Minne- 
sota, examined  the  land  and  became  convinced  of  its  value  for 
wheat  growing.  He  therefore  entered  into  a  contract  with  the 

E.   Y.    SARLES 


owners  to  test  the  merits  of  the  soil,  the  terms  of  which  contract 
are  understood  to  be  that  they  were  to  furnish  the  stock,  imple- 
ments, and  seed,  with  which  to  cultivate  the  land,  and  were  to 
receive  in  return  seven  per  cent,  on  the  amount  invested,  Dal- 
rymple  to  have  the  option  of  paying  back  the  principal  and  inter- 
est, at  which  time  he  was  to  be  granted  one-third  of  the  land.  In 
that  year  be  broke  1,280  acres,  and  his  first  harvest,  in  1876,  yield- 
ed 32,000  bushels  of  the  choicest  wheat,  or  an  average  of  a  little 
more  than  twenty-three  bushels  per  acre. 

As  soon  as  the  results  of  Mr.  Dalrymple's  experiment  became 
known,  capital  began  seeking  the  depreciated  railroad  bonds  and 
exchanging  them  for  land,  and  labor  flocked  from  adjoining 
states  to  preempt  government  land.  In  May,  June,  and  July, 
1879,  the  sales  of  government  land  amounted  to  nearly  700,000 
acres,  and  during  the  year,  1,500,000  acres  were  taken  on  home- 
stead, preemption,  and  tree  claims  in  Dakota. 

The  Dalrymple  holdings  comprised  some  100,000  acres  in  all, 
and  in  1878  the  wheat  acreage  had  been  increased  to  13,000  acres ; 
and  it  was  increased  from  year  to  year  until  in  1895  there  were 
some  65,000  acres  under  cultivation.  The  cultivated  land  was 
subdivided  into  tracts  of  2,000  acres,  each  tract  being  managed 
by  a  superintendent  and  foreman,  with  its  own  set  of  books. 
Each  estate  had  suitable  and  complete  buildings,  consisting  of 
houses  for  superintendent  and  men,  stables,  granaries,  tool-houses, 
and  other  buildings.  As  a  matter  of  course,  to  carry  on  the 
Dalrymple  farm  required  the  services  of  a  large  number  of  men 
and  horses,  the  use  of  many  plows,  harrows,  seeders,  harvesters, 
threshers  and  engines,  wagons,  and  other  implements  and  tools. 
A  settlement  was  effected  in  1896  and  years  following,  Mr. 
Dalrymple  taking  his  share,  and  the  great  farm  was  divided  and 
now  comprises,  besides  the  Dalrymple,  the  Howe  and  Cheney 
farms,  and  perhaps  others. 

The  Grandin  Farm. 

Another  bonanza  farm  of  large  extent  was  the  Grandin  farm 
consisting  of  38,000  acres,  of  which  14,000  acres  in  and  around 
Grandin,  and  6,000  acres  near  Mayville  in  Traill  county,  North 
Dakota,  are  now  under  cultivation.  The  first  crop  of  wheat  was 


grown  and  harvested  on  this  farm  in  1878.  This  farm  was  oper- 
ated in  a  similar  manner  as  the  Dalrymple  farm,  being  divided 
into  tracts  of  1,500  acres,  managed  by  a  foreman.  The  two  farms 
employ  some  300  men  and  300  horses,  and  use  100  plows,  50  seed- 
ers, 75  binders,  10  separators,  and  10  engines,  etc.  The  average 
yield  of  wheat  on  this  farm  has  been  17  bushels  per  acre.  In 
1899  a  severe  hailstorm  destroyed  eight  sections  of  wheat  on  this 
farm,  which  was  ripe  for  the  harvest.  That  was  the  only  wide- 
spread damage  that  has  occurred  to  the  crops  of  the  farm  in  the 
twenty-one  years  it  has  been  operated. 

There  are  a  number  of  other  bonanza  farms  on  both  sides  of 
the  river,  as  the  Lockhart  and  Keystone  farms,  respectively  in 
Norman  and  Polk  counties,  Minnesota,  and  the  Dwight,  Fairview, 
Cleveland,  Downing,  and  Antelope  farms  in  North  Dakota.  In 
fact,  large  farms  have  been  opened  in  all  the  twelve  counties, 
farms  comprising  three  to  five  sections  of  land.  They  have  served 
their  purpose,  and  many  of  them  have  been  reduced  or  divided 
and  sold. 

Increase  of  Population  and  Wealth. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  the  rapid  growth  of  population  and 
wealth  that  has  taken  place  in  the  Red  River  valley  within  thirty 
years.  In  that  time  many  cities,  villages,  and  hamlets,  have  been 
established  and  builded,  some  of  which  have  grown  until  they 
may  fairly  be  denominated  as  magnificent  and  metropolitan.  It 
is  hardly  needed  to  name  Fargo  and  Moorhead  (one  city  in  a 
commercial  and  social  sense,  although  situated  in  different 
states) ;  Grand  Forks  and  East  Grand  Forks,  similarly  situated; 
and  likewise  Wahpeton  and  Breckenridge.  Pembina  and  St.  Vin- 
cent also  are  somewhat  similarly  situated,  though  more  distant 
from  each  other.  Besides  there  are  Crookston,  on  the  Red  Lake 
river,  Hallock,  Warren,  Ada,  and  Barnesville,  in  Minnesota,  Graf- 
ton  and  Hillsboro,  in  North  Dakota,  and  many  others  of  less  note 
in  both  states. 

In  1870  the  population  of  the  twelve  counties  was  about  1,000. 
In  1880  it  was  56,000.  In  1890  it  was  166,000.  In  1900  it  is  esti- 
mated to  be  350,000.  The  valuation  of  property  in  the  valley  in 
1870  was  zero.  At  this  date  it  is  estimated  at  not  less  than 


$100,000,000;  and  I  am  speaking  of  assessed  valuation,  which  is, 
as  a  matter  of  course,  far  short  of  actual  valuation. 

Causes  of  Occasional  Failures. 

While  there  has  been  a  somewhat  remarkable  development  of 
the  wheat  growing  industry  in  the  Red  River  valley,  and  it  is 
undisputed  that  its  soil  and  climate  are  as  favorable  as  any  in 
the  United  States,  and  perhaps  in  the  world,  yet  many  industrious 
men  have  scored  failures.  In  every  employment,  business,  or 
industry,  failures  sometimes  occur;  and  therefore,  if  they  have 
occurred  in  raising  wheat  where  the  conditions  are  favorable,  it 
is  not  surprising.  It  is  also  clear  that  such  failures  are  chargeable 
to  the  mistakes  of  the  men  so  engaged,  rather  than  to  the  country. 

From  a  long  observation  of  the  methods  employed  and  of  the 
equipment  of  those  who  have  pursued  the  work,  I  am  of  the  opin- 
ion that  the  chief  cause  of  failure  has  been  the  fact  that  men 
have  undertaken  larger  tasks  than  their  means  warranted.  In 
the  early  years  of  the  settlement  of  the  valley  men  were  infected 
as  with  a  craze.  Wheat  was  selling  at  a  dollar  and  upwards  per 
bushel,  while  land  could  be  had  by  paying  the  government  fees 
for  making  entry,  or  by  purchase  at  $5  per  acre.  Stories  of  large 
yields  and  high  prices  were  circulated,  and  many  believed  that 
they  could  make  themselves  rich  in  a  few  years  by  raising  wheat. 
Many  embarked  in  it  on  borrowed  capital,  secured  at  high  rates 
of  interest ;  and  some  capital  is  needed  although  no  payment  of 
money  was  made  in  advance  on  the  land.  It  must  be  broken  and 
seeded,  the  crop  harvested,  threshed,  and  marketed.  To  do  this 
requires  horses,  implements,  and  hire  of  laborers.  Many  men, 
doubtless,  who  have  commenced  in  this  way  have  succeeded ;  but 
this  result  has  been  accomplished  by  superior  skill,  economy,  good 
business  management,  and  fortuitous  circumstances.  By  far  the 
greater  number  have  failed  in  the  end.  They  may  have  won  some 
success  for  a  year  or  more,  but,  when  they  found  themselves 
ahead,  greed  got  the  better  of  their  foresight  and  judgment,  and 
they  have  contracted  for  more  land  and  larger  equipment.  Then 
a  year  of  light  yield,  of  damage  by  flood,  drouth  or  frost,  and  a 
fall  of  price  in  conjunction,  have  succeeded,  which  has  greatly 
diminished  the  value  of  their  harvested  crop ;  while  the  labor  bills, 


the  payments  for  machinery,  the  interest  on  borrowed  capital, 
have  piled  up,  and  so  the  failure  comes. 

If  these  men  had  been  satisfied  to  let  well  enough  alone,  if 
they  had  continued  to  cultivate  what  they  might  have  done  with- 
out hiring  much  help  or  buying  additional  machinery,  they  would 
have  weathered  the  unfavorable  years,  as  their  obligations  would 
have  been  small,  and  as  to  obtaining  a  living,  there  is  no  question 
but  that  they  could  have  done  that,  though  their  entire  crop  was 
a  failure.  They  could  have  found  work  with  their  horses  among 
their  neighbors ;  they  could  have  cut  hay  on  the  wide  prairies  and 
have  hauled  it  to  market,  or  found  employment  sufficient  to  keep 
themselves  and  families,  in  a  score  of  ways. 

It  has  been  the  undue  haste  to  get  rich,  the  reaching  out  and 
covering  more  land  than  they  had  means  of  doing,  except  on  bor- 
rowed capital,  that  has  been  the  ruin  of  so  many.  This  inclination 
has  also  had  another  injurious  effect.  It  has  produced  poor  culti- 
vation, careless  plowing  and  seeding,  harvesting  and  threshing 
at  unseasonable  times,  and  general  slighting  of  work,  instead  of 
thorough,  timely  and  skillful  cultivation,  which  always  brings  its 
reward,  but  the  other  kind  never. 

Better  and  More  Diversified  Cultivation  Needed. 

I  am  of  the  firm  opinion  that,  whereas  the  average  of  wheat 
produced  from  an  acre  of  land  in  the  valley  is  about  fifteen  bush- 
els per  acre,  or  in  some  years  a  little  more,  it  could  be  raised  to 
28  or  30  bushels;  and  that,  while  there  are  now  produced  crops 
ranging  from  12  to  30  bushels  per  acre,  there  could  be  secured  30 
to  40  bushels  almost  invariably.  I  am  confirmed  in  this  opinion 
by  numerous  instances  where  small  fields  which  have  been  espe- 
cially treated  and  cultivated,  sown  to  wheat,  have  produced  35  to 
40  bushels  per  acre.  Thus  we  have  seen  pieces  which  had  been 
cultivated  to  roots,  potatoes,  garden  vegetables,  etc.,  in  previous 
years,  the  cultivation  of  which  crops  has  required  deep  tillage, 
frequent  stirring  of  the  ground  with  plow  or  cultivator,  and  other 
pieces  which  had  been  seeded  to  timothy  and  pastured,  being 
plowed  and  sown  to  wheat,  produce  35  and  as  high  as  42  bushels 
per  acre  in  years  when  the  adjoining  large  fields  did  not  average 
more  than  16  or  18  bushels  per  acre. 


And  so  the  conclusion  is  drawn  that  when  the  valley  becomes 
more  thickly  settled,  the  value  of  land  higher,  compelling  to  bet- 
ter cultivation,  and  in  less  extensive  tracts,  no  man  undertaking 
to  exceed  320  acres,  the  yield  per  acre  will  be  increased.  When 
this  time  comes,  it  will  be  accompanied  also  with  more  diversified 
farming.  There  will  be  flocks  and  herds,  milk  and  butter,  eggs 
and  fowl,  beef,  pork  and  mutton,  etc.;  and  then  the  Red  River 
valley  will  be,  according  to  its  extent,  the  most  productive  region 
in  the  whole  country. 

Railroad  Freight  Rates  and  Legislation. 

Along  in  1883,  or  1884,  the  price  of  wheat  at  Red  River  points 
having  fallen  to  about  60  cents,  there  was  little  or  no  profit  in  its 
production  and  in  many  cases  a  considerable  loss,  which  caused 
great  uneasiness  and  dissatisfaction  among  the  farmers.  They 
looked  about  them  for  some  relief,  and,  as  the  cost  of  transport- 
ing wheat  to  the  terminal  points  was  the  same,  namely,  25  cents 
per  hundred  pounds,  or  15  cents  per  bushel,  as  when  wheat  sold 
for  $1.00  or  more  per  bushel,  they  were  of  opinion  that  the  freight 
charge  should  be  reduced.  They  thought  that  the  railroad  com- 
panies might  fairly  be  called  upon  to  share  with  them  some  of  the 
loss  that  they  sustained.  Appeals  to  the  companies  for  reduction 
were  without  effect.  Therefore  the  farmers  resolved  to  secure  a 
reduction,  and  other  reforms,  connected  therewith,  by  political 
action,  and  they  began  holding  meetings,  where  the  whole  matter 
was  discussed  and  resolutions  passed.  A  good  deal  of  complaint 
was  also  made  against  the  alleged  close  alliance  that  existed  be- 
tween the  railroad  companies,  the  elevator  companies,  and  the 
millers'  association,  by  which  every  producer  was  compelled  to 
pass  his  wheat  through  an  elevator  and  pay  its  charges  for  hand- 
ling, which  fixed  its  grade,  and  he  generally  had  to  sell  it  to  the 
elevator  at  such  a  price  as  the  company  owning  the  elevator  might 
give.  The  farmer  wanted  the  right  to  load  on  cars  and  ship  direct 
to  a  terminal  market.  This  agitation  had  its  birth  in  Clay  county, 
and  it  extended  throughout  the  wheat-raising  districts  of  the 
state.  It  was  the  promoting  cause  for  the  organization  of  the 
Farmers '  Alliance,  which  afterward  became  a  political  party,  and 


evolved  into  the  People's  party.  It  had  its  effect,  and  the  legisla- 
ture, in  its  session  of  1885,  passed  an  act,  approved  March  5,  1885, 
which  regulated  railroads  and  provided  for  the  board  of  railroad 
and  warehouse  commissioners. 

Briefly  stated,  the  law  provided  that  the  railroad  companies 
should  make  annual  reports  to  the  board  of  commissioners,  show- 
ing amount  of  stock  subscribed,  amount  of  assets  and  liabilities, 
amount  of  debt,  estimated  value  of  roadbed,  of  rolling  stock,  of 
stations  and  buildings,  mileage  of  main  tracks  and  of  branches, 
tons  of  through  and  local  freight  carried,  monthly  earnings  for 
carrying  passengers  and  freight,  expenses  incurred  in  running 
passenger  and  freight  trains,  and  all  other  expenses,  rate  of  pas- 
senger fare,  tariff  of  freights,  and  many  other  minor  particulars 
and  things ;  and  the  commission  was  authorized  to  make  and  pro- 
pound any  other  interrogatories  relating  to  the  condition,  opera- 
tion and  control  of  railroads  in  this  state,  as  might  be  necessary, 
and  they  were  empowered  to  make  investigation,  examine  books, 
etc. ;  and  proper  penalties  were  provided  for  in  case  of  refusal  of 
companies  to  furnish  the  information  demanded.  It  also  required 
every  railroad  company  to  permit  any  person  or  company  to  build 
and  operate  elevators  at  any  of  its  way  stations.  It  compelled 
railroads  to  furnish  cars  on  application  for  transporting  grain 
stored  in  any  and  all  elevators  or  warehouses  without  discrimina- 
tion. It  prohibited  extortion  and  discrimination  in  rates,  and 
also  empowered  the  commission  to  notify  any  railroad  company 
of  any  changes  in  rates,  or  in  operation  of  roads,  that  in  their 
judgment  ought  to  be  made  for  carrying  passengers  or  freight, 
and,  in  case  of  refusal  of  the  company  to  make  them,  to  institute 
suit  to  compel  such  changes  or  reductions. 

At  the  same  time  the  legislature  passed  an  act  to  regulate 
elevators  and  warehouses,  and  for  the  inspection  and  weighing  of 
grain.  The  main  provisions  of  this  act  may  be  stated  as  follows : 
Declaring  all  elevators  and  warehouses  at  Duluth,  Minneapolis, 
and  St.  Paul,  public;  requiring  their  proprietors  to  take  out 
license ;  providing  that  such  elevators  and  warehouses  shall  re- 
ceive grain  for  storage  without  discrimination,  to  give  receipts 
therefor,  to  deliver  the  grain  or  return  the  receipt ;  requiring  the 


owner  or  lessee  to  make  and  post  weekly  in  a  conspicuous  place 
a  statement  of  kind  and  grade  of  grain  received,  to  send  a  report 
daily  to  the  state  registrar,  and  to  publish  rates  for  storage ;  pro- 
hibiting the  mixing  together  of  grain  of  different  grades;  pro- 
viding for  the  appointment  of  a  state  weighmaster  and  assistants, 
who  shall  weigh  grain  at  points  where  it  is  inspected;  providing 
for  the  appointment  of  a  chief  inspector  and  of  deputy  inspec- 
tors, for  the  inspection  and  grading  of  grain  under  such  rules  as 
the  commission  shall  prescribe,  for  which  inspection  a  fee  shall 
be  collected  sufficient  to  meet  the  expenses  of  the  service;  and 
providing  that  the  commisison  shall  establish  Minnesota  grades 
and  publish  the  same. 

Under  these  laws  and  amendments  thereto,  it  is  well  known 
and  undisputed  that  there  has  been  much  more  freedom  in  the 
shipment  of  wheat  and  other  grain  than  before.  Farmers  have 
since  been  able  to  order  cars  to  a  side  track  and  load  them  from 
their  wheat  fields,  or  otherwise,  whence  they  are  hauled  to  such 
market  as  they  shall  designate.  The  commissioners  have,  under 
the  law,  defined  and  established  grades  of  wheat,  and  the  inspec- 
tion is  made  at  the  terminals  in  accordance  therewith,  and  the 
wheat  is  also  weighed. 

The  operation  of  this  law  seems  to  have  been  beneficial  and 
satisfactory  for  the  most  part.  The  season  of  1898  was  an  excep- 
tion, when  it  was  charged  that  the  grades  were  suddenly  stiffened, 
by  which  the  producer  lost  one  or  more  grades,  or  from  4  to  7 
cents  in  value  per  bushel  of  wheat,  and  that  this  stiffening  was 
without  just  ground.  These  charges  also  originated,  as  the  agita- 
tion for  reduction  of  freight  charges  had  done,  in  Clay  county, 
and  were  made  an  issue  in  the  state  election  that  year ;  and  it  is 
believed  that,  as  Honorable  John  Lind,  the  candidate  for  gov- 
ernor of  the  Democrats,  Populists,  and  Silver  Republicans,  cham- 
pioned them,  it  gave  him  many  votes.  They  were  substantially 
verified  by  an  investigation  made  by  a  joint  committee  of  the 

The  freight  on  wheat,  in  cents  per  100  pounds,  since  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Red  River  valley,  from  different  primary  points  to 
Minneapolis  and  Duluth,  has  been  as  follows : 


To  Minneapolis.  To  Duluth. 

Sept.    Oct.    July          Sept.    Oct.    July 
Various  1,        9,        21,  1,        9,        21, 

Dates  1891    1895     1898          1891    1895     1898 

Morris 28c.     12        12        12  15        15        14} 

Breckenridge   35       14        14        13  15        15        14} 

Crookston   27       16J      16}      14  16}      16}      14 

St.  Vincent 35       18        18        16  18        18        16 

Moorhead    25       15}      15}      14}          15}      15}      14} 

Fargo 25       15}      15}      14}          15}      15}      14} 

Glyndon   25       15}      15}      14  15}      15}      14 

Fergus  Falls 23       14        14        13  14}      14}      14 

Old  and  New  Methods  of  Wheat  Farming. 

Since  the  first  wheat  was  grown  in  the  Red  River  valley,  a 
revolution  has  occurred  in  plowing,  seeding,  harvesting,  and 
threshing.  By  the  old  method  of  plowing,  with  the  best  plow 
and  horses,  one  man  with  a  14-inch  walking  plow  and  a  pair  of 
good  horses,  might  plow  two  and  a  half  acres  of  land  in  a  day. 
Now  one  man  with  a  gang  plow,  turning  28  inches,  and  drawn 
by  four  .horses,  can  plow  four  and  a  half  acres.  The  area  is  not 
quite  doubled  for  the  reason  that  the  speed  is  somewhat  slackened 
by  increased  weight,  the  driver  riding  on  the  plow,  thus  render- 
ing the  labor  much  easier  to  him. 

By  the  old  method  of  seeding  by  hand  one  man  could  sow 
sixteen  acres  in  a  day,  and  the  land  had  to  be  harrowed  and 
dragged,  often  with  tree  tops,  to  smooth  it.  Now  with  a  drill, 
drawn  by  four  horses,  one  man  will  put  in  twenty-five  acres  and 


no  harrowing  is  necessary  afterward,  although  many  harrow  the 
land  previous  to  seeding. 

By  the  old  method  of  cutting  grain  with  a  cradle  a  good  man 
could  cut  four  acres,  while  it  required  another  man  to  rake  and 
bind  it.  Now  with  the  best  binder,  drawn  by  three  horses,  he 
can  cut  sixteen  acres,  and  the  machine  binds  it,  and  carries  along 
a  number  of  bundles  and  drops  them  in  rows. 

In  threshing  there  is  even  more  disparity  in  the  amount  ac- 
complished by  modern  machinery  over  the  old  methods.  In  fact, 
the  difference  is  so  great  that  a  comparison  is  not  worth  while. 
With  the  best  and  largest  threshing  machine,  3,500  bushels  of 
wheat  can  be  threshed  in  a  day.  Thus  on  land  producing  an  aver- 
age of  20  bushels  per  acre,  one  day's  work  will  thresh  the  wheat 
grown  on  175  acres.  The  area  of  land  covered  in  a  day  will  be 
more  or  less  than  this,  according  to  the  average  yield  per  acre. 
To  operate  this  machine,  which  is  provided  with  a  self-feeder  and 
an  automatic  band-cutter,  also  a  blower  which  stacks  the  straw, 
only  four  men  are  required.  To  haul  the  bundles  to  the  machine 
requires  eighteen  men  and  twenty  horses,  or  ten  wagons  with  two 
horses  to  each.  The  number  of  men  and  horses  and  wagons  re- 
quired to  do  the  hauling  of  the  threshed  wheat  from  the  machine 
to  the  granary,  elevator,  or  cars,  depends  upon  the  distance  to  be 
traversed.  It  costs  at  the  present  time  ten  cents  per  bushel  to 
thresh  the  wheat  and  load  it  into  wagon  tanks. 

Wheat  Production  and  Its  Value,  1898. 

I  have  gathered  the  statistics  of  wheat  acreage  and  yield  for 
1898  from  the  most  reliable  sources  obtainable,  namely,  from  the 
county  auditor's  office  of  each  county  which  lies  partly  or  mainly 
in  the  Red  River  valley  south  of  the  international  boundary. 
Some  of  the  officers  reported  that  the  statistics  on  this  head  as 
furnished  by  the  assessors  were  not  full,  owing  to  the  failure  of 
some  of  the  assessors  to  make  returns ;  but  in  these  cases,  at  my 
request,  the  auditors  furnished  me  with  estimates  based  upon 
other  sources  of  information.  Therefore,  although  the  figures  in 
the  following  table  cannot  be  claimed  to  be  absolutely  correct, 
they  approach  accuracy,  and,  it  is  believed,  are  in  no  case 



Acreage  and  Production  of  Wheat  in  1898  in  the  Counties  of  the 
Red  River  Valley. 

Counties  in  Minnesota. 

Acres.  Bushels. 

Wilkin    126,418  1,896,270 

Clay  210,440  3,367,040 

Norman 166,377  2,438,662 

Polk    347,346  4,862,844 

Marshall 186,716  2,614,024 

Kittson   142,857  2,000,000 

1,180,154  17,178,840 
Counties  in  North  Dakota. 

Acres.  Bushels. 

Richland 226,720  3,057,714 

Cass 495,499  7,916,896 

Traill 271,907  5,371,129 

Grand  Forks 329,498  5,676,322 

Walsh 257,500  3,960,175 

Pembina  258,211  4,956,680 

1,839,335  30,938,916 

Total 3,019,489  48,117,756 

Assuming  that  the  average  price  of  wheat  for  the  year's  crop 
at  points  of  production  was  60  cents  per  bushel,  the  value  of  the 
crop  for  1898  to  the  producers  was  $28,870,653.  This  sum  meas- 
ures the  wealth-creating  value  of  this  one  staple  for  the  year 
named.  But  this  is  not  the  whole  story.  The  wheat  farmers  of 
the  twelve  Red  River  valley  counties  produced  a  greater  value. 
They  added  a  much  larger  amount  than  nearly  twenty-nine  mil- 
lion dollars  to  the  wealth  of  the  country.  I  assume  that  this 
crop  was  transported  either  as  wheat  or  flour  to  New  York.  As 
a  matter  of  course,  not  all  of  it  was  actually  carried  direct  to  New 
York,  but  a  large  part  of  it  was  carried  to  that  port,  either  for 
domestic  consumption  or  for  export ;  and  it  is  fair  to  assume  that 


it  would  cost  on  the  average  as  much  in  local  freights  and  han- 
dling charges  to  distribute  the  other  portion  to  the  consumers 
throughout  the  country  as  to  carry  it  through  to  New  York.  The 
cost  of  carriage  to  New  York  by  all  rail  is  about  241/4  cents  per 
bushel ;  partly  by  rail  and  partly  by  lake  and  canal  it  is  about  20 
cents.  Basing  the  calculation  on  a  rate  of  21  cents  (arbitrarily 
found,  for  it  is  difficult  to  figure  on  an  average  rate  for  the 
year  accurately,  owing  to  the  fluctuations  in  the  lake  and  canal 
rate,  or  to  ascertain  the  amount  shipped  by  that  route  and  the 
amount  shipped  by  rail),  the  added  value  is  $10,104,728.  This 
increased  value  is  properly  assigned  to  the  wheat,  for  the  wheat 
pays  the  whole  cost  of  marketing  it.  This  large  sum  of  ten  mil- 
lion dollars  was  earned  by  the  railroads,  elevators,  inspectors  and 
weighers,  boats,  transferers,  etc.,  which  gave  employment  to  large 
numbers  of  men.  Thus  the  wheat  produced  in  1898,  by  the 
farmers  of  these  twelve  counties,  which  include  the  part  of  the 
Red  River  valley  in  the  United  States,  added  to  the  wealth  of  the 
country  some  thirty-nine  millions  of  dollars ;  and  in  the  year  1899, 
just  past,  it  is  probably  nearly  as  much. 

An  explanation  is  needed,  however,  as  to  the  actual  cash  price 
received  by  the  producers  for  their  crop  of  wheat  for  the  year 
1898.  I  find  upon  a  careful  examination  of  the  price  paid  at 
Moorhead  that  the  average  price  for  the  year  was  about  57  cents 
per  bushel ;  that  its  average  price  for  the  four  months  of  Septem- 
ber, October,  November  and  December,  1898,  was  55  cents;  and 
for  the  remaining  eight  months  of  the  year,  from  January  to 
August,  1899,  the  average  price  was  59  cents,  making  an  average 
for  the  year  of  57  cents  per  bushel.  It  is  a  fact  which  must  be 
recognized  that  the  producers  in  the  section  I  am  treating  of  sell 
the  bulk  of  their  crop  in  the  four  months  prior  to  January  1 ;  so 
that  I  will  make  the  calculation  of  value  of  the  crop  produced  in 
the  twelve  Red  River  valley  counties  on  this  basis  of  its  average 
local  price  for  that  period,  which  shows  as  follows:  48,117,756 
bushels  at  55  cents  is  $26,464,765.80.  This  is  the  minimum  amount 
of  value,  as,  for  such  part  of  the  crop  as  was  sold  by  producers 
after  January  1,  1899,  four  cents  more  per  bushel  on  the  average 
was  realized.  This  explanation  does  not  affect  the  foregoing 
argument  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  increased  value  of  the  wheat 


at  points  of  consumption  and  export,  all  of  which  must  be  in- 
cluded in  any  calculation  as  to  the  wealth-creating  value  of  the 

Letter  from  Hon.  Charles  Cavalier. 

I  have  mentioned  Charles  Cavalier,  of  Pembina,  who  has  taken 
great  interest  in  my  labors  in  gathering  materials  for  this  paper, 
and  who  has  given  me  much  valuable  assistance.  In  further 
acknowledgment  thereof,  and  in  compliment  to  him,  I  desire  to 
embrace  herein  a  portion  of  a  recent  letter  of  his  to  me  as  follows : 

"It  would  be  a  pleasant  thing  for  me  to  be  present  with  them 
[meaning  this  annual  meeting  of  the  society]  and  see  some  of  the 
old  faces  of  fifty  years  ago,  but  alas,  the  infirmities  of  eighty-one 
years  forbid  it.  Present  my  respects  to  them,  and  tell  them  that 
though  far  away,  I  am  with  them  in  mind  if  not  in  body.  I  still 
keep  up  an  occasional  correspondence  with  my  old  friend,  A.  L. 
Larpenteur,  and  through  him  I  hear  from  Bill  Murray  and  others 
of  the  old  timers,  and  I  see  occasionally  the  name  of  ex-Governor 
Ramsey,  for  whom  I  have  a  high  regard  and  a  warm  spot  in  my 
heart.  He  appointed  me  first  territorial  librarian,  and  has  in 
many  instances  aided  and  befriended  me.  May  he  live  until  he 
learns  to  enjoy  the  good  things  of  this  footstool  of  God,  and  then, 
after  his  life  of  usefulness  and  goodness,  tranquilly  fall  asleep  and 
awake  in  the  kingdom  prepared  for  him  and  all  of  us  who  have 
kept  God's  commandments  or  tried  to  do  so.  Such  is  the  wish  of 
this  old  settler  whose  mundane  existence  of  close  onto  eighty-one 
years  has  been  one  of  pleasure  and  enjoyment  far  exceeding  its 
many  ills  and  misery.  My  health  is  now  tolerably  fair." 

Greatness  of  the  Resources  of  Minnesota. 

I  have  not  found  it  practicable  to  treat  wheat-growing  as  a 
state- wide  industry,  owing  to  its  magnitude,  and  have  confined 
myself  strictly  to  the  subject  assigned  to  me,  which  has  necessi- 
tated as  much  labor  and  research  as  I  have  been  able,  while  edit- 
ing a  daily  and  weekly  newspaper,  to  devote  to  it.  With  more 
abundant  leisure  I  might  properly  have  touched  upon  the  expan- 
sive prairies  of  the  state,  both  level  and  rolling,  and  told  some- 
thing of  their  productions,  not  only  of  their  wheat,  which  makes 


the  best  bread  ever  eaten  by  man,  but  of  their  rye,  oats,  barley, 
corn,  flax-seed  and  potatoes;  of  their  green  meadows,  which 
abound  with  luxuriant  grass  and  furnish  food  for  countless  flocks 
and  herds,  and  of  the  Minnesota  cow,  whose  milk,  after  being 
treated  in  the  creameries,  makes  the  very  best  butter  known  to 
civilization;  of  the  fruit  orchards,  gardens,  flowers,  shrubbery, 
etc.,  together  with  the  neat  and  cozy  dwellings  that  dot  them  o'er 
and  are  the  homes  of  a  hardy,  happy  and  prosperous  people. 

I  might  have  touched  upon  the  great  extent  of  forests,  from 
which  have  been  taken  so  many  millions  of  feet  of  the  best  white 
pine  and  hardwood  lumber,  adding  largely  to  the  wealth  of  the 
state,  and  which  are  not  yet  exhausted. 

I  might  have  told  of  the  iron  mines,  which,  for  richness  and 
extent,  have  been  one  of  the  marvels  of  the  closing  part  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  and  which  are  yet,  maybe,  to  exceed  the  most 
sanguine  expectations  of  enthusiasts ;  of  the  mighty  river  having 
its  rise  in  our  state,  whose  commerce  has  been  so  great  a  factor 
in  the  making  of  the  history  of  the  North  American  continent, 
and  advancing  its  civilization;  and  of  the  smaller  rivers,  which 
are  interesting  in  other  ways. 

I  might  have  dwelt  at  length  upon  the  surpassing  beauty  of 
the  state 's  landscape,  whose  ten  thousand  lakes  are  bordered  by  a 
superb  growth  of  primeval  forest  timber,  through  whose  foliage 
the  pure  air  of  a  wholesome  climate  sings  a  ceaseless  lullaby  to 
exhausted  humanity,  which  seeks  quiet  and  rest  upon  their  bosom. 
In  these  lakes  the  finny  tribe  leap  and  splash  and  entice  the  skill 
of  the  expert  angler,  as  well  as  the  efforts  of  the  novice,  affording 
the  most  exquisite  enjoyment  and  the  most  health-giving  and  re- 
cuperative recreation  that  man  is  blessed  with,  and  whose  skill, 
good  luck,  or  patience  is  rewarded  by  the  catch  of  as  good  food 
fish  as  swim. 

And,  lastly,  I  might  have  said  that  this  great,  resourceful  and 
fertile  state  of  ours,  at  the  age  of  fifty  years,  contains  a  population 
of  nearly  two  millions  of  as  intelligent,  generous,  brave,  and  at 
the  same  time  as  gentle,  industrious,  progressive  and  patriotic 
people,  as  can  be  found  in  any  state  in  all  this  broad  land. 




B.  G.  Skulason  and  Sveinbjorn  Johnson,  M.  A. 

Norwegians  in  the  Red  Eiver  Valley. 

In  a  sketch  as  limited  as  this  must  necessarily  be,  an  account 
of  the  Norwegians  'in  the  Red  River  valley  will  be  very  incom- 
plete. If  this  branch  of  the  northern  race  were  to  be  treated  as 
the  scope  and  magnitude  of  the  subject  demand,  in  all  the  area 
traversed  by  the  Red  river,  the  result  of  such  a  labor  would  fill 
a  volume.  Even  within  the  territory  selected,  North  Dakota  and 
Minnesota,  the  extent  of  the  topic  does  not  allow  this  article  to 
pretend  to  be  more  than  a  modest  introduction. 

In  the  first  quarters  of  the  nineteenth  century  the  concentra- 
tion of  land  in  the  hands  of  a  few  had  become  quite  complete  in 
Norway.  To  a  great  extent  cultivation  was  carried  on  by  a  small 
portion  of  the  population  and  even  then  not  to  the  full  capacity 
of  the  soil.  With  this  economic  condition  the  people  gradually 
became  dissatisfied  and  in  it  may  be  found  one  of  the  causes  of 
emigration.  The  significance  of  this  fact  becomes  all  the  more 
apparent  when  it  is  considered  that  twenty-five  per  cent  of  all 
Scandinavians  who  come  to  this  country  engage  in  agriculture 
(0.  M.  Nelson,  Minneapolis).  The  unlimited  supply  of  free  land 
in  the  United  States  together  with  the  liberal  wages  of  labor  as 
compared  with  the  prevailing  scale  of  European  countries  proved 
a  powerful  inducement  to  the  landless  and  laboring  classes.  In 
addition  many  were  dissatisfied  with  the  somewhat  intolerant 




character  of  the  laws  concerning  the  state  religion.  Though  these 
regulations  on  the  whole  were  not  seriously  oppressive,  yet  with 
the  causes  above  mentioned  they  gave  impetus  to  the  rising  tide 
of  discontent  which  culminated  in  emigration. 

Norwegians  gained  acquaintance  with  this  country  mainly 
through  correspondence.  In  the  early  part  of  the  century  a  few 
sailors  and  adventurers  had  located  in  the  United  States.  These 
communicated  with  friends  and  papers  in  the  old  country,  thereby 
spreading  a  knowledge  of  the  United  States  and  of  her  oppor- 
tunities. Then,  in  1839,  Ole  Rynning  published  "True  Account 
of  America,"  which  was  almost  universally  read.  In  addition, 
steamship  companies  prepared  accounts  of  America  which  they 
assiduously  circulated  in  Norway  and  other  European  countries. 
From  these  sources,  then,  Norwegians  had  acquired  information 
concerning  the  United  States  sufficient  to  inspire  them  with 
confidence  in  her  possibilities. 

The  first  immigrants  from  Norway  settled  in  the  Eastern 
states  and  on  the  frontier,  following  the  same  as  it  gradually 
expanded  towards  the  west.  According  to  the  census  of  1850 
seven  Norwegians  were  then  living  in  Minnesota,  but  it  was  not 
until  after  1852  that  they  began  to  settle  permanently  in  that 
state.  One  of  the  first  settlers  was  Tosten  Johnson,  Houston 
county,  who  came  from  Norway  in  1851  and  to  Minnesota  in 
1852.  From  this  date  the  influx  of  Norwegians  continued  un- 
abated. Some  came  directly  from  Norway,  while  many  came 
from  other  states.  The  first  Norwegians  in  Lac  qui  Parle  county 
came  from  Fayette  county,  Iowa,  in  1869,  led  by  P.  J.  Jacobsen. 
Similarly  the  first  Norwegian  settlers  in  Lincoln  county  had 
previously  lived  in  Boone  county,  Illinois,  having  moved  thither 
from  Wisconsin  in  1847.  The  other  counties  along  the  Red  river, 
and  every  part  of  the  state  where  Norwegians  are  found,  were 
thus  settled  by  Norwegians  from  Iowa,  Wisconsin  and  other 
states.  They  drifted  with  that  westward  sweeping  tide  of  popu- 
lation the  rize  of  which  has  been  unchecked  until  it  subsides 
again  on  the  quiet  shores  of  the  Pacific. 

According  to  Martin  Ulvestad  (Normaendene  i  America,  Min- 
neapolis, 1907),  the  first  Norwegian  to  establish  a  home  in  North 
Dakota  was  N.  E.  Nelson,  father-in-law  of  the  noted  politician, 


Judson  Lamoure,  and  customs  collector  at  Pembina  in  1869.  His 
farm  was  in  Pembina  township.  Two  other  Norwegian  settle- 
ments were  formed  in  this  county,  one  near  St.  Thomas  and  the 
other  in  Park  township,  west  of  Hensel,  in  1880  and  1881  respec- 
tively. Norwegians  in  this  county  are  comparatively  few,  their 
settlements  lying  in  the  counties  to  the  south  and  west. 

Among  the  first  Norwegian  settlers  in  Walsh  county — the 
next  south  of  Pembina  along  the  Red  river — were  O.  M.  Dahl  and 
Ole  Helgeson.  They  settled  near  the  present  site  of  Nash,  in 
1878.  At  this  date,  says  Dahl,  the  only  people  in  the  neighbor- 
hood were  a  few  metisse  near  the  Red  river.  In  this  county  a 
large  percentage  of  the  population  is  of  Norwegian  descent,  they 
ranking  the  highest  of  the  foreign  born,  the  Canadians  alone 
excepted  (State  Hist.  Society,  N.  D.,  Vol.  1,  p.  190). 

In  1872,  the  Norwegians  Halvor  Hansen  and  Halvor  Bentru 
settled  in  Grand  Forks  county.  Two  years  later  eight  families 
arrived  from  Northwood,  Iowa,  and  settled  near  the  Goose  river. 
At  this  date  the  nearest  market  was  Fargo,  where  the  farmers 
sold  their  produce.  Horses  were  then  a  luxury  which  few  could 
afford  and  oxen  were  generally  used  in  doing  the  work  con- 
nected with  the  farm.  Of  the  foreign  born  population  in  this 
county  the  Norwegians  are  most  numerous,  while  only  one  other 
county  in  the  state,  Traill,  has  a  greater  number  of  people  of 
Norwegian  extraction. 

In  Traill  county — next  south  of  Grand  Forks — the  foreign 
born  Norwegians  are  more  than  twenty-five  per  cent  of  the  total 
population.  It  ranks  first  in  the  state  in  the  number  of  its 
Norwegians  and  Cass,  next  south,  third. 

In  1870,  a  number  of  Scandinavians  came  from  Dunn  county, 
Wisconsin,  and  settled  in  Richland  county  near  Ft.  Abercrombie. 
Among  these  were  Einar  Hoel  and  Arnt  Skarvold.  The  nearest 
market  was  Alexandria,  one  hundred  miles  away.  This  distance 
was  traveled  by  oxen.  Many  of  the  settlers  were  employed  at 
the  fort  and  on  boats  on  the  Red  river.  At  this  time  there  were 
about  three  hundred  soldiers  at  the  fort,  hence  farmers  found 
here  a  convenient  market  for  some  of  their  farm  and  dairy 

From  the  few  facts  here  given  it  appears  that  in  all  the 



counties  of  the  Red  River  valley  bordering  on  the  Red  river 
the  Norwegians  are  the  most  numerous  of  the  foreign  born 
population.  Indeed,  in  the  entire  southeastern  corner  of  the  state 
embracing  twelve  counties,  extending  from  Walsh  on  the  north 
to  the  state  boundary  line  on  the  south,  the  Norwegians  are  the 
predominating  element  of  the  foreign  born  population.  Again, 
from  Grand  Forks  county  on  the  east  to  the  western  extremity 
of  "Ward,  through  an  unbroken  line  of  six  counties,  the  same 
fact  appears.  According  to  the  census  of  1900,  the  foreign  born 
Norwegians  in  some  of  these  embraced  over  twenty-six  per  cent  of 
the  total  population,  and,  this,  of  course,  leaves  out  of  consid- 
eration all  those  of  Norwegian  parentage,  born  in  this  country. 
In  many  townships  in  these  counties  the  nationality  of  over 
ninety  per  cent  of  the  landowners  is  Norwegian. 

If  by  reason  of  their  numbers  the  Norwegians  on  the  North 
Dakota  side  of  the  Red  river  have  become  important,  they  have 
in  Minnesota  become  a  power  always  to  be  reckoned  with.  Polit- 
ically they  are  the  strongest  foreign  element  in  the  state  and  any 
candidate  for  a  state  or  United  States  office,  who  by  some  im- 
politic word  or  deed  has  aroused  their  antagonism,  may  well 
have  misgivings  as  to  the  success  of  his  political  aspirations. 
The  distinguished  Senator  Knute  Nelson  is  a  Norwegian  and  rep- 
resents no  more  ably  the  state  of  Minnesota  that  he  well  typifies 
the  sterling  qualities  of  his  race.  The  representatives  Steenerson 
and  Volstad,  the  latter  of  whom  is  one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  in 
the  lower  house  of  congress,  are  Norwegians.  Similarly,  one  of 
North  Dakota's  representatives,  A.  J.  Gronna,  is  a  Norwegian, 
and  two  or  three  of  the  state  officers  come  from  the  same  stock. 
In  North  Dakota  a  Scandinavian  League  has  been  organized 
and  already  gives  promise  of  exerting  considerable  influence  on, 
if  not  giving  direction  to,  the  current  of  North  Dakota  politics. 
In  Minnesota  170  Norwegians  have  set  in  either  branch  of  the 
state  legislature  since  1857-58  and  in  1869  Colonel  Mattson  was 
elected  secretary  of  state,  being  the  first  Norwegian  to  fill  a 
state  office. 

The  political  importance  of  the  Norwegians  in  the  Red  River 
valley,  then,  can  scarcely  be  overestimated.  Their  numbers  alone 
are  ample  proof  of  this  statement.  But  even  were  their  numeri- 


cal  rank  much  lower  than  it  is,  the  energy  and  ambition  that 
for  centuries  have  been  characteristic  of  the  race  would  be 
inconsistent  with  an  attitude  of  indifference  toward  the  problems 
that  from  time  to  time  agitate  the  public  mind.  Of  political 
apathy  no  one  will  venture  to  accuse  them.  The  league  referred 
to  in  another  paragraph  bespeaks  at  least  a  passing  interest  in 
public  affairs. 

Though  the  Norwegians  in  the  valley  are  energetic  farmers 
and  ambitious  in  politics,  they  are  far  from  being  unmindful  of 
the  interests  of  education.  Of  the  students  annually  at  the 
University  of  North  Dakota,  Grand  Forks,  over  thirty  per  cent 
are  Scandinavians,  principally  Norwegians  and  Icelanders. 
Through  the  efforts  of  the  Norwegian  Synod,  aided  by  the 
munificence  of  individuals  apart  therefrom,  several  Norwegian 
schools  have  been  established  in  the  Red  River  valley.  A  mere 
mention  of  a  few  of  these  is  all  the  scope  of  this  article  allows. 
Among  the  more  important  ones  are  Augsburg  Seminary,  Min- 
neapolis, moved  thither  from  Marshall,  Wis.,  1879;  St.  Olaf's 
College,  Northwood,  opened  in  1875;  Concordia  College,  Moor- 
head;  Glenwood  Academy,  Glenwood,  all  in  Minnesota;  Grand 
Forks  College,  Grand  Forks,  N.  D.,  and  others  in  different  parts 
of  the  valley.  Some  of  these  are  women 's  schools  exclusively, 
but  most  do  work  intended  to  prepare  students  for  entrance  into 
advanced  theological  institutions. 

Of  the  readiness  with  which  Norwegians  adapt  themselves 
to  American  conditions  and  absorb  American  ideas,  but  little 
can  be  said  in  this  sketch.  While  a  considerable  number  of  old 
country  customs  still  survive  and  indeed  show  few  symptoms 
of  lessening  vitality,  yet  it  is  apparent  that,  like  other  races 
that  have  come  to  this  country,  they  cannot  long  resist  the  cur- 
rents of  our  complex  national  life  that  inevitably  lead  to  Ameri- 
canization. Their  parochial  schools  tend  to  stimulate  an  interest 
in  and  to  prolong  the  survival  of  the  Norwegian  language  and 
literature.  But  these  are  not  maintained  in  all  communities. 
But  it  is  the  Lutheran  church  that  is  the  most  powerful  agent 
in  counteracting  the  forces  that  work  for  assimilation.  But  even 
her  efforts  seem  insufficient  to  stem  the  tide  which  threatens  to 
sweep  old  world  customs  into  oblivion.  Formerly  services  were 


invariably  conducted  in  Norwegian.  But  now  she  must  conform 
her  practices  to  the  demands  of  the  people  and  in  towns,  at 
least,  services  are  frequently  carried  on  in  English.  Though 
this  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  Norwegian  has  been  lost  by 
the  majority,  yet  it  is  a  fact  that  reading  or  speaking  knowledge 
of  the  language  has  ceased  to  be  universal,  and  that  even  with 
young  people  who  come  from  communities  where  Norwegians 
abound.  Undoubtedly  the  one  force  most  effective  in  pushing 
Norwegian  into  the  shade  is  the  public  school  system  of  the 
country.  The  young  are  here  trained  in  English,  the  language 
of  whatever  business  or  profession  they  may  enter.  Whether 
this  process  will  continue  until  Norwegian  becomes  a  dead  tongue 
is  a  matter  of  conjecture,  but  however  that  may  be,  the  fact 
cannot  be  denied  that  the  forces  which  make  for  such  a  con- 
summation are  powerful  indeed. 

Icelanders  in  the  Red  River  Valley. 

Outside  the  Red  River  valley  and  in  some  localities  thereof 
Iceland  and  Icelanders  are  quite  meaningless  terms.  In  the  minds 
of  the  mass  and  even  of  those  who  pretend  to  possess  considerable 
education,  the  mental  pictures  called  into  being  by  these  words 
are  distorted,  vague  and  false.  The  ignorance  of  almost  every 
historical  and  ethnological  fact  connected  with  the  people  of 
this  rock  ribbed  island  of  the  midnight  sun  frequently  assumes 
grotesque  and  ludicrous  forms.  It  may  somewhat  moderate  the 
severity  of  our  judgment  of  those  whose  range  of  knowledge  is 
no  wider  than  this  that  prejudiced  and  superficial  accounts  of 
writers  of  travel  have  found  their  way  into  print  where  Iceland 
is  regarded  as  a  curiosity  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  she  has  a  his- 
tory, a  literature  and  mythology  no  less  interesting  and  imposing 
than  those  of  classic  Greece.  (An  example  of  such  accounts  is 
"Visit  to  Iceland,"  by  Ida  Pfeiffer,  1852,  and  "Faroes  and  Ice- 
land," by  Nelson  Annandale,  1905,  the  latter  author,  though 
writing  in  the  name  of  science,  being  equally  erroneous  in  his 
facts  and  his  conclusions.)  In  view  of  this  condition,  therefore, 
a  few  historical  facts  concerning  the  original  home  of  the  people 
must  be  referred  to  before  proceeding  with  an  account  of  the 
Icelanders  in  the  valley. 

Iceland  was  discovered  by  people  from  Norway  about  874 


and  settled  by  Scandinavians  soon  thereafter.  There  having  been 
no  aborigines  to  conquer  or  assimilate,  the  present  inhabitants 
of  the  island  are  of  purely  Norse  extraction  except  in  so  far  as 
some  of  the  pioneers  had  mixed  with  the  Celts  in  Ireland  prior 
to  their  location  in  Iceland. 

The  cause  of  emigration  from  Norway  was  the  activity  of 
Harold  the  Fairhaired  in  consolidating  the  small  kingdoms  under 
his  personal  rule.  This  unification  was  inconsistent  with  the 
ideas  of  liberty  cherished  by  Norse  chiefs  and  vikings.  The 
clash  between  the  prerogatives  of  kingship  and  the  principles  of 
liberty  was  inexorable.  The  defeated  chiefs  went  to  Iceland, 
where  Harold  could  on  no  pretext  presume  to  exercise  dominion. 

In  1262,  having  been  a  republic  for  nearly  four  hundred  years, 
Iceland  entered  into  a  voluntary  union  with  Norway,  voidable 
if  the  latter,  in  the  judgment  of  the  "best  men,"  should  violate 
the  terms  of  the  compact.  Later,  under  the  Calmar  treaty,  the 
Scandinavian  countries — Norway,  Sweden  and  Denmark — were 
united  under  the  Danish  crown  and  Iceland  became  a  part  of 
the  union.  In  1814  when  Norway  was  transferred  to  Sweden  by 
the  congress  of  Vienna  no  disposition  was  made  of  Iceland  and 
she  has  since  remained  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Denmark. 

The  island  has  suffered  all  the  miseries  tyranny  entails.  Lying 
in  the  lap  of  the  Arctic  circle  and  frequently  enveloped  in  Arctic 
ice,  the  natural  produce  of  the  island  could  not  meet  the  needs 
of  the  people.  But  Denmark  had  a  forced  monopoly  of  Icelandic 
trade.  The  people  were  forbidden  to  trade  with  anyone  not  a 
subject  of  Denmark.  The  foreigner  thus  dictated  the  price  at 
which  he  bought  as  well  as  that  at  which  he  sold.  This  unnatural 
economic  condition,  coupled  with  the  fierce  winters  of  some  years, 
caused  much  suffering.  In  some  years  great  numbers  perished 
from  starvation.  The  responsibility  for  this  tragic  condition 
rests  partly  with  the  relentless  hand  of  nature  and  partly  with 
the  cruel  greed  of  the  Danish  crown.  Discontent  developed  from 
year  to  year  and  the  constitutional  strife  between  Denmark  and 
the  island  continued  with  ever  increasing  intensity.  At  last  the 
king  had  to  yield.  In  1874  a  constitution  was  granted  to  Iceland. 
But  it  was  a  tardy  concession.  The  fever  of  emigration  had  set 
in  and  has  not  yet  run  its  course. 


In  1871  four  Icelanders  went  to  Wisconsin.  These  were  soon 
followed  by  others.  In  1873  another  party  landed  on  Canadian 
soil,  remaining  for  two  years  in  Toronto  and  going  thence  to 
the  present  site  of  Gimli,  Manitoba,  on  the  west  shore  of  Lake 
Winnipeg.  Letters  were  exchanged  and  hundreds  of  people  emi- 
grated, some  joining  the  settlement  on  Washington  Island,  Wis- 
consin, others  that  near  Lake  Winnipeg.  In  1876  two  Icelandic 
colonies  of  considerable  size  were  in  the  course  of  development 
in  the  Western  hemisphere.  The  first  settlers  in  the  Eed  River 
valley — in  Lyon  county,  Minnesota,  and  Pembina  county,  North 
Dakota — were  drawn  from  these. 

The  history  of  any  permanent  colony  is  always  closely  con- 
nected with  that  of  the  church.  To  this  elementary  principle  of 
social  progress  the  Icelandic  colonies  are  no  exception.  In 
1876  Pall  Thorlaksson,  who  at  the  time  was  serving  a  Lutheran 
congregation  in  Wisconsin,  was  called  by  the  Icelanders  near 
Lake  Winnipeg  to  serve  them  in  a  professional  capacity.  When 
coming  down  the  Red  river,  he  was  much  impressed  with  the 
agricultural  possibilities  of  the  country  on  either  side.  His  con- 
fidence in  the  latent  resources  of  the  Dakota  plains  was  further 
increased  by  the  remarks  of  the  captain  of  the  boat,  who  made 
no  attempt  to  conceal  his  faith  in  the  future  of  the  valley.  On 
reaching  the  colony  Rev.  Mr.  Thorlaksson  was  at  once  convinced 
that  the  land  selected  by  his  countrymen  would  never  yield  the 
reward  due  them  for  their  toiL  The  country  was  low,  marshy 
and  generally  quite  heavily  timbered.  But  these  facts  discour- 
aged all  hope  of  progressive  farming,  since  the  settlers  were  poor 
and  without  agricultural  experience.  Discontent  had  begun  to 
develop,  which  was  rather  increased  than  diminished  by  the 
passage  of  time.  The  climax  of  unrest  was  reached  with  the 
smallpox  epidemic  during  the  winter  of  1876-77  and  many  now 
determined  to  leave,  as  soon  as  possible,  the  place  that  must 
forever  be  associated  with  the  keenest  suffering  and  sorrow  of 
their  lives.  Accordingly  in  1878,  Johann  P.  Hallsson,  Jon 
Horgdal,  Jonas  Jonasson  and  others  left  New  Iceland,  as  the 
settlement  was  called,  and  located  in  Pembina  county,  about  nine 
miles  west  of  Cavalier,  and  where  the  postoffice  of  Hallsson  now 


stands.    The  log  cabin  erected  by  J.  P.  Hallsson  is  still  standing 
in  the  village. 

This  colony  rapidly  expanded  in  all  directions.  Settlers  came 
from  Lake  Winnipeg  and  Wisconsin,  the  first  from  the  latter 
coming  in  1880.  The  Icelanders  from  Washington  Island  settled 
around  the  present  site  of  Gardar,  Pembina  county.  Having 
acquired  considerable  property  in  Wisconsin,  the  people  of  the 
Gardar  community  soon  ranked  among  the  most  prosperous 
Icelanders  in  the  valley. 

The  first  Icelandic  settlers  in  Lyon  county,  Minnesota,  came 
from  the  Wisconsin  colony  in  1873.  Hon.  E.  H.  Bergman — the 
first  Icelander  in  America  to  sit  in  a  representative  legislative 
assembly,  being  a  member  of  the  last  territorial  legislature  of 
Dakota — was  among  the  pioneers.  In  1880  he  settled  near 
Gardar,  in  Pembina  county,  where  he  has  remained  ever  since. 
This  colony  grew  by  additions  from  Wisconsin  and  directly  from 
Iceland.  Many  Icelandic  business  and  porfessional  men  now 
live  in  the  city  of  Minneota,  Lyon  county,  Minnesota.  The  only 
Icelandic  paper  in  the  United  States,  the  Vinland,  is  published 
here.  The  publisher  of  the  weekly  Minneota  Mascot  is  an  Ice- 
lander. There  are  three  lawyers,  one  doctor  and  a  Lutheran 
minister  in  the  city,  all  of  whom  are  Icelanders.  The  most  promi- 
nent business  men  of  the  place  are  Icelanders.  This  colony  has 
reached  a  high  degree  of  prosperity.  The  people  have  a  reputa- 
tion for  industry  and  business  integrity  that  reaches  far  beyond 
the  limits  of  the  county. 

It  is  impossible  within  the  limits  prescribed  to  detail  the 
history  of  the  Icelandic  settlement  in  Pembina  county,  North 
Dakota.  It  grew  steadily  until  now  it  numbers  between  two 
and  three  thousand  people.  From  it  have  gone  families  who 
became  pioneers  in  other  Icelandic  settlements  in  Cavalier,  Bot- 
tineau,  Ward  and  McHenry  counties,  North  Dakota,  Roseau 
county,  Minnesota,  at  several  points  on  the  Pacific  coast  and  in 
the  provinces  of  Northwest  Canada.  They  suffered  all  the  priva- 
tions of  pioneer  life,  intensified  by  extreme  poverty  in  the  early 
years  of  settlement.  During  the  winter  of  1879-80,  the  prospects 
of  the  colony  were  the  darkest  in  its  history.  Indeed,  without 
the  aid  given  by  Pall  Thorlaksson,  who  assumed  heavy  personal 


liabilities  in  obtaining  provisions  for  the  settlers,  it  is  difficult  to 
see  how  they  could  have  secured  the  necessities  of  life.  But  this 
unselfish  man  provided  not  only  for  the  material  needs.  He 
passed  from  man  to  man  and  house  to  house,  comforting  the 
sick  and  inspiring  hope  where  despair  had  entered.  Though  he 
felt  the  hand  of  a  fatal  disease  upon  him,  he  spared  110  effort  to 
bring  the  colony  safely  over  this  critical  period.  He  died  (in 
1882)  in  the  happy  assurance  that  the  colony  was  out  of  danger. 

The  nearest  market  of  this  colony  in  the  pioneer  days  was 
St.  Vincent,  Minnesota,  about  fifty  miles  from  the  central  point  of 
the  settlement.  Wheat  was  hauled  thither  by  oxen.  This  was 
a  slow  and  often  dangerous  process,  for  robberies  were  not  infre- 
quently committed.  In  1881  the  Great  Northern  was  built  through 
St.  Thomas,  Glasston  and  Hamilton,  thereby  bringing  the  grain 
market  nearer  the  settlement.  Later  still  the  same  company  built 
a  road  through  Hensel  to  Cavalier.  The  grain  market  was  now 
within  easy  reach  of  any  settler  in  the  colony. 

The  people  came  from  Iceland  with  habits  of  industry  firmly 
established  and  as  a  result  they  have  been  successful  in  whatever 
occupation  has  engaged  their  attention.  Prosperous  business 
enterprises  are  conducted  by  Icelanders  in  the  cities  of  Pembina 
and  Cavalier,  and  the  villages  of  Akra,  Hensel,  Hallasson,  Moun- 
tain and  Gardar.  As  farmers  they  have  met  with  equal  success. 
Concentration  of  land,  however,  is  steadily  increasing.  But  this, 
in  most  instances,  is  not  the  result  of  individual  failures.  For 
reasons  easy  of  ascertainment,  but  which  space  does  not  allow 
us  to  enumerate,  farmers  from  time  to  time  sell  their  land  and 
move  to  the  Canadian  Northwest  or  to  the  Pacific  coast. 

On  the  whole  the  people  seem  progressive  in  their  ideas. 
They  readily  adopt  the  latest  and  most  approved  methods  or 
implements  in  whatever  business  or  industry  they  may  be  en- 
gaged. Every  modern  convenience  is  valued  according  to  its 
merits.  Rural  mail  routes  run  through  the  settlement  in  different 
places.  Likewise,  rural  telephones  have  become  general  through- 
out the  length  and  breadth  of  the  colony.  A  few  years  ago  the 
Edinburg  and  Gardar  Telephone  Company  was  organized  largely 
through  the  initiative  of  Hon.  E.  H.  Bergman.  This  company 
extended  its  wires  through  the  Icelandic  townships  of  Gardar  and 


Thingvalla.  Later  lines  were  built  among  the  Icelandic  farmers 
of  Park  and  Akra  townships,  by  another  company,  however. 

In  religion  the  Icelanders  of  the  Red  River  valley  are 
Lutherans.  Pall  Thorlaksson  organized  congregations  as  fast  as 
settlements  were  formed.  There  are  now  eight  congregations  in 
Pembina  and  Cavalier  counties,  served  by  two  pastors — H.  B. 
Thorgrimson,  Akra,  and  K.  K.  Olafsson,  Gardar.  The  congrega- 
tions in  the  Icelandic  colony  in  Lyon  county,  Minnesota,  are 
served  by  Rev.  B.  B.  Jonsson.  All  the  organizations  belong  to 
the  Icelandic  Lutheran  Synod  of  America,  which  meets  in  con- 
vention every  year.  Services  are  uniformly  conducted  in  the 
Icelandic  language. 

The  influence  of  the  church  is  the  power  which  the  forces  of 
assimilation  find  most  difficult  to  overcome.  She  is  the  strongest 
link  in  the  chain  of  customs  and  traditions  which  connects  the 
new  environment  with  the  old.  With  her,  it  seems,  rests  the  fate 
of  the  Icelandic  language.  If  she  can  always  successfully  insist 
upon  the  performance  of  all  her  ceremonies,  the  most  important 
of  which,  in  this  connection,  is  the  confirmation,  in  Icelandic,  the 
disappearance  of  the  language  as  a  living  tongue  will  be  syn- 
chronous with  the  decay  of  the  church  itself  as  an  active  factor 
m  the  life  of  the  people.  But  if  English  ever  becomes  the. 
language  spoken  from  the  pulpit  or  recited  from  the  catechism, 
Icelandic  will  find  a  place  in  the  catacomb  of  dead  tongues. 

It  may  be  asserted  with  the  utmost  confidence  that  should 
Icelandic  be  forgotten  it  would  be  a  great  loss  to  the  people. 
Aside  from  the  general  advantage  of  knowing  more  than  one 
language,  the  literature  of  Iceland  ranks  with  the  best  of  classical 
times.  The  poetry,  mythology,  history  and  laws  of  Scandinavia 
were  written  and  preserved  by  Icelanders  about  the  thirteenth  or 
fourteenth  century.  Old  Norse  literature  is  rapidly  becoming 
an  object  of  deep  interest  to  students  and  scholars.  Scholars 
like  Professor  Carpenter,  of  Columbia  University,  and  R.  B. 
Anderson,  of  Wisconsin,  poets  like  Gray,  Morris,  Bayard  Taylor 
and  Longfellow  have  found  in  this  rugged  lore  of  the  North, 
pleasure  and  inspiration.  During  the  long  winter  nights  in 
Iceland  this  literature  is  read  by  every  fireside.  The  result  is 


that  every  Icelander  upon  reaching  his  majority  is  familiar  with 
the  Sagas  and  history  of  the  times  when  his  island  was  a  flour- 
ishing republic.  The  time  is  already  approaching  in  Europe  and 
America  when  a  general  education  is  regarded  incomplete  until 
one  has  imbibed  from  this  Mimir  of  Northern  culture. 

One  of  the  inducements  to  emigration  from  Iceland  was  the 
public  school  system  of  this  country.  The  Icelanders  in  the  valley 
have  fully  availed  themselves  of  its  opportunities.  Of  the  higher 
education  the  same  is  true.  Of  the  students  from  Pembina  county 
who  attended  the  University  of  North  Dakota  in  1906,  twenty- 
eight  per  cent  were  Icelanders,  while  not  more  than  thirteen  per 
cent  of  the  population  of  the  county  are  of  Icelandic  extraction. 
Of  the  public  school  teachers  of  this  county  in  1906,  nineteen 
per  cent  were  of  this  nationality. 

In  politics  the  Icelandic  vote  in  Pembina  county  has  changed 
from  democratic  by  a  large  majority  in  1892,  to  overwhelmingly 
republican  in  1906.  (State  Historical  Society,  Vol.  I,  p.  125.) 
The  people  take  an  active  interest  in  public  affairs.  Eight  dif- 
ferent Icelanders  have  sat  in  either  branch  of  the  state  legisla- 
ture and  four  were  elected  to  fill  county  offices  in  1906 — one 
commissioner,  treasurer,  clerk  of  court  and  state's  attorney. 
The  state's  attorney  of  Lyon  county,  Minnesota,  is  an  Icelander. 
The  same  is  true  of  the  state 's  attorney  of  Cavalier  county,  North 
Dakota.  In  Winnipeg,  where  several  thousand  Icelanders  live, 
they  have  sat  in  the  city  council  and  two  are  now  members  of 
the  provincial  parliament.  The  plea  that  a  candidate  for  a  public 
office  is  a  countryman  of  theirs  avails  but  little.  Their  partisan- 
ship is  generally  as  uncompromising  as  that  of  the  typical 
American  politician. 

No  spirit  of  clannishness  or  isolation  is  discernible  in  the 
attitude  of  Icelanders  toward  public  affairs.  They  have  formed 
no  associations,  which,  whatever  their  ostensible  object,  must 
from  their  very  nature,  tend  to  segregate  and  individualize  the 
interests  of  their  nationality.  The  general  idea  seems  to  pre- 
dominate that  first  and  last  they  are  American  citizens.  They 
have  been  loyal  and  law  abiding  in  the  past  and  whatever  crises 
our  country  may  come  to  in  the  future  they  will  not  prove 


recreant  to  the  duties  owing  to  the  flag.  While  all  respectable 
Icelanders  take  an  honest  pride  in  the  island  of  their  birth  and 
where  their  ancestors  peacefully  repose,  they  do  not  forget  that 
they  owe  primary  obligations  to  their  adopted  country  which 
they  neither  attempt  nor  desire  to  evade. 


J.  R.  Cole. 

Their  Origin— Different  Tribes  and  What  Different  Writers  Say 

About  Them. 

Philologists  are  coming  to  the  conclusion  that  North  American 
Indians  belonged  originally  to  the  great  Aryan  family  of  Europe 
and  Asia,  and  books  at  this  time  are  being  published  in  advocacy 
of  this  claim.  James  Freeman  Clarke,  in  his  work  on  the  "Ten 
Great  Religions  of  the  World,"  gives  the  Indian  word  "tak," 
meaning  hatchet,  which  is  derived  from  "takshami,"  Sanskrit; 
"tasha"  in  Zend;  "tash,"  Persia;  "tuagh"  in  old  Irish.  In 
like  manner  many  words  have  been  found  allying  the  Indian 
tongue  with  the  Latin,  Greek,  German,  Scandinavian,  Celt,  Hindu 
and  Persian,  so  that  there  seems  to  be  some  reason  for  maintain- 
ing a  brotherhood  of  the  red  man  with  the  Indo-European  family, 
if  relations  by  blood  can  be  maintained  on  linguistic  grounds. 
T.  S.  Denison,  of  Chicago,  persists  in  this  claim  and  is  about 
to  issue  a  book  from  the  University  press,  giving  several  thousand 
words  from  the  Indian  language  to  support  this  argument. 

In  itself  philology  is  weak,  however,  when  attempting  to 
prove  a  blood  relationship.  It  may  establish  the  fact  that  the 
Indians  originally  occupied  lands  within  Aryan  territory,  and 
that  they  all  spoke  a  common  language  once,  but  that  does  not 
prove  that  they  had  a  common  origin.  The  English  are  German 
by  descent,  but  are  French,  philologically  speaking. 

As  long  as  monogenists  of  the  Max  Muller,  Dr.  Taylor,  Baron 



Bunsen  and  Professor  Sayce  class  differ  among  themselves  as  to 
the  locality  of  the  Aryan  cradle  bed,  similarity  of  language  will 
do  as  little  for  the  Indian  as  for  the  Roman,  Greek,  German  or 
Celt  in  that  particular.  But  as  a  scientist,  Muller  says : 

"We  can  not  derive  the  Malay  from  the  negro,  nor  the  negro 
from  the  Malay.  We  can  only  conceive  how  this  can  be."  He 
also  says:  "We  can  not  derive  the  Hebrew  from  the  Sanskrit 
nor  the  Sanskrit  from  the  Hebrew,"  and  he  could  have  said 
also :  ' '  We  can  not  derive  the  Indian  from  the  Hebrew,  nor  the 
Hebrew  from  the  Indian." 

"The  skull  is  the  least  variable  characteristic  of  race,"  says 
Broca,  the  father  of  the  science  of  crainoscopy,  and  when  we 
remember  that  the  racial  characteristics  of  the  Indian  is  as  stub- 
bornly persistent  in  them  as  in  that  of  any  other  type  of  the 
human  kind,  we  may  infer  that  once  an  Indian  always  an  Indian, 
is  as  true  as  the  truism,  once  a  Jew  always  a  Jew. 

That  types  are  persistent  is  no  more  a  scientific  fact  than  a 
biblical  one,  and  that  is  in  accordance  with  that  inexorable  law  of 
"kind  after  kind."  Anthropologists  have  proven  from  the  long 
headed  skulls  taken  from  the  long  barrows  of  England  or  from 
the  row  graves  of  Germany  and  other  prehistoric  burial  places, 
deposited  there  in  Palaeolithic  ages;  and  broad-headed  skulls 
from  other  graves  in  Neolithic  times,  that  skulls,  in  spite  of  the 
laws  of  differentiation,  do  not  change. 

Once  doliochocephalic  or  orthognathous  or  brachycephalic  or 
prognathous,  always  so. 

The  creator  of  all  mankind  who  set  the  bounds  of  the  heathen 
and  made  him  with  a  facial  angle  and  a  cephalic  index  suitable 
only  for  his  particular  race,  designed  it  that  way.  That  is  the 
way  it  has  been  from  the  beginning.  It  was  of  a  "kind  after  a 
kind"  with  the  red  man  the  same  as  with  the  white  man.  The 
Indian  with  his  reddish  copper-colored  skin,  long,  coarse,  lank, 
black  hair,  never  crisping  like  that  of  the  negro,  nor  curling 
like  that  of  the  whites,  non-Hebraic  nose  and  eyes,  arched  cheek 
bones,  extraordinary  insensibility  to  bodily  pain,  and  with  facul- 
ties of  sight,  hearing  and  smell  remarkably  acute,  comes  under  a 
class  as  a  nation  of  people  with  a  type  peculiar  only  to  his  own 
race.  This  we  know  lays  claims  to  a  plurality  of  origin  for  the 



human  family,  but  that  too  we  claim  is  biblical  as  well  as 

The  religious  history  of  the  Dakotas,  like  that  of  Zoroaster, 
runs  back  into  Palaeolithic  times.  Oanktayhee  was  the  Jupiter 
Maximus  among  all  the  gods  of  the  Indians.  Out  of  reverence 
for  this  object  of  worship  and  adoration  the  Dakotas  preserved 
the  bones  of  the  mastodon  in  the  medicine  bag  with  the  greatest 
care.  But  the  mastodon  lived  in  pre-glacial  times  only.  In 
America  its  bones  have  been  found  at  Fort  Ancient,  Ohio,  asso- 
ciated with  the  skeletons  of  the  Mound  Builders,  the  ancestors 
of  the  red  men.  It  would  be  about  as  difficult  to  derive  an  Indian 
of  the  Pleistocene  age  from  a  Jew  of  the  Palestine  era,  at  the 
time  Adam  and  Eve  delved  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  as  it  would 
be  to  get  a  blackbird  that  flew  around  Noah's  ark  out  of  a  goose 
egg  laid  yesterday. 

Space  will  not  permit  us,  but  proof  can  be  given  that  the 
monogonist  has  translated  the  Genesis  account  of  man  to  make 
Adam  the  husband  of  Eve,  the  parent  head  of  the  human  race, 
but  in  doing  so  he  has  made  Moses  say  many  things  not  true  to 
the  original  Hebrew  record  of  that  account.  Believing,  therefore, 
that  the  Indian  had  his  own  cradle-bed  the  same  as  the  Jews 
had,  we  are  of  the  opinion  he  is  indigenous  to  North  America, 
if  not  anthoctonous  to  that  soil  the  same  as  the  Hebrew  is  to 
Palestine  or  the  negro  is  to  sunny  Africa. 

In  this  sketch  we  are  concerned  with  the  history  of  the 
Sioux,  Dakota  and  the  Cheyenne  tribes  only. 

Rev.  Edward  Duffield  Neill  in  his  history  of  Minnesota  says : 
"The  Dacotahs,  like  all  ignorant  and  barbarous  people,  have  but 
little  reflections  beyond  that  necessary  to  gratify  the  pleasure 
of  revenges  and  of  the  appetite.  It  would  be  strange  to  find 
them  heroes ;  while  there  are  exceptions,  their  general  character- 
istics are  indolence,  impurity  and  indifference  to  the  future." 
Clark  says :  "In  mental,  moral  and  physical  qualities  I  consider 
the  Sioux  a  little  lower  but  still  nearly  equal  to  the  Cheyennes, 
and  the  Teton  are  the  superior  branch  of  the  family." 

The  Sioux  exercised  lordship  over  all  the  neighboring  tribes 
with  the  exception  of  the  Ojibwa,  who  were  able  to  drive  them 
westward  from  the  headwaters  of  the  Mississippi  and  the  Sioux 


in  turn  drove  the  Cheyennes  away,  who  were  at  one  time  a 
powerful  nation  of  the  Northwest  and  who  dwelt  on  a  branch  of 
the  Red  river.  They  were  at  deadly  enmity  with  the  Sioux,  but 
being  less  powerful  than  their  adversary,  were  driven  across  the 
Missouri  and  being  still  pursued  by  the  Sioux,  took  refuge  finally 
in  the  Black  Hills  near  the  upper  waters  of  the  Cheyenne  river. 

The  Cheyenne  Indians  when  first  known  to  the  whites  lived 
on  the  Cheyenne  river,  a  branch  of  the  Red  River  of  the  North. 
They  are  sometimes  termed  Dog-eaters  from  their  fondness  for 
the  flesh  of  that  animal  and  sometimes  known  as  "Cut  Wrists" 
from  that  form  of  mutilation  which  they  practice  on  their  dead 
enemies.  On  account  of  wars  with  the  Sioux  they  moved  south 
and  encamped  for  a  few  years  on  the  Little  Cheyenne,  then 
later  on  the  Big  Cheyenne  near  the  Black  Hills.  While  in  the 
Black  Hills  they  were  at  war  against  the  Sioux,  the  Mandans, 
and  sometimes  against  the  Aricarees.  They  formed  an  alliance 
finally  with  the  Arapahoes,  old  residents  of  the  North  Platte 

A  writer  says :  ' '  Other  races  of  Indians  once  people  the 
territory  now  embraced  within  the  state  of  North  Dakota. 
Among  these  were  the  once  powerful  and  numerous  people  called 
the  Mandan,  whose  place  of  residence  was  west  of  the  Missouri, 
and  about  whom  so  many  interesting  tales  are  told  by  George 
Catlin,  the  artist  explorer,  who  spent  years  in  their  villages. 
These  singular  people,  of  whom  there  is  scarcely  a  trace  left,  were 
of  a  different  race,  evidently,  from  those  who  surrounded  them. 
They  were  of  a  much  lighter  color  and  more  agreeable  features 
than  Sioux,  Pawnee  or  Omaha,  and  had  a  rude  civilization.  In 
the  making  of  pottery,  the  weaving  of  blankets  and  other 
mechanical  employments  they  developed  considerable  skill.  Many 
of  their  singular  customs  were  peculiar  to  them,  and  conjecture 
has  run  rife  in  trying  to  account  for  their  being.  Many  theories 
have  been  advanced,  as  is  usual  in  all  these  cases,  some  believing 
them  to  be  a  degenerate  remnant  of  the  prehistoric  races  of  this 
continent;  others  that  they  are  the  descendants  of  some  white 
people  wrecked  on  either  coast  and  who  have  drifted  inland. 
One  of  the  accounts  of  this  head  states  that  they  are  descendants 
of  the  female  captives  of  a  former  race,  who  were  spared  from 


the  wholesale  massacre  meted  out  to  the  rest  of  their  people.  The 
Indians  of  the  plains  say  that  the  Mandans  were  originally 
white,  the  women  having  long,  fair  hair,  and  the  men  long,  blonde 
whiskers.  They  were  numerous  and  possessed  all  the  land,  having 
cities,  towns  and  villages.  They  had  farms  and  herds  of  buffalo 
or  bison.  The  story  is  that  they  were  all  cut  off  by  the  Abenaznis, 
the  forefathers  or  forerunners  of  the  Indians.  Only  a  few  women 
out  of  the  race  were  spared  to  become  the  wives  of  their  captors. 
But  when  their  children  were  grown  they  livd  with  them  apart, 
kept  aloof,  and  thus  grew  up  a  separate  race.  If  this  account  is 
reported  correctly,  and  probably  it  is,  may  not  the  white  people 
of  this  Indian  legend  have  some  connection  with  the  wanderings 
of  that  semi-civilized  race,  the  Aztecs,  who  finally  settled  in 
Mexico  about  the  year  1200?  They,  too,  were  of  a  higher  color 
than  the  other  Indians  and  had  considerable  civilization." 

E.  R.  Steinbrueck,  Mandan,  North  Dakota,  thinks  that  the 
Mandans  came  originally  from  Ireland.  He  cites  some  authorities 
in  support  of  that  argument,  which,  if  proven,  only  goes  to  show 
that  this  race  of  the  red  man  came  from  the  Arctic  regions, 
having  been  driven  out  by  the  ice  age  to  more  delectable  climes 
farther  south.  At  the  beginning  of  the  glacial  era  the  fauna 
and  the  flora  occupied  regions  around  the  north  pole,  but  when 
frozen  out  a  migration  southward  was  made.  It  is  not  improb- 
able that  the  Mandan  at  that  time  occupied  some  extended  area 
within  the  boundary  of  the  Indo-European  country,  and  after- 
wards migrated  to  American  soil. 

A  very  good  account  of  the  Dacotah  Indians  is  given  in  the 
Compendium  of  History  and  Biography  of  North  Dakota.  "  These 
savages  are  of  an  entirely  different  group  from  those  found 
throughout  New  England  and  along  the  banks  of  the  Mohawk 
and  Susquehanna.  Although  they  have  many  customs  in  common 
with  the  tribes  that  once  dwelt  to  the  east  of  them,  yet  their 
language  and  many  peculiarities  mark  them  as  belonging  to  a 
distant  race. .  When  they  were  first  noticed  by  the  European 
adventurers,  large  numbers  were  found  about  the  head  of  Lake 
Superior  and  on  throughout  the  lake  region  of  what  is  now 
Minnesota  and  Manitoba.  The  name  by  which  they  call  them- 
selves, Dacotah,  signifies  allied  or  leagued.  The  name  Sioux, 


often  written  Scioux  or  Soos,  by  which  they  are  better  known, 
was  given  them  by  early  travelers  in  that  country.  For  cen- 
turies there  had  raged  a  relentless  war  between  the  Dacotah  and 
the  Ojibiways,  or  Chippewas,  and  these  latter  always  designated 
their  opponents  by  the  name  of  Nadowessioux  or  Nadowaysioux, 
signifying  enemies.  The  historian  Charlevoix,  who  visited  the 
Northwest  in  1721,  in  his  'Annals  of  New  France,'  says:  'The 
name  of  our  own  making,  or  rather  it  is  the  last  two  syllables  of 
the  name  Nadowessioux,  as  many  nations  call  them.'  There  has 
been  suggested  by  a  local  writer,  who  had  excellent  opportu- 
nities to  learn  of  such  matters,  that  the  name  Dacotah,  instead 
of  meaning  allied,  has  an  entirely  different  derivation,  and  one 
so  plausible  that  its  insertion  here  may  not  be  out  of  place.  It 
is  as  follows :  The  Sioux  Indian,  like  so  many  of  his  red  brethren, 
has  for  centuries  been  in  contact  with  the  missionaries,  many  of 
whom  were  French  priests,  and  has  been  associated  with  the 
Canadian  voyageurs  and  has  learned  to  like  and  speak  the  French 
language,  and  they  take  pride  in  speaking  the  'priest  language,' 
as  they  call  it.  When  the  Anglo-Saxon  first  came  among  these 
people,  on  his  asking  what  tribe  did  he,  the  Indian  belong  to,  and 
where  did  he  live,  the  Dacotah,  probably  with  wide-sweeping 
gesture  so  common  to  the  race,  answered  shortly,  Sioux  du  Coteau, 
meaning  Sioux  of  the  Hills.  His  total  ignorance  of  the  French 
tongue,  and  his  having  no  idea  of  its  use  by  a  savage,  led  the 
uneducated  American  or  Englishman  to  conclude  that  it  was  an 
Indian  name,  and  it  was  accordingly  handed  down  in  its  present 
form  of  Dacotah. 

"The  Dacotah  was  an  allied  race,  however,  they  often  giving 
themselves  the  name  of  Ocetisakowin,  or  the  Seven  Council  Fires. 
The  principal  members  of  this  league  were  seven  tribes  or  sub- 
divisions, many  of  whom  had  their  home  in  what  is  now  Minne- 
sota in  an  early  day,  but  who,  driven  back  by  the  advancing 
whites,  took  up  their  residence  in  Dakota.  Some  of  them,  how- 
ever, were  found  dwellers  on  the  broad  plains  of  the  Dakotas, 
and  had  been  for  a  long  time  previous  to  the  advent  of  the  white 

"The  principal  sub-nations,  or  tribes,  who  made  up  the  league, 


and  who  held  annual  councils  for  the  general  good,  were  as 
follows : 

"The  M 'dewakantonwans,  or  those  who  live  in  the  village 
of  the  Spirit  Lake,  evidently  Mille  Lac,  in  Minnesota,  where  they 
formerly  had  their  residence. 

"The  Wahpekutewans,  or  villages  of  the  leaf  shooters,  a  name 
of  uncertain  derivation,  but  probably  from  the  shape  of  their 
stone  arrow  heads,  which  were  broader  and  more  leaf-like  in 
shape  than  the  others. 

"The  Wahpetonwans,  or  villages  in  the  leaves  of  the  woods, 
pointing  to  their  abode  being  in  the  forests  of  Minnesota  about 
the  Little  Rapids  of  the  Minnesota  river.  From  there  they  were 
removed  finally  to  the  reservation- about  Big  Stone  lake. 

"The  Sissitonwans,  meaning  villages  of  the  marsh,  a  people 
who  lived  at  one  time  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi  river. 
All  these  four  sub-tribes  went,  also,  by  the  general  name  of 
Isanyati  or  Isantees.  This  name  is  identical  with  the  Issati  of 
Hennepin.  The  name  grew  out  of  the  fact  that  they  once  lived 
on  or  near  Isantandi  or  Knife  lake,  one  of  the  Mille  Lacs.  It  is 
asserted  that  the  lake  drew  its  name  from  the  stone  on  its  banks, 
which  the  primitive  Indians  sought  to  make  into  knives  (isan). 

"The  other  tribes  in  the  league  were  the  Minnekanye 
Wogopuwans,  or  the  villages  of  those  that  plant  by  the  water. 
The  Ihankwannas,  the  band  of  the  end  village,  a  people  whose 
name,  corrupted  by  the  white  people  into  Yanktonnias  or 
Yanktons,  gave  its  title  to  the  city  which  was  the  capital  of  the 
territory  for  many  years,  Yankton.  This  tribe  dwelt .  in  the 
country  between  the  Red  river  and  the  Missouri,  and  were  its 
sole  masters  for  some  time.  It  was  subdivided  into  several  sub- 
tribes:  Hunkpatidans ;  Pabaksa,  or  Cut  Heads;  Wazikutes,  or 
Pine  Shooters,  and  Kiyuksa,  those  who  divide  or  break  the  law. 
According  to  the  Indian  traditions,  the  Hohays,  or  Assinboine 
of  the  country  just  north  of  Dakota,  were  a  part  of  this  branch. 

"Tetonwans,  who  were  the  undisputed  masters  of  the  land 
west  of  the  Missouri  river,  to  the  Rocky  mountains.  These,  also, 
were  closely  allied  with  the  Cheyennes  and  Arickarees,  with 
whom  they  formed  many  marriage  alliances.  Among  the  divisions 
of  this  powerful  branch  of  the  Dacotah  nations  were  the  Sicauu 


or  Burnt  Thighs,  called  usually  the  Brule  Sioux,  after  Father 
Brule,  a  French  priest;  Itazipeho,  or  Sans  Arc,  without  bows; 
the  Sihasaps,  feet  that  are  black;  the  Oehenonpa,  two  kettles  or 
boilers;  Ogallahs,  wanderers  in  the  mountains;  Minnecoupoux, 
those  who  plant  by  the  water ;  and  the  Onkpapas,  they  that  dwell 
by  themselves. 

"These  people  were,  evidently,  banded  together  at  a  very 
early  day,  for,  in  the  history  of  the  mission  at  La  Pointe,  on 
Lake  Superior,  one  of  the  fathers,  in  writing  of  the  Dacotahs, 
says:  'For  sixty  leagues  from  the  extremity  of  the  Upper  Lake, 
toward  sunset;  and,  as  it  were,  in  the  center  of  the  western 
nations,  they  have  all  united  their  force  by  a  general  league.' 

''Polygamy  is  common  among  them.  They  are  very  jealous, 
and  sometimes  fight  in  duel  for  their  wives.  They  manage  the 
bow  admirably  and  have  been  seen  several  times  to  kill  ducks 
on  the  wing.  They  make  their  lodges  of  a  number  of  buffalo 
skins,  interlaced  and  sewed,  and  carry  them  wherever  they  go. 
They  are  all  great  smokers." 

From  a  work  called  "Dakota  Dictionary,"  published  by  the 
United  States  government  in  1853,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institute,  a  book  written  by  Rev.  S.  A.  Riggs,  a 
worthy  man  who  labored  for  years  as  a  missionary  among  the 
Sioux,  has  been  gathered  a  few  facts.  Mr.  Riggs  says,  in  speaking 
of  the  Dacotah  tongue: 

"In  the  language  as  spoken  by  the  different  bands  of  those 
properly  denominated  Dakotas,  some  differences  exist.  The  inter- 
course between  the  Indewakantonwans  of  the  Mississippi  and 
lower  Minnesota,  and  the  Wahpetonwans,  Wahpekutes  and  a 
part  of  the  Sissitonwans  family  has  been  so  constant  that  but 
slight  variations  are  discoverable  in  their  manner  of  speaking. 
In  some  instances  where  the  Wahpetonwans  use  d,  some  of  the 
Indewakantonwans  so  modify  the  sound  that  it  becomes  t,  and 
where  the  former  use  h,  the  latter  sometimes  employ  n.  As  a 
matter  of  course,  some  few  words  have  currency  in  one  band 
which  are  not  used,  perhaps  not  generally  known,  to  the  others ; 
but  none  of  the  dialectical  variations  are  of  such  a  kind  as  to 
impede  the  free  intercourse  of  thought. 

"The  Sissitonwans  of  Lake  Traverse  and  the  prairie  present 


more  differences  in  their  speech.  One  of  the  most  marked  of 
these  is  their  use  of  na  for  dan,  the  diminutive  termination. 
As  there  is  less  frequent  intercourse  between  them  and  the 
Isanties,  their  provincialisms  are  more  numerous;  and  from 
their  connections  with  the  Ihanktonwans  of  the  prairie  they  have 
adopted  some  of  their  forms  of  speech. 

"The  chief  peculiarity  of  the  Ihanktonwan  dialect,  as  com- 
pared with  that  of  the  Dakotas  of  the  Minnesota  valley,  is  the 
almost  universal  substitution  of  k  for  h.  The  Tetonwan  dialect 
exhibits  more  striking  differences.  In  it  the  g,  hard,  is  used  for 
the  h  of  the  Isanties  and  k  of  the  Ihanktonwans,  and  rejecting 
d  altogether,  they  use  1  in  its  stead. 

"By  the  bands  of  Dakotas  east  of  the  James  river,  hard  g 
is  not  heard  except  as  a  final  in  some  syllables  where  contraction 
has  taken  place,  and  1  does  not  occur.  Thus,  to  illustrate  the 
foregoing,  Canpahinihona,  a  cart  or  wagon,  of  the  Wahpetonwans, 
becomes  cunpunminera  in  the  mouth  of  an  Indewakautonwan, 
canpakmekma  in  that  of  an  Ihanktonwan,  and  campazmigma 
with  a  Tetonwan.  Hda,  to  go  home,  of  the  Isanties,  is  kda  in  the 
Ihanktonwan  dialect  and  gla  in  the  Tetonwan." 

The  Sioux  counts  years  by  winters,  and  computes  distance 
by  the  number  of  sleeps  or  nights  passed  upon  a  journey.  Their 
months  are  computed  by  moons,  and  bear  the  following  names : 
Witeri,  January,  the  hard  moon ;  Wicatowi,  February,  the  raccoon 
moon ;  Istawicayazanwi,  March,  the  sore  eye  moon ;  Magaokadiwi, 
April,  moon  when  geese  lay  eggs,  sometimes  called  Wokadiwi, 
and  also  Watopapiwi,  or  the  moon  when  the  streams  are  naviga- 
ble; Wojupiwi,  May,  planting  moon;  Wajustecasawi,  June,  the 
moon  when  strawberries  are  red;  Canpasapawi  and  Wasunpawi, 
July,  moon  when  choke  cherries  are  ripe  and  moon  when  geese 
shed  their  feathers;  Wasutonwi,  August,  harvest  moon; 
Psinhnaketuwi,  September,  the  moon  when  rice  is  laid  up  to  dry; 
Wiwajupi,  October,  drying  rice  moon ;  Takiyurawi,  November, 
deer  rutting  month;  and  Tahecapsunwi,  December,  the  moon 
when  the  deer  sheds  his  horns. 

The  legends  of  the  Dakotahs  are  numerous.  While  some 
are  puerile,  a  few  are  beautiful.  One  of  them  tells  of  Eagle  Eye, 
the  son  of  a  great  war  prophet,  who  lived  more  than  a  hundred 


years  ago,  and  who  was  distinguished  for  bravery.  Fleet,  ath- 
letic, symmetrical,  a  bitter  foe  and  a  warm  friend,  he  was  a 
model  Dakotah.  In  the  ardor  of  his  youth  his  affections  were 
given  to  one  who  was,  also,  attractive,  whose  name  was  Scarlet 
Dove.  A  few  moons  after  she  had  become  an  inmate  of  his 
lodge,  they  descended  the  Mississippi  with  a  hunting  party  and 
proceeded  east  of  Lake  Pepin.  One  day  while  Eagle  Eye  lay 
hidden  behind  some  shrubbery,  waiting  for  a  deer,  a  comrade's 
arrow  pierced  the  leafy  covert  and  struck  him  to  the  heart.  With 
only  time  to  lisp  the  loved  name,  Scarlet  Dove,  he  expired. 

For  a  few  days  the  widow  mourned  and  gashed  her  flesh,  as 
was  the  custom  upon  such  occasions,  then,  with  the  silence  of 
woe,  wrapped  her  beloved  in  skins  and  placed  him  on  a  tem- 
porary scaffold.  The  Sioux  do  not  bury  their  dead,  but  place 
them  on  a  scaffold  above  the  earth  or  in  the  tree  tops.  Under- 
neath the  resting  place  of  Eagle  Eye  sat  Scarlet  Dove  until  the 
party  was  ready  to  return  to  their  own  place.  Then,  taking  down 
all  that  was  left  of  the  husband  of  her  heart,  she  patiently  carried 
it  back  to  their  home.  On  her  shoulders  she  carried  her  burden, 
and  each  night  when  the  party  camped  she  built  a  temporary 
resting  place  above  the  earth  for  his  beloved  remains.  When 
she  reached  the  Minnesota  river,  a  hundred  miles  from  where  he 
lost  his  life,  the  patient  woman  rested.  Going  into  the  forest, 
she  brought  poles  forked  and  poles  straight,  and  forthwith  she 
built  a  permanent  burial  scaffold  on  a  beautiful  hill,  opposite 
Fort  Snelling.  Having  placed  the  body  upon  this  elevation, 
according  to  the  customs  of  her  race,  with  the  strap  with  which 
she  had  carried  her  precious  burden  hanged  herself  to  the 
scaffold  and  died. 

Another  from  the  same  source  is  one  told  by  the  Indians  of 
the  Missouri: 

"The  Great  Spirit,  at  an  ancient  period,  here  called  the 
Indian  nations  together,  and,  standing  on  the  precipice  of  the 
red  pipe-stone  rocks,  broke  from  its  wall  a  piece,  and  made  a 
huge  pipe  by  turning  it  in  his  hand,  which  he  smoked  over  them 
to  the  north,  the  south,  the  east  and  the  west,  and  told  them 
that  this  stone  was  red — that  it  was  their  flesh — that  they  must 
use  it  for  their  pipes  of  peace — that  it  belonged  to  them  all,  and 


that  the  war-club  must  not  be  raised  on  its  ground.  At  the 
last  whiff  of  his  pipe  his  head  went  into  a  great  cloud,  and  the 
whole  surface  of  the  rock  for  several  miles  was  heated  and 
glazed;  two  great  ovens  were  opened  beneath,  and  two  women 
(guardian  spirits  of  the  place)  entered  them  in  a  blaze  of  fire, 
and  they  are  heard  there  yet  (Tso-me-cos-too  and  Tso-me-cos-to- 
wan-dee),  answering  to  the  invocations  of  the  high  priests,  who 
consult  them  when  they  visit  the  sacred  place." 

Ali^e  Nelson  Page  visited  Fort  Totten,  North  Dakota,  recently 
and  gathered  much  valuable  information  about  the  Indians  which 
was  published  in  the  Herald  June  13,  1908.  Her  data  was  ob- 
tained largely  from  Father  Jerome,  in  charge  of  St.  Michael's 
Indian  Mission  at  Fort  Totten,  and  from  Indians  in  the  vicinity 
of  that  fort.  The  writer's  vivid  description  of  Indian  life  when 
speaking  of  the  Dakotas  carries  with  the  sketch  a  note  like  that 
of  a  death  knell  sounding  the  existence  of  the  dusky  race  for 
the  last  time.  The  sketch  is  historical  and,  including  that  of 
Chief  Little  Fish,  the  last  great  warrior  of  a  Sioux  nation,  is 
inserted  in  this  place.  The  writer  says: 

The  rapidity  with  which  this  band  of  Indians  is  dying  out  is 
pathetic  and  the  mortality  on  all  of  the  western  reservations  is 
great,  according  to  the  Indian  agents.  On  the  Fort  Totten  reser- 
vation the  role  of  1892  for  the  distribution  of  lands  counted  1,145 
men,  women  and  children.  The  last  role  for  the  distribution 
of  this  $788,000  judgment  against  the  government  was  900,  and 
it  must  be  remembered  this  includes  all  who  are  living  of  the 
enrollment  of  1892  as  well  as  those  born  since. 

The  mortality  is  greater  among  the  young  than  among  the 
older  ones,  and  wherein  they  have  nearly  as  many  children  as 
they  used  to  there  is  some  race  suicide  among  them  with  the 
development  of  higher  civilization,  especially  in  the  last  five  years. 
The  children  that  are  born  are  not  properly  cared  for.  The 
Indian  mothers  have  learned  it  is  not  necessary  to  nurse  their' 
babies,  that  they  can  be  fed  from  a  bottle  as  well  as  the  old  way. 
Of  course  they  have  no  idea  of  sterilization  of  either  milk  or 
bottle  and  if  they  had  would  be  too  lazy  to  use  it.  The  easiest 
way  to  them  is  a  bottle  that  holds  the  most  and  a  long  rubber 
tube.  From  this  the  papoose  is  fed  anything  from  diseased  milk 


to  thick  soup,  which  of  course  is  murder  to  the  delicate  little 
stomachs  and  dysentery  carries  them  off  quickly. 

Dead  Are  Remembered. 

There  is  a  pretty  little  burying  ground  near  the  Old  Mission 
011  the  reservation  that  is  rapidly  filling  up.  Every  grave  is 
carefully  marked,  some  with  very  handsome  marble  monuments 
and  others  with  a  simple  cross  of  white  wood  or  stone.  If  the 
relatives  of  a  dead  Indian  have  a  dollar  it  will  go  for  a  monument 
or  mark  of  some  kind  though  they  starve  for  days  after.  Or  if 
they  have  no  money  and  the  dealer  in  tombstones  will  trust  them 
one  is  bought  far  beyond  their  means. 

The  restricted  way  in  which  the  Indian  lives  is  responsible  for 
the  dying  out  of  the  race.  The  teaching  the  white  man  has 
thought  for  their  own  good  is  proving  their  undoing  physically 
and  morally  in  many  ways.  As  good  old  Chief  Little  Fish  says : 
"My  young  people  learn  quicker  the  bad  ways  of  the  white  man 
than  his  good." 

Reasons  for  Mortality. 

Instead  of  having  the  great  plains  that  abounded  with  buffalo 
and  wild  game  of  all  kinds  to  roam  over  and  a  sheltered  nook  in 
the  forest  to  erect  their  tepees  during  the  winter  they  are 
restricted  to  a  few  acres  of  land  on  which  the  game  has  long 
since  ceased  to  exist.  The  manner  in  which  they  live  in  their 
ignorance  would  kill  off  the  white  man  just  as  readily.  They 
must  live  on  their  own  land  and  often  their  little  cabins  are 
erected  on  the  open  prairie  without  shelter  of  any  description. 
Imagine  human  beings  living,  a  family  maybe  of  from  four  to  ten 
or  twelve,  in  two  rooms  and  these  with  every  crack  and  crevice 
practically  hermetically  sealed  against  the  cold  blast. 

The  sanitary  conditions  are  awful.  When  they  do  go  outside 
cold  is  caught  easily,  pneumonia  sets  in  and  then  the  terrible 
white  plague  which  is  so  prevalent  among  them,  gets  an  easy 
hold  on  their  constitutions.  The  mortality  is  the  greatest  from 
this  disease.  A  rumor  has  been  current  for  a  number  of  years 
that  syphilis  was  prevalent  among  them  and  the  mortality  was 


as  much  or  more  from  this  than  any  other  cause.  This  is  denied 
by  the  reservation  doctor.  He  says  there  is  little  of  it  among 
them.  Tuberculosis  is  their  curse  and  their  manner  of  living  an 
aggravation  of  the  disease. 

Failure  as  Farmers. 

A  few  years  ago  it  was  thought  the  Cut  Head  Sioux  would 
make  good  farmers  and  tillers  of  the  soil  and  while  they  were 
under  the  strict  surveillance  of  the  government  they  were  so, 
and  quite  self-supporting.  Major  McLaughlin,  Indian  agent  from 
Washington,  D.  C.,  who  used  to  be  Indian  agent  at  the  Fort 
Totten  reservation,  is  quoted  as  saying  on  his  last  visit  there, 
they  were  not  as  good  farmers  as  they  were  ten  years  ago.  Then 
they  were  under  the  direct  control  of  the  Indian  agent  and  there 
were  what  they  called  "Boss  Farmers"  going  constantly  among 
them,  teaching  them  to  farm  with  the  uses  of  modern  machinery 
which  the  government  provided  them  with,  and  although  they 
had  to  be  coaxed  along  like  children,  they  made  reasonable  prog- 
ress as  agriculturists,  but  now  are  retrogressing.  Since  the 
settlement  with  the  government  in  1892,  when  the  last  land  allot- 
ment was  made,  the  Cut  Head  Sioux  were  made  citizens  with 
the  right  of  ballot.  Since  that  time  they  have  been  left  more  to 
their  own  devices  and  the  result  has  been  disastrous. 

Proverbially  lazy,  improvident  as  to  future,  one  wonders  how 
they  exist.  Some  of  them  have  a  small  annuity  from  the  govern- 
ment, but  it  is  never  in  their  hands  longer  than  it  takes  to  get 
from  the  post  to  the  traders,  and  then  it  is  never  spent  in  laying 
away  a  stock  of  any  kind  of  provision  against  a  future  need. 
There  will  undoubtedly  be  hardship  among  them  this  winter  for 
what  little  grains  were  put  in  were  burned  out  with  the  drouth. 
A  few  of  them  have  good  gardens  and  can  put  away  a  stock  of 
vegetables  for  the  winter,  and  for  a  time  these  will  be  the  popular 
Indians  on  the  reservation  among  their  kin.  Their  cabins  will  be 
the  gathering  place  for  poorer  relatives  and  neighbors.  This 
hospitality  is  always  dispensed  as  long  as  there  is  anything  to 
eat.  During  the  coldest  weather  a  number  of  families  will  coop 
themselves  up  in  one  little  cabin  for  weeks  at  a  time. 


Felt  Drouth  Coming. 

The  most  trivial  reason  is  an  excuse  for  not  putting  in  their 
land.  A  bit  of  broken  machinery,  a  lamed  horse,  an  ailing  rela- 
tive, will  stop  all  farming  operations.  One  astute  old  Indian 
when  questioned  about  his  crops  this  year  said  he  did  not  put  any 
in  because  he  knew  there  was  going  to  be  a  drouth,  a  bit  of 
wisdom  many  a  white  man  would  like  to  possess. 

There  is  a  splendid  Indian  industrial  school  at  Fort  Totten. 
When  the  old  fort  was  abandoned  by  the  troops  eighteen  years 
ago  it  was  turned  over  to  the  Indians  by  the  government  for  this 
purpose.  Each  year  the  school  has  turned  out  a  number  of  grad- 
uates and  where  they  have  not  had  to  return  to  their  homes,  and 
have  been  trained  instead  out  in  the  world,  they  have  made  good 
citizens  and  are  quite  self-supporting. 

C.  M.  Zeibach,  for  sixteen  years  in  the  Indian  service  with 
thorough  knowledge  of  their  characteristics  and  requirements, 
makes  a  splendid  superintendent  and  is  agent  on  the  reservation 
as  well.  The  original  school  from  which  the  Industrial  school 
grew  was  the  Old  Mission,  established  by  the  Catholics  in  1863. 
This  burned  and  a  newer,  larger  mission  took  its  place.  After- 
ward another  even  larger  mission  was  built  where  the  children 
have  been  taught  by  the  Grey  Nuns  and  Father  Jerome,  the 
priest  in  charge. 

When  the  industrial  school  proper  was  established  at  the  post 
the  government  retained  control  of  the  mission  and  consolidated 
the  schools,  leaving  the  Grey  Nuns  and  Father  Jerome  still  in 
charge  of  the  mission.  To  the  mission  is  sent  the  Sioux  Indian 
children,  most  of  whom  are  full  blooded,  and  to  the  post  are  sent 
the  Chippewa  children,  most  of  whom  are  half  breeds  from  the 
Turtle  mountain  reservation.  After  a  trial  it  was  found  necessary 
to  separate  them  in  this  way  in  order  to  preserve  peace  among 
them,  for  the  remains  of  the  old  feuds  between  the  Chippewa  and 
the  Sioux,  who  were  always  deadly  enemies,  would  crop  out. 

Last  year  there  were  enrolled  140  boys  and  145  girls  of  ages 
ranging  anywhere  from  five  to  twenty.  They  are  not  carried  in 
their  studies  beyond  the  eighth  grade,  but  are  all  taught  useful 



The  boys  are  taught  the  harness-making,  tailoring,  carpen- 
tering, farming  and  engineering  trades,  and  the  girls  dressmaking, 
domestic  science,  laundry,  baking,  etc.  A  corps  of  forty-five 
teachers,  some  of  them  of  Indian  descent,  educated  either  at  Car- 
lisle or  Haskell,  and  a  few  cultured  white  men  and  women 
comprise  the  faculty. 

Blood  Always  Tells. 

The  children  are  most  of  them  musical  and  pick  up  the  refine- 
ments of  life  quickly,  but  strange  to  say  they  drop  them  as 
quickly  when  they  go  back  to  their  homes,  at  least  the  greater 
number  of  them  do.  There  are  some  exceptions  but  they  are  few 
and  far  between.  If  allowed  they  will  absorb  a  great  deal  of 
higher  education  with  evidently  a  good  understanding,  but  with 
no  idea  of  putting  it  to  any  practical  purpose.  One  superin- 
tendent is  quoted  as  saying  that  this  had  been  one  trouble  with 
the  teaching  of  an  Indian,  too  much  time  had  been  given  to  giving 
him  a  champagne  education  with  only  a  beer  salary  to  maintain 
it  with,  and  the  immediate  result  when  the  Indian  gets  once  more 
among  his  own  and  sees  the  impossibility  of  remedying  things 
there  he  loses  hope,  and  the  result  is  disastrous. 

This  superintendent's  idea  was  to  teach  the  Indian  a 'simple 
trade  and  above  all  to  work.  Some  of  the  graduates  turned  out 
in  recent  years,  especially  of  the  half  or  quarter  breeds,  have 
gone  farther  with  their  educations,  entered  some  of  the  eastern 
universities  and  in  a  number  of  instances  turned  out  good  pro- 
fessional men  and  women.  They  are  employed  on  the  different 
reservations  and  at  some  of  the  posts  and  towns  adjacent  to 
reservations  have  set  up  in  business  for  themselves.  In  such 
instances  as  this  they  have  turned  out  well  but  where  they  must 
go  from  the  industrial  school  back  to  their  homes  on  the 
reservation  not  much  has  been  accomplished. 

The  children  are  allowed  two  months  at  home  each  summer, 
when  they  have  homes,  and  if  they  have  not  they  are  kept  at  the 
school.  It  generally  takes  a  week  to  get  them  straightened  out 
when  they  come  back  to  the  school  in  the  fall.  Their  clothes  will 
be  ragged  and  dirty  and  they  are  oftentimes  covered  with  vermin, 
making  much  work  for  the  matrons  and  teachers. 


But  when  once  in  line  and  in  working  order  again  they  are 
easily  managed  and  some  of  the  teachers  with  experience  teaching 
the  white  children  claim  they  are  more  tractable  and  easily  man- 
aged than  the  white,  and  fully  as  easily  taught.  Some  of  their 
work  is  beautiful,  especially  of  the  girls.  Their  sewing  is  a  work 
of  art  and  the  boys  do  good  work,  too.  They  take  more  to  some 
trades  than  others.  Harnessmaking  appeals  to  them  and  Super- 
intendent Zeibach  is  in  possession  of  a  magnificent  set  of  harness 
made  by  one  of  the  boys  at  the  industrial  school  that  in  point  of 
workmanship  is  perfect.  He  would  not  take  a  considerable  sum 
for  it. 

The  education  of  the  Indian  is  a  problem,  and  has  been  for 
many  years  to  the  government,  but  if  the  mortality  is  as  great 
on  other  reservations  as  at  Fort  Totten,  it  is  a  problem  seemingly 
of  not  many  years'  duration. 

Story  of  Little  Fish. 

The  old  saying:  "There  is  no  good  Indian  but  a  dead  one," 
does  not  apply  in  all  cases,  at  least  not  in  that  of  Chief  Little  Fish 
of  the  Cut  Head  Sioux  at  the  Fort  Totten  Indian  reservation  in 
North  Dakota,  according  to  all  reports  of  him  from  both  his  own 
people  and  the  whites. 

Little  Fish  or  ' '  Tiawashti, "  meaning  in  English,  Pretty  Lodge, 
has  passed  the  allotted  three  score  years  and  ten  of  man  and  will 
shortly  celebrate  his  eighty-fourth  birthday.  He  is  greatly 
beloved  by  his  own  people  and  respected  by  the  whites  and  it  is 
writh  sadness  they  speak  of  the  time  when  he  will  be  no  more 
among  them.  With  his  demise  will  go  a  picturesque  old  figure 
among  the  Indians  and  the  last  of  the  chiefs  of  the  Cut  Head 
Sioux  of  the  Dakotas,  since  the  death  of  the  great  Chief  Wanita, 
who  may  be  in  point  of  valor  outrivaled  Little  Fish,  but  never 
in  natural  goodness.  Old  Wanita  passed  away  about  ten  years 
ago  on  the  Fort  Totten  reservation  and  a  handsome  monument 
in  the  Indian  burying  ground  there  stands  as  a  memorial  to 

Not  Great  Warrior. 

Some  magazine  and  newspaper  writers  of  late  years  have 
written  of  Little  Fish  and  described  him  as  an  hereditary  chief 


of  the  Sioux  and  told  great  tales  of  fights  and  skirmishes,  always 
describing  him  in  these  as  a  great  warrior,  which  according  to 
Little  Fish  himself  and  those  among  whom  he  has  lived  for  fifty 
years  and  over,  is  not  true.  In  fact  he  has  always  been  a  very 
peaceful  Indian  and  as  to  his  antecedents,  he  is  very  vague  on 
this  point  himself. 

As  a  sketch  produced  here  of  him  would  indicate,  he  is  of 
mixed  blood  and  according  to  an  old  Indian  trader  who  has 
known  him  for  fifty  years,  he  must  b*e  a  mixture  of  Sisseton 
Sioux  and  French.  There  is  lacking  in  his  features  the  high  cheek 
bone,  the  full  broad,  coarse  mouth,  and  the  raven  straight  hair 
of  the  full  blood  Sioux.  Instead,  he  has  the  more  refined  features 
of  the  French,  but  the  swarthy  skin  of  the  Indian.  His  hair  is 
snow  white  and  shows  a  little  inclination  to  ripple,  which  is  very 
unlike  the  Indian.  This  all  with  some  marked  characteristics 
of  the  Sissetons,  according  to  traders  who  have  studied  them  and 
lived  among  them  for  years,  would  indicate  a  mixed  blood. 

How  He  Became  Chief. 

According  to  old  members  of  the  tribe  and  his  own  story, 
when  a  mere  boy  he  wandered  from  some  part  of  the  Canadian 
country  into  Minnesota,  where  he  met  a  band  of  the  Cut  Head 
Sioux  who  accepted  him  as  their  own.  He  could  tell  but  little  of 
whom  his  people  were.  Years  afterward  events  transpired  that 
made  these  Indians  accept  him  as  their  chief.  In  the  early  sixties 
the  colonel  in  command  of  Fort  Totten  found  Little  Fish  with  a 
band  of  300  of  his  people  camped  near  the  Missouri  River.  There 
was  a  famine  among  them,  the  winter  had  been  a  terrible  one 
and  they  were  starving  and  freezing  to  death.  When  the  com- 
mander and  his  soldiers  approached,  with  a  thought  to  locate 
some  Indians  who  had  been  committing  depredations  among  the 
white  settlers,  it  was  here  Little  Fish's  powers  of  oratory  were 
discovered.  His  appeal  and  statement  of  the  condition  of  his 
people  was  strong  and  eloquent.  The  Indians'  seeming  depend- 
ence upon  him,  his  wisdom  and  his  influence,  made  the  com- 
mander acknowledge  him  as  chief.  From  this  on,  this  particular 
band  of  Indians  called  him  chief  and  the  whole  tribe  afterward 
accepted  him  as  such,  as  did  the  government. 


Respected  at  Washington. 

When  some  of  the  treaties  of  the  late  sixties  and  the  early 
seventies  were  made  with  the  Cut  Head  Sioux  and  the  govern- 
ment, the  name  of  Little  Fish  appeared  on  them  formally  as 
chief  of  this  tribe.  Far  from  being  a  warrior  of  note,  he  has 
always  stood  for  peace,  both  among  the  different  tribes  and  the 
whites  and  he  says  he  has  always  tried  to  live  according  to  the 
precepts  of  the  great  white  chiefs  in  Washington  and  to  govern 
his  people  accordingly.  At  different  times  with  members  of  his 
tribe  he  has  visited  Washington  and  the  government  officials  have 
always  found  him  tractable  and  reasonable  in  his  demands  for  his 

There  are  people  who  claim  Little  Fish  took  part  in  the 
terrible  massacre  of  '62  near  Alexandria,  Minnesota,  but  this 
Little  Fish  strenuously  denies,  and  his  life  among  the  Indians 
and  the  whites  would  indicate  the  truthfulness  of  what  he  says, 
that  he  has  always  been  a  peaceful  Indian  and  tried  to  lead  his 
people  in  the  path  of  rectitude.  He  says  the  nearest  he  came  to 
being  in  the  Indian  uprising,  and  this  is  vouched  for  by  an  old 
Indian  trader,  was  that  of  the  winter  of  '62.  He,  with  a  small 
band  of  hunters  with  their  wives  and  children,  went  west  and 
camped  near  old  Fort  Ransom.  Some  of  the  more  hardy  hunters 
leaving  the  women  and  children  behind,  went  on  further  into 
Montana  looking  for  big  game.  After  a  week's  absence  they 
started  back  and  were  met  half  way  by  some  of  those  they  had 
left  behind  hastening  to  notify  them  of  the  uprising  and  that 
their  people  were  being  rapidly  cut  down  by  the  soldiers  and 
white  settlers.  The  whole  band  started  back  toward  Minnesota 
and  met  another  band  of  Indians  coming  west  who  had  been 
whipped  and  vanquished. 

Little  Fish  Advises  Peace. 

After  due  council  Little  Fish  advised  them  to  quietly  seek 
their  own  camping  grounds,  obey  the  mandate  of  the  whites, 
accept  their  defeat  and  make  the  best  of  such  lands  and  rations 
as  the  government  would  give  them.  It  was  greatly  the  influence 


of  Little  Fish  when  he  went  back  among  them  that  they  settled 
down  as  quietly  and  peacefully  as  they  did. 

Has  One  Child,  a  Son. 

For  over  fifty  years  he  has  lived  on  the  Fort  Totten  reserva- 
tion and  his  life  there  has  surely  been  indicative  of  a  peaceful 
disposition.  He  is  known  far  and  wide  as  a  good  Indian,  a  man 
of  his  word  both  to  white  and  red  men,  and  a  Christian.  He  is  a 
devout  Catholic.  This  faith  he  embraced  years  ago  and  according 
to  the  priest  who  has  been  in  charge  of  the  mission  at  the  reserva- 
tion for  over  thirty  years  has  been  one  of  his  best  parishioners, 
and  a  faithful  attendant  at  services.  He  has  been  married  twice 
and  has  had  quite  a  family  of  children,  of  whom  but  one  son 
survives.  A  number  of  grandchildren  are  living  about  the  reser- 
vation and  with  an  older  one  of  these  he  makes  his  home.  They 
have  a  cozy  little  farm  home  about  six  miles  out  from  the  fort 
and  near  the  old  mission,  where  they  farm  and  raise  enough 
grains  for  their  simple  uses  and  to  feed  a  few  head  of  good  stock. 
A  small  annuity  comes  from  the  government  every  quarter,  but 
even  if  this  were  not  forthcoming  Little  Fish  would  be  well 
cared  for  by  his  own  or  the  white  men  about  who  are  really  fond 
of  the  old  Indian. 

Since  with  the  members  of  his  tribe  he  has  been  made  a  citizen 
of  the  United  States  with  the  last  settlement  of  the  government 
in  the  way  of  land  allotments,  the  old  chief  has  turned  to  be  quite 
a  politician  and  is  proud  of  the  fact  he  can  cast  his  ballot  as  the 
white  man. 

How  the  Chief  Votes. 

When  he  comes  to  vote  it  is  with  great  pomp  and  ceremony. 
He  must  have  his  interpreter  tell  him,  over  and  over  again,  of 
the  different  qualities  of  the  different  candidates  for  office.  He 
then  casts  his  ballot  as  he  chooses,  always  giving  a  good  reason 
why  he  voted  and  why  his  man  should  be  elected,  showing  that 
after  all  he  has  carefully  weighed  the  matter  in  his  own  mind. 
Most  Indians  are  easily  led  when  it  comes  to  politics  and  it  is 
said  the  last  man  to  approach  them  with  a  bribe  is  the  one  who 
gets  their  vote,  but  not  so  with  Little  Fish.  Those  who  have  tried 


say  his  vote  cannot  be  bought.  Since  the  beginning  of  the 
Chautauqua  sixteen  years  ago,  one  or  two  days  have  always  been 
designated  Indian  days.  Led  by  Little  Fish,  all  the  Indians  come 
over  from  the  reservation  for  the  event. 

Famed  for  His  Oratory. 

A  picturesque  feature  of  one  day  has  always  been  a  speech 
in  the  great  auditorium  by  the  old  chief.  He  is  famed  for  his 
oratory  and  thousands  will  gather  to  hear  him.  He  always  speaks 
words  of  wisdom,  and  recites  through  an  interpreter  interesting 
and  instructive  reminiscences  of  the  happy  hunting  days  when 
great  herds  of  buffalo  and  antelope  roamed  the  plains  of  the 
Dakotas.  But,  this  year  this  was  one  of  the  features  most  missed 
at  the  Chautauqua  assembly.  Little  Fish  came  over  with  his 
people  but  had  to  decline  to  give  his  annual  speech  on  account  of 
his  feebleness.  It  was  a  matter  of  great  regret  to  the  visitors  and 
a  pathetic  demonstration  to  his  people,  who  sadden  when  they 
speak  of  the  time  that  he  will  be  among  them  no  more,  that  his 
days  are  numbered  and  that  shortly  he  will  be  called  to  join  the 
good  Indians  who  have  gone  before  him  to  the  happy  hunting 

At  the  Chautauqua  this  summer  when  the  old  chief  posed  for 
his  picture,  a  silver  medal  was  brought  from  around  his  neck,  that 
it  might  show  more  in  the  picture.  Many  questions  were  asked 
about  this  medal,  but  only  elicited  the  information  that  it  was 
given  to  some  one  of  his  forefathers  for  valor  by  King  George 
the  Third  and  it  bears  the  portrait  of  the  king  on  one  side  and 
that  of  an  Indian  chief  on  the  other,  with  the  inscription,  accord- 
ing to  the  interpreter,  in  the  Indian  tongue,  "For  valor,  from  his 
Majesty  King  George  the  Third."  To  what  forefather  this  was 
presented  could  not  be  learned  from  Little  Fish  and  it  was  with 
regret  the  gift  could  not  be  traced,  for  undoubtedly  its  history 
would  recall  tales  of  romance  and  history  and  establish  without 
doubt  Little  Fish's  antecedents. 

Last  of  the  Chiefs. 

With  the  passing  of  this  old  chief,  and  the  time  can  not  be 
many  moons  away,  will  go  the  last  of  the  chiefs  of  the  Cut  Head 


Sioux  Indians.  While  the  old  man's  mind  is  still  alert  and  keen, 
physically  he  is  failing  quite  rapidly.  And  when  he  is  gone  there 
will  be  no  more  chiefs,  for  the  government  recognizes  none  and 
it  is  hardly  likely  the  Indians  will  elect  another,  although  some 
of  the  tribe  feel  they  may  accept  a  grandson  of  Little  Fish  as  a 
sort  of  honorary  chief.  This  is  hardly  likely  and  even  so  his 
influence  would  be  of  little  moment  among  them  for  he  has  not 
the  natural  powers  of  leadership  of  his  good  old  grandfather. 


Early  in  the  fifties,  the  United  States  Government  made  a 
treaty  with  the  Indians  of  the  Northwest  granting  rights  that 
the  agents  of  the  government  were  not  long  in  getting  away  from 
them.  But  as  for  these  red  Ishmaelites  whose  hand  was  against 
every  man  and  every  mqn's  hand  was  against  them,  they  lived 
without  tilling  the  soil,  and  when  on  the  warpath  spared  no  foe 
in  mercy.  That  was  their  loftiest  ambition,  and  as  they  had 
taken  up  the  sword,  their  fate  was  to  die  by  the  sword,  and  the 
treachery  of  government  agents  was  one  way  by  which  they  came 
to  their  untimely  end. 

The  subjugation  and  almost  utter  annihilation  of  the  red  man 
of  the  Sioux  war  and  other  wars,  culminating  in  the  death  of 
Custer  and  his  little  army  of  faithful  followers,  on  the  25th  of 
June,  1876,  furnishes  probably  the  finishing  episodes  of  the  last 
two  hundred  years  or  more  of  Indian  warfare.  That  terrible 
uprising  of  the  Dakota  Indians  in  the  summer  of  1862,  and  conse- 
quent deaths  of  seven  or  eight  hundred  defenseless  settlers  in 
Minnesota  and  the  Dakotas,  is  the  last,  we  hope,  of  the  dark 
spots  to  be  found  in  the  history  of  the  aborigines  of  our  country. 
Like  the  devastation  of  a  great  plague  this  trouble  with  the 
Indians  was  far  and  wide.  It  reached  from  the  Iowa  line  north  to 
the  international  boundary  line,  and  from  the  central  part  of 
Minnesota  west  as  far  as  the  white  settlers  could  be  found, 
involving  all  in  the  Northwest,  north  of  Iowa,  and  including  a 
population  at  that  time  exceeding  fifty  thousand  people. 

The  causes  which  led  to  this  outbreak  are  complicated,  but 
one  cause,  and  the  principal  one,  goes  back  to  the  treaty 
of  Traverse  des  Sioux,  July  23,  1851,  between  the  United  States 



and  the  Sissitonwans  or  Sissitons  and  the  Wahpetonwans,  when 
$275,000  were  to  be  paid  their  chiefs  and  the  further  sum  of 
$30,000  was  to  be  expended  for  the  tribes'  benefit  in  Indian 
improvements.  By  the  treaty  of  Mendota,  dated  August  5,  of  the 
same  year,  the  M 'dewakantonwan  and  the  Wahpekutewan  Sioux 
were  to  receive  the  sum  of  $200,000,  to  be  paid  to  their  chiefs 
and  for  an  improvement  fund  of  $30,000.  These  several  sums, 
amounting  in  all  to  $555,000,  these  Indians  claimed  was  never 
paid  except  in  some  trifling  sums  expended  in  improvements  on 
the  reservation.  Thievery  was  then  rife  among  the  Indian  agents 
and  political  employes  of  the  Indian  bureau,  and  no  doubt  there 
was  much  that  was  true  in  these  claims  of  the  savages.  The 
Indians  grew  more  and  more  dissatisfied  and  freely  expressed 
themselves  in  council  and  to  the  agents.  In  1867  the  Indian 
department  at  Washington  sent  out  Major  Kintzing  Prichette, 
a  man  of  large  experience  and  unsullied  integrity,  to  investigate 
the  cause  of  the  ill  feeling.  In  his  report,  made  to  the  department 
the  same  year,  the  Major  says:  "The  complaint  that  runs 
through  all  their  councils  points  to  the  imperfect  performance 
or  non-fulfillment  of  treaty  stipulations.  Whether  these  are  well 
or  ill  founded  it  is  not  my  premise  to  discuss.  That  such  a  belief 
prevails  among  them,  impairing  their  confidence  and  good  faith 
in  the  government,  cannot  be  questioned." 

In  one  of  these  councils,  Jagmani,  a  chief,  said :  "The  Indians 
sold  their  lands  at  Traverse  des  Sioux.  I  say  what  we  are  told. 
For  fifty  years  they  were  to  be  paid  $50,000  each  year.  We 
were,  also,  promised  $30,000  and  that  we  have  not  seen." 
Another  chief  said  that  by  the  treaty  of  Traverse  des  Sioux 
$275,000  were  to  be  paid  to  them  when  they  came  upon  their 
reservation ;  they  desired  to  know  what  had  become  of  it.  Every 
white  man  knows  that  they  have  been  five  years  upon  their 
reservation,  and  yet  we  have  heard  nothing  of  it. 

Alexander  Ramsey,  then  governor  of  the  territory  of  Minne- 
sota, and  ex-officio  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  was  charged 
with  having  paid  over  the  greater  part  of  the  money  appropriated 
under  the  fourth  article  of  the  treaty  of  July  23  and  August  5, 
1851,  to  Hugh  Tyler,  and  Judge  Young  having  been  sent  out 
by  the  government  to  investigate  this  charge,  made  this  report: 


"Of  $275,000  stipulated  to  be  paid  by  that  treaty  of  July  23, 
1851,  the  sum  of  $250,000  was  delivered  over  to  Hugh  Tyler  by 
the  governor  for  distribution  among  the  traders  and  half-breeds, 
according  to  an  arrangement  made  by  the  schedule  of  the  'Traders' 
Paper'  dated  at  Traverse  des  Sioux,  July  23,  1851.  The  payment 
of  this  money  to  the  traders  and  not  to  the  Indians,  and  besides 
that  $55,000  Hugh  Tyler  deducted  as  a  brokerage  fee,  was  what 
rankled  in  the  breasts  of  the  savages." 

Major  Galbraith,  Sioux  agent  at  the  time,  says,  after  enumer- 
ating various  causes  that  helped  to  swell  the  enmity  in  the  bosom 
of  the  savages,  "that  they  (the  Indians)  knew  that  the  govern- 
ment was  at  war,  and  seeing  the  illustrated  papers  at  all  the  posts 
and  trading  places,  could  see  that  the  tide  of  battle  was  setting 
against  the  '  Great  Father. '  ' '  The  Major  further  adds : 

"Grievances  such  as  have  been  related,  and  numberless  others 
akin  to  them,  were  spoken  of,  recited  and  chanted  at  their 
councils,  dances  and  feasts,  to  such  an  extent  that,  in  their 
excitement,  in  June,  1862,  a  secret  organization  known  as  the 
'Soldiers'  Lodge,'  was  founded  by  the  young  braves  of  the  Lower 
Sioux,  with  the  object,  as  far  as  I  was  able  to  learn  through  spies 
and  informers,  of  preventing  the  traders  from  going  to  the  pay- 
table,  as  had  been  their  custom.  Since  the  outbreak  I  have 
become  satisfied  that  the  real  object  of  this  lodge  was  to  adopt 
measures  to  clean  out  all  the  white  people  at  the  end  of  the 

One  cause  of  the  outbreak  had  its  origin  near  what  was  once 
known  as  Spirit  Lake — or  the  lake  where  spirits  dwell — on  the 
dog  plains  of  northwestern  Iowa.  This  lake,  which  is  the  largest 
in, the  state  of  Iowa,  was  the  early  home  of  the  M 'dewakantons, 
one  of  the  four  groups  or  bands  of  the  Santees,  supposed  parent 
stock  of  the  Sioux  or  Dakota  nation  of  Indians.  But  being 
driven  out  from  that  place  by  a  more  powerful  tribe  of  Indians, 
they  moved  to  other  homes  that  they  established  along  the  rivers 
of  what  is  now  western  Minnesota.  But  nothwithstanding  the 
fact  that  the  Santees  had  ceased  to  occupy  the  lands  around 
Spirit  Lake,  they  still  claimed  the  right  of  possession,  and  this 
right  was  conceded  by  the  government  at  Washington  in  a  treaty 
with  these  Santees  held  August  5,  1851.  That  treaty  also  secured 


them  pay  not  only  for  the  country  about  Spirit  Lake,  but  for  the 
entire  valley  along  the  Little  Sioux  River  that  meanders  from 
that  lake  for  120  miles  before  it  pours  into  the  Missouri.  Inkpa- 
dutah  occupied  this  valley  of  the  Little  Sioux  River.  He  was 
chief  of  a  little  band  of  warriors.  These  Indians  found  near  the 
present  town  of  Cherokee,  Minnesota,  abundance  of  elk,  deer,  and 
water  game.  Inkpadutah  had  counciled  with  his  tribe  against 
the  selling  of  these  lands  in  the  Sioux  valley  and  he  determined 
to  reoccupy  them,  and  this  was  the  condition  of  affairs  when  in 
1855  and  1856  the  northwestern  part  of  the  state  of  Iowa  was 
being  settled  by  the  whites.  Sioux  City,  on  the  Iowa  side  of  the 
line,  at  the  mouth  of  Big  Sioux  River,  became  the  center  point  of 
trade  for  hundreds  of  miles  around,  and  the  valley  of  the  Little 
Sioux  River  became  the  homes  of  many  of  these  pioneers.  The 
village  of  Smithland,  located  near  the  bluffs  of  the  Missouri,  was 
one  of  the  settlements  in  this  valley  and  about  eighteen  miles 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Sioux  River,  where  it  emptied  into 
the  Missouri.  The  homesteaders  of  this  place  harvested  their 
second  crop  here  in  1856,  and  it  was  in  the  spring  of  that  year 
Inkpadutah  and  his  band  crossed  over  the  head  of  the  Des  Moines 
and  spent  the  principal  part  of  the  summer  hunting  and  fishing 
along  that  stream.  As  the  autumn  days  approached  flocks  of 
geese  and  ducks  furnished  the  supply  for  these  hunters,  but  it 
also  brought  a  feeling  of  intrusive  resentment  among  the  whites. 
By  the  middle  of  December  Inkpadutah  and  his  band  had  arrived 
at  the  outskirts  of  the  settlement  at  Smithland  and  camped  near 
the  house  of  farmer  Livermore,  about  three  miles  from  the  village. 
They  did  not  make  themselves  disagreeable  by  intruding  in  any 
way  upon  the  rights  of  the  white  settlement,  but  they  were 
good  hunters  and  their  success  in  securing  game  excited  the 
envy  of  the  pale  face  and  this  was  the  cause  of  their  being  driven 
from  their  hunting  grounds  finally.  On  St.  Valentine's  Day  the 
more  boisterous  of  the  new  settlers  met  and  after  talking  over 
the  situation  thirty  of  them  assembled  in  Smithland  and  held  a 
council  of  war.  For  one  cause  and  another,  based  on  envy  more 
than  on  fact,  they  formed  a  company  and  after  marching  up  to 
the  reds'  camp  in  military  style,  compelled  the  Indians  to  give 
up  their  guns  and  then  ordered  them  to  leave  the  country  as 


fast  as  they  could  go.  Deprived  of  their  arms  and  with  snow 
nearly  two  feet  deep,  the  Indians  found  the  winter  a  "hard  one" 
indeed.  Inkpadutah,  through  his  interpreter,  Half  Breed  Charley, 
made  a  protest  against  the  wrong  done  them  by  the  white  folks, 
but  all  to  no  avail.  They  were  told  to  go  to  the  Omahas,  but  the 
chief's  reply  to  this  was  that  to  do  that  unarmed  was  to  go  to  a 
speedy  death.  But  the  Smithlanders  were  firm,  and  another  order 
from  the  leader  of  the  whites  sent  their  tepees  tumbling  down  over 
the  heads  of  sucking  babes  as  well  as  tottering  belledames,  when 
the  march  of  the  last  of  the  red  occupants  of  Little  Sioux  valley 
to  the  land  of  destruction  and  despair  was  forcibly  begun.  The 
march  was  continued  from  the  20th  of  February  through  packed 
snow,  the  infuriated  band  becoming  demons  as  they  proceeded. 
From  the  8th  to  the  15th  of  March  this  once  peaceful  and 
inoffensive  band  destroyed  over  forty  white  people  about  the 
lakes,  making  no  exception  as  to  age  or  sex. 

Little  Crow,  head  chief  of  the  Indians,  longed  for  vengeance. 
In  the  brain  of  this  Indian  Napoleon  was  concocted  a  scheme  for 
the  utter  extermination  of  the  white  race  of  the  Northwest.  It 
was  at  the  Yellow  Stone  agency,  near  Mankato,  Minnesota, 
where  the  secret  organization  had  its  headquarters,  and  where  a 
plot  was  hatched  by  this  bold  chief  for  a  simultaneous  uprising 
of  the  Indians  upon  a  given  signal  to  massacre  the  whites.  But 
for  the  impatience  of  a  few  braves  the  loss  of  life  would  have 
been  thousands  instead  of  hundreds.  This  untoward  movement, 
unfortunate  for  the  plans  of  the  great  chief,  Little  Crow,  is  told 
thus  by  one  of  the  writers  of  that  war : 

"One  lovely  Sunday,  August  17,  1862,  four  Indians  from  the 
Yellow  Medicine  agency,  who  had  been  on  the  trail  of  a  Chippewa, 
the  murderer  of  one  of  their  tribe,  after  an  unsuccessful  pursuit, 
reached,  on  their  return,  the  cabin  of  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Robinson  Jones,  in  the  Big  Woods  of  Minnesota,  in  what  is  now 
the  town  of  Acton,  Meeker  county.  This  man  was  a  sort  of  trader 
in  a  small  way,  and  is  supposed  to  have  carried  on  an  illicit  trade 
in  liquors  with  the  Indians.  His  family  consisted  of  himself,  wife, 
an  adopted  child  and  a  young  girl.  The  Indians  sauntered  up  to 
the  cabin  and,  after  some  palaver,  demanded  drink,  which  they 
obtained.  They  demanded  more,  which  they,  it  is  supposed. 



were,  for  some  reason,  refused,  and  finally  went  away  into  the 
leafy  shades  of  the  forest  that  surrounded  the  place.  Jones  and 
his  wife  shortly  after  left  for  the  house  of  Mrs.  Jones'  son  by  a 
former  marriage,  Howard  Baker,  who  lived  about  half  a  mile 
distant.  At  Baker's  cabin  they  found  one  Viranus  Webster  and 
his  wife.  These  young  people  were  journeying  further  west  in 
search  of  a  home,  and  had  stopped  to  rest.  Claiming  hospitality 
of  the  young  Mr.  Baker,  it  was  accorded  with  free  will,  and  the 
two  families  fraternized  in  the  true  spirit  of  the  western  pioneer. 
Shortly  after  Jones  and  his  wife  arrived  there,  the  men  folks, 
who  were  sitting  around  outside  the  house,  saw  three  Indians, 
gun  in  hand,  approach.  On  their  coming  up  to  the  little  group 
of  white  men  the  usual  salutations  took  place.  After  a  little  time 
the  proposition  was  made  that  they  all  shoot  at  a  mark,  and  the 
guns  of  the  party  were  brought  out.  The  victory  in  this  case, 
as  is  nearly  always  the  case  when  marksmanship  between  whites 
and  redskins  is  a  question,  was  with  the  settlers.  This  seemed 
to  nettle  the  Indians.  Propositions  to  trade  guns  between  a  red 
and  white  man  now  ensued.  In  the  meantime  the  Indians  loaded 
their  guns  while  the  white  men  stood  around  with  empty  weapons. 
Suddenly,  without  warning,  one  of  the  Indians  raised  his  gun 
and  fired  at  Jones,  mortally  wounding  him.  Webster  was  killed 
by  another.  Mrs.  Howard  Baker,  hearing  the  firing,  came  to  the 
door  with  her  infant  in  her  arms,  and  upon  her  appearance  one  of 
the  savages  raised  his  gun  to  shoot  her,  but  her  husband,  with 
the  chivalry  of  a  knight  of  old,  threw  himself  in  front  of  the 
rifle,  and,  receiving  the  discharge,  fell  dead.  The  women  retreated 
into  the  house.  The  young  wife,  inadvertently,  stepped  into  an 
opening  and  fell  into  the  cellar  and  thus  saved  her  life.  Mrs. 
Jones  was  also  shot  by  one  of  the  red  fiends.  These  latter  soon 
left  the  vicinity  to  spread  the  news,  stopping  on  their  way  at  the 
Jones  cabin  and  killing  the  girl  left  there.  They  shortly  after 
stole  a  team  of  horses  and  wagon  and  made  their  way  south. 

"When  the  news  reached  the  redskins  at  the  agency,  which 
it  did  long  before  the  whites  had  an  inkling  of  it,  it  created  a 
sensation.  The  gauntlet  had  been  thrown,  war  had  been  declared, 
and  they  must  go  forward  or  give  up  their  plans.  The  Soldiers' 
Lodge  was  at  once  convened.  The  war  spirit  of  the  younger 


members  was  for  an  immediate  rising.  In  vain  Little  Crow  and 
his  friends,  the  elders  of  the  tribes,  pleaded  for  delay,  urging 
the  want  of  time  to  perfect  their  plans,  and  to  send  the  token  of 
war  to  the  other  tribes.  No,  war  and  at  once  was  the  wish  of  the 
majority,  and  war  it  was.  At  early  dawn  the  meeting  broke  up 
and  the  massacre  of  the  whites  began.  At  the  agency  blood  was 
shed  and  all  the  red  fiends  started  off  on  the  warpath  to  slay  the 

On  the  23d  of  August,  1862,  the  Indians  commenced  hostilities 
in  the  valley  of  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  But  part  of  the 
little  garrison  was  at  Fort  Abercrombie  at  the  time  and  a  part 
of  the  command  at  Georgetown,  Minnesota,  and  the  east  bank  of 
the  river,  fifty  miles  north.  They  had  been  sent  there  for  the 
purpose  of  overawing  the  Indians  in  that  vicinity,  who  had 
threatened  some  obstruction  of  the  navigation  of  the  stream  and 
to  destroy  the  property  of  the  Transportation  Company.  The 
interpreter  at  the  post,  who  had  gone  to  the  Lower  agency  at  the 
time  of  the  payment  of  the  Indians,  returned  on  the  20th  of 
August  and  reported  to  his  commanding  officer  that  the  exaspera- 
tion of  the  Indians  was  increasing  and  that  he  expected  hostilities 
to  be  commenced  in  the  near  future.  Action  was  at  once  taken 
to  guard  against  a  surprise;  guards  were  doubled  and  every 
effort  made  to  put  the  little  post  in  proper  shape  for  defense. 
About  this  time  officers  of  the  government  were  on  their  way 
with  a  train  of  some  thirty  wagons,  loaded  with  goods  and 
attended  by  about  two  hundred  head  of  cattle,  toward  the  lodge 
of  the  Red  Lake  Chippewas,  to  conclude  a  treaty  with  these 
tribes.  They  had  arrived,  about  this  time,  in  the  neighborhood 
of  the  fort. 

On  the  morning  of  the  23d  of  August  word  was  brought  to 
the  commander  of  the  post  that  a  band  of  five  hundred  Sioux  had 
crossed  the  Otter  Tail  River  with  the  intention  of  cutting  off 
and  capturing  the  train  and  cattle.  Word  was  sent  at  once  to  the 
train  to  come  into  the  fort,  which  they  quickly  did.  Messengers 
were  also  sent  to  Breckenridge,  Old  Crossing,  Graham's  Point 
and  all  the  principal  settlements  telling  the  people  to  flee  to 
the  fort,  as  the  garrison  was  too  small  to  do  much  else  than 
defend  that  post  and  could  not  afford  protection  to  the  scattered 


villages  or  settlers  in  the  vicinity.  The  great  majority  of  the 
settlers  paid  heed  to  the  warning  and  the  same  evening  the  most 
of  them]  had  arrived  at  the  fort  and  had  been  assigned  such 
quarters  as  could  be  furnished  them.  Most,  if  not  all,  of  these, 
dwelt  upon  the  east  side  of  the  river,  in  Minnesota,  as  but  few 
settlers  had  then  located  on  the  west  side,  south  of  Pembina,  as 
is  shown  elsewhere. 

Several  men,  among  them  being  a  Mr.  Russell,  however,  pre- 
ferred to  stay  at  Breckenridge,  and  took  possession  of  a  large 
hotel  building  and  therein  undertook  to  defend  themselves  and 
their  property,  but  foolishly  threw  away  their  lives  in  the  attempt. 

On  the  evening  of  that  same  day  a  scouting  party  of  six  men 
found  that  the  place  was  in  the  hands  of  a  large  body  of  Indians, 
and  being  pursued,  made  a  hasty  retreat.  On  the  24th  a  recon- 
noissance  was  made  by  a  larger  party  but  the  place  was  found 
deserted  by  the  Indians.  The  bodies  of  three  men  who  had 
undertaken  its  defense  were  discovered  horribly  mutilated.  They 
had  been  dragged  around  by  chains  bound  to  their  ankles  until 
killed.  An  old  lady  by  the  name  of  Scott  with  a  bullet  wound  in 
her  breast  had  crawled  on  her  hands  and  knees  to  the  mill  that 
was  about  a  half  mile  from  the  hotel.  Her  son  and  grandson 
had  been  killed  by  the  Indians.  She  told  the  boys  where  they 
would  find  the  body  of  Joe  Snell,  a  stage  driver,  three  miles  out 
from  Breckinridge.  After  the  burial  of  these  bodies  the  old.  lady 
was  taken  to  the  fort,  but  on  the  way  they  were  attacked  by 
the  Indians,  killing  Bennett,  the  teamster,  and  nearly  capturing 
Captain  Mulls'  wagon,  containing  the  old  lady.  But  Rounseval, 
the  half-breed,  made  a  charge  and  brought  back  the  team,  the 
old  lady  and  the  body  of  Bennett. 

Over  fifty  men  had  now  taken  refuge  within  the  garrison. 
The  fort  was  hard  to  fortify.  There  was  a  stockade  along  the 
river,  while  barrels  of  pork  and  corned  beef  and  flour,  in  part 
with  cordwood  and  earth  were  made  use  of  to  fortify  the 
company's  quarters. 

About  this  time  some  thousand  or  fifteen  hundred  savages 
gathered  around  the  fort,  determined  on  a  capture  of  the  pro- 
visions and  a  slaughter  of  its  defenders.  On  the  25th  of  August 
a  messenger  was  dispatched  to  headquarters  for  assistance,  but 


owing  to  the  stress  of  the  war  at  the  South  most  of  the  able- 
bodied  men  were  away  at  the  front.  In  this  condition,  with 
occasional  skirmishing,  that  state  of  affairs  continued  for  some 
time.  On  the  30th  of  August  a  party  driving  some  stock  from 
Old  Crossing  were  fired  into  by  some  Sioux  in  ambush.  One  of 
their  number  was  killed  and  a  wagon,  five  mules  and  camp 
equipage  was  lost.  About  2  o'clock  this  same  afternoon  the 
Indians  captured  about  two  hundred  head  of  cattle,  a  hundred 
head  of  mules  and  horses  that  were  grazing  in  the  rear  of  the 
fort,  but  some  fifty  head  of  these  cattle  were  recovered  on 
September  2. 

On  September  23  the  garrison  was  suddenly  called  to  arms 
by  the  report  of  alarm  shots  fired  by  the  sentinels  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  stock  yards  belonging  to  the  post.  The  firing  soon  became 
sharp  and  rapid  in  that  direction,  developing  the  fact  that  the 
enemy  were  advancing  upon  that  point  in  considerable  force. 
Commands  were  issued  for  all  those  stationed  outside  to  fall 
back  within  the  fortifications.  About  the  same  time  a  couple  of 
the  haystacks  were  discovered  to  be  on  fire.  The  settlers, 
emboldened  by  the  sight  and  inflamed  by  the  thoughts  of  seeing 
their  remaining  cattle  carried  off  or  destroyed  before  their  eyes, 
rushed,  with  great  hardihood  and  ardor  for  the  stables,  and  as 
the  first  two  entered  on  one  side  two  Sioux  entered  from  the 
other.  The  foremost  of  the  white  men  killed  one  of  the  Indians 
and  capturd  his  gun.  The  second  white  man  was  shot  in  the 
shoulder  by  his  red  antagonist,  but  notwithstanding  that  shot 
he  finished  the  Sioux  with  his  bayonet.  Two  horses  had  been 
taken  from  the  stable  and  two  killed.  The  conflict  was  kept  up 
for  three  hours,  during  which  three  of  the  little  garrison  were 
wounded,  one  mortally,  by  shots  from  the  enemy.  The  post 
commander  was  severely  wounded  in  the  right  arm  by  an  acci- 
dental shot  from  one  of  his  own  men.  After  a  brisk  skirmish  the 
Indians  were  forced  to  retire,  without  having  been  able  to  effect 
an  entrance  into  the  fort  or  to  carry  off  the  stock,  which  seemed 
to  be  the  main  object  of  the  attack. 

A  second  attack  was  made  on  Saturday,  September  6.  About 
dawn,  the  Indians'  favorite  time  for  an  onslaught,  about  fifty 
Indians,  mounted  on  horseback,  appeared  on  the  open  prairie, 


in  the  rear  of  the  fort.  It  was  evidently  their  intention,  by  boldly 
defying  the  garrison  in  this  manner,  with  a  small  force,  to  tempt 
the  troops  to  leave  the  fortification  and  march  out  to  punish  them 
for  their  temerity.  By  thus  doing  it  would  be  giving  the  redskins 
the  chance  to  take  them  at  a  disadvantage.  Foiled  in  this  plan, 
for  there  were  shrewd  and  experienced  heads  within  the  fort 
who  were  a  match  for  the  Indian  craft  outside,  the  Sioux  threw 
off  all  disguise  and,  displaying  themselves  in  large  numbers  in 
different  directions,  entered  upon  a  conflict.  Their  principal 
object  of  attack  in  this,  as  in  former  instances,  was  the  stables 
of  the  government.  They  seemed  to  be  possessed  with  the  idea 
of  getting  hold  of  the  remaining  horses  and  cattle  at  almost  any 

The  stables  were  upon  the  edge  of  the  prairie,  with  a  grove 
of  heavy  timber  lying  between  them  and  the  river.  The  Sioux 
were  quick  to  grasp  the  advantage  of  making  their  approach 
from  the  latter  direction.  They  had  gathered  in  great  numbers 
and  were  determined  to  capture  the  fort.  But  their  yells  and 
warwhoops  did  not  avail  much.  One  chief  after  an  attempt  or 
two  to  get  the  Indians  to  boldly  make  a  rush  from  the  timbers 
through  the  intervening  space  to  the  stables  of  the  fort  for  the 
stock  gave  it  up.  The  withering  volleys  from  the  fort  had  begun 
to  have  some  influence  on  savage  bravery. 

About  this  time  efforts  were  being  made  at  St.  Paul  for  the 
relief  of  the  fort.  Captain  Emil  Buerger  was  appointed  to  take 
command  of  an  expedition  from  headquarters,  with  that  end  in 
view.  With  a  force  of  about  250  men  under  the  commands  of 
Captains  George  Atkinson  and  Eolla  Banks,  together  with  some 
sixty  men  from  the  Third  Volunteer  Infantry,  under  Sergeant 
Dearborne,  constituted  his  command.  In  the  meantime  two  com- 
panies of  soldiers  under  Captain  George  W.  McCoy,  and  Theodore 
H.  Barrett,  were  also  marching  to  the  relief  of  Fort  Abercrombie. 
These  forces  had  reached  a  point  within  sight  of  Red  River,  when 
they  observed  a  dense  smoke  in  the  direction  of  the  fort.  The 
impression  was  that  they  had  arrived  too  late  and  that  the  fort 
had  fallen  beneath  the  attacks  of  the  Indians,  but  Old  Glory  was 
soon  afterwards  seen  waving  above  the  battlements,  and  the 
hearts  of  the  soldiers  were  greatly  cheered  up  by  the  sight  of  that 


old  flag.  The  Indians  had  set  fire  to  the  prairie  with  the  design 
of  cutting  off  the  crossing  of  the  river  by  the  relieving  column. 
After  some  little  skirmishing  Captain  Buerger  with  a  part  of  the 
Third  regiment  pursued  the  Indians,  who  now  began  to  retreat, 
going  in  the  direction  of  Wild  Rice  and  making  good  their  escape. 

The  scene  of  these  last  moments  of  the  siege  as  described  by  a 
lady  who  had  been  in  the  fort  during  all  those  weeks  waiting  for 
the  coming  of  relief  is  as  follows : 

"About  5  o'clock  the  report  came  to  quarters  that  the  Indians 
were  again  coming  from  up  toward  Bridge's.  With  a  telescope 
we  soon  discovered  four  white  men,  our  messengers  riding  at 
full  speed,  who  upon  reaching  here  informed  us  that  in  one-half 
hour  we  would  be  reinforced  by  350  men.  Language  can  never 
express  the  delight  of  all.  Some  wept,  some  laughed,  others 
hallooed  and  cheered.  The  soldiers  and  citizens  here  formed  in 
line  and  went  out  to  meet  them.  We  all  cheered  so  that  the  next 
day  more  than  half  of  us  could  hardly  speak  aloud.  The  ladies 
all  went  out,  and  as  the  soldiers  passed  cheered  them.  They 
were  so  dusty  I  did  not  know  one  of  them. ' ' 

No  more  Indians  were  seen  about  the  fort  until  September  26, 
when,  as  Captain  Freeman's  company  were  watering  their  horses 
at  the  river,  a  volley  was  fired  at  them  by  a  party  of  Sioux  in 
ambush.  A  teamster  with  the  expedition  was  hit  and  mortally 
wounded.  The  soldiers  being  unarmed  could  not  reply,  but 
from  the  log  building  and  breastworks  of  the  fort  a  brisk  fire 
was  opened  up  and  several  of  the  Indians  were  seen  to  fall.  At 
one  time  two  Indians  were  seen  skulking  near  the  river,  and 
they  were  fired  upon  by  men  on  the  fortifications  and  seen  to  fall. 
Whenever  the  Indians  congregated  near  the  fort  or  within  range, 
a  shell  from  the  howitzer  (the  Indians  call  a  shell,  rotten  bullet), 
would  fall  among  them  and  cause  them  to  withdraw  hurriedly. 

A  detachment  composed  of  Captain  Freeman's  mounted  men, 
fifty  soldiers  of  the  Third  regiment,  and  a  squad  in  charge  of  a 
howitzer  were  ordered  in  pursuit  of  the  savages  and  started  over 
the  prairie,  up  the  river.  About  two  miles  away  they  came  upon 
the  Sioux  camp,  but  the  red  warriors  did  not  stay  to  contest  its 
possession  but  fled  in  haste  and  consternation.  A  few  shots  were 
fired  at  them  which  they  answered  with  yells  of  defiance.  A  shell 


from  the  howitzer,  however,  quieted  their  noise  and  added  to 
the  celerity  of  their  retreat.  Their  camp  was  taken  possession  of 
and  the  valuable  part  of  the  result  of  the  savages'  looting  taken 
to  the  fort.  The  balance  was  burned  on  the  spot.  This  was  about 
the  last  skirmish  with  the  redskins  around  Fort  Abercrombie. 

In  the  meantime  steps  had  been  taken  at  headquarters  to 
punish  the  Indians  for  depredations  and  murders.  Governor 
Ramsey  exerted  himself  in  the  work  and  appointed  Colonel 
Henry  H.  Sibley,  a  soldier  of  experience  in  Indian  warfare,  who 
having  hastily  gathered  some  four  hundred  men  of  the  Sixth 
Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  started  August  20  for  the  scene  of 
butchery.  While  at  Fort  Ridgeley  drilling  his  forces  the  Colonel 
learned  that  the  Indians  had  gathered  in  all  their  scattered  bands 
and  were  concentrating  to  oppose  his  forward  movements.  They 
did  not  have  long  to  wait.  A  detachment  under  the  command 
of  Major  J.  R.  Brown,  who  had  been  to  Birch  Coulie  to  give  a 
decent  burial  to  fifty-four  bodies,  were  attacked  about  half  past 
four  in  the  morning  of  September  2.  It  was  one  of  the  most 
fearful  battles  of  the  Sioux  massacre,  the  loss  of  men  being 
twenty-three  killed,  or  mortally  wounded,  forty-five  severely 
wounded,  and  nearly  ninety  horses  shot  down.  The  report  of  the 
volleys  of  musketry  was  heard  by  Colonel  Sibley  eighteen  miles 
away  but  he  marched  in  time  to  the  relief  of  the  struggling 
detachment.  After  the  battle  Little  Crow  commenced  his 
retreat  up  the  Minnesota  toward  the  Yellow  Medicine.  September 
16  Colonel  Sibley  ordered  the  advance  of  his  whole  column,  which 
had  now  been  considerably  increased  by  the  addition  of  the  Third 
Infantry,  and  on  September  22  he  reached  Wood  Lake,  where  the 
Indians  suffered  great  loss  in  a  battle  begun  by  them,  300  strong, 
in  a  four  hours'  furious  battle.  Colonel  Sibley  only  lost  four 
men  and  fifty  wounded,  but  fourteen  of  the  Indians  were  killed 
and  left  on  the  field,  but  probably  as  many  more  were  carried 
away.  Disaster  after  disaster  overtaking  the  Indians,  the  war- 
riors now  began  to  turn  against  their  leaders  and  sue  for  peace. 
On  the  day  the  battle  at  Wood  Lake  occurred  a  deputation  from 
the  Wahpeton  band  came  in  under  a  flag  of  truce  asking  terms 
of  peace.  These  terms  of  peace  required  them  to  give  up  their 
captives.  Of  these  there  were  107  pure  white,  and  162  half- 


breeds,  mostly  women  and  children.  Other  tribes  also  soon  came 
in  and  surrendered. 

A  military  commission  tried  most  of  the  Indians  who  gave 
themselves  up  and  found  321  guilty  of  murder,  rapine,  arson, 
larceny  and  other  crimes.  Three  hundred  and  three  were  recom- 
mended for  capital  punishment,  and  the  rest  to  various  terms  of 
imprisonment.  A  mistaken  policy  upheld  by  those  in  the  East, 
stayed  the  hands  of  Justice  and  those  who  had  lost  their  all  by 
that  bloody,  merciless  massacre,  only  had  the  pleasure  of  know- 
ing that  but  thirty-eight  of  the  ring  leaders  were  to  be  hung  at 
Mankato,  December  26,  1862. 

After  the  defeat  at  Wood  Lake,  Little  Crow  and  his  band 
retreated  in  the  direction  of  Big  Stone  Lake,  some  sixty  miles 
westward.  Sibley  sent  after  them  a  messenger  saying  he  w'ould 
pursue  the  deserters  and  that  their  only  chance  was  to  return  at 
the  earliest  moment  and  with  their  families  give  themselves  up. 
By  the  8th  of  October  some  two  thousand  had  made  a  voluntary 
return  and  surrender.  Parties  were  sent  out  now  to  close  up  the 
conflict.  Various  bands  of  Indians  were  then  rounded  up  by 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Marshall,  who  with  his  250  men  pursued 
them  through  South  Dakota  and  brought  in  large  numbers  of 
them.  It  having  been  decided  by  the  military  authorities  at 
Washington  to  inaugurate  a  second  campaign  against  the  sullen 
ones  not  yet  reduced  to  submission,  Major  General  John  A.  Pope, 
commanding  the  Department  of  the  Northwest,  decided  that 
General  Sully,  commanding  the  upper  district  of  the  Missouri, 
and  General  (formerly  Colonel)  Sibley,  commanding  the  district 
of  Minnesota,  should  march  with  a  large  force  against  the  Indians 
as  early  in  the  summer  of  1863  as  practicable.  The  objective 
point  of  both  commands  was  Devil's  Lake.  One  column  was  to 
proceed  from  Sioux  City,  on  the  Missouri  River,  and  the  other  from 
some  point  on  the  Minnesota  river.  General  Sully 's  force  was 
cavalry,  Sibley 's  of  the  Sixth,  Seventh,  and  parts  of  the  Ninth 
and  Tenth  Minnesota  Infantry,  and  companies  of  the  Minnesota 
Mountain  Rangers,  and  the  Third  Minnesota  Battery  Light  Artil- 
lery. At  the  appointed  time  General  Sibley  moved  forward  with 
his  command,  finally  reaching  Devil's  Lake,  but  found  no  Indians. 
Leaving  his  footsore  and  sick  in  a  strongly  entrenched  camp  on 


the  banks  of  the  Upper  Sheyenne,  he  took  the  greater  part  of 
his  forces  and  started  towards  the  Missouri  Eiver;  and,  having 
found  a  camp  of  several  hundred  warriors,  he  gave  them  battle, 
defeating  them  badly.  "With  a  resistless  force  he  pursued  the 
foe,  always  entailing  great  loss  upon  them,  until  his  last  battle 
with  them),  July  29,  1863,  four  miles  south  of  the  present  state 
capital,  Bismark,  he  gave  them  such  a  punishment  that  the  name 
of  Sibley  has  been  a  good  one  among  the  Sioux  Indians  ever 
since.  That  was  the  last  battle  of  the  Sioux  war.  Little  Crow, 
the  instigator  of  the  massacre,  returned  to  his  old  home,  but 
Chauncey  Lamson,  a  settler  who  lived  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Hutchinson,  caught  sight  of  the  chief  and  his  son  in  the  timber 
in  the  southern  part  of  Meeker  county,  Minnesota,  and  shot  him. 
The  son  fled.  The  massacre  commenced  in  Meeker  county,  and 
ended  there.  It  began  with  Little  Crow  and  ended  with  him. 

Alice  Nelson  Page,  speaking  of  the  $110,000  to  be  distributed 
from  the  government  among  the  Sioux  Indians  on  the  Fort  Totten 
reservation  before  November,  1908,  gives  a  synopsis  of  the  case 
brought  in  court  by  the  Indians.  The  entire  sum  obtained  in  the 
original  judgment  is  $788,000,  which  will  be  distributed  to  the 
three  bands  of  the  Sioux,  the  Cut  Heads  at  Fort  Totten,  and  the 
Wahpetons  and  Sissetons  at  the  Sisseton  agency  in  South  Dakota. 
The  writer  says : 

Indians'  Claim. 

"By  the  terms  of  the  treaty  with  the  different  bands  of  the 
Sioux  Indians  of  July  23,  1851,  the  United  States  agreed,  in  con- 
sideration of  the  cession  of  over  32,000,000  acres  of  land,  to  pay 
to  the  Indians  the  sum  of  $1,665,000  at  the  several  times  and 
places  and  in  the  following  manner :  $275,000  to  the  chiefs  of  the 
band  to  enable  them  to  settle  their  affairs  and  comply  with  just 
engagements  to  remove  themselves  to  the  country  set  apart  for 
them  by  the  government,  $30,000  for  the  establishment  of  manual 
labor  schools,  erection  of  mills  and  blacksmith  shops,  opening 
farms,  fencing  and  breaking  land,  and  for  other  beneficial  pur- 
poses, and  the  balance  of  the  sum  of  $1,665,000  ($1,360,000)  was 
to  remain  in  trust  with  the  United  States,  and  5  per  cent  interest 
paid  annually  for  fifty  years,  beginning  with  July  1,  1852;  and 
after  this,  setting  apart  a  reservation  for  the  Indians,  was  stricken 


out  by  the  Senate  in  the  ratification  of  the  treaty,  the  United 
States  agreed,  in  the  amendment  of  this,  to  pay  the  Indians 
10  cents  per  acre  for  the  lands  embraced  therein  (1,120,000  acres) 
amounting  to  $112,000,  which  was  to  be  added  to  the  original 
trust  fund  of  $1,360,000,  making  a  total  of  $1,472,000,  the  total  of 
which  yielded  an  annual  interest  of  $73,000. 

Clause  Inserted. 

According  to  the  Indians,  notwithstanding  the  agreement  of 
the  United  States  to  pay  to  them  the  considerations  named  in 
this  treaty,  their  ignorance  was  taken  advantage  of  and  a  clause 
inserted  in  the  treaty,  without  their  knowledge  or  consent,  pro- 
viding the  interest  on  the  sum  agreed  to  be  paid  to  them  for  fifty 
years  should  be  in  full  payment  of  the  balance  principal  and 
interest,  so  that  on  July  1,  1902,  the  sum  of  $1,472,000  went  to 
the  United  States  absolutely,  and  the  Indians  never  received  any 
portion  of  it.  The  government  took  both  lands  and  the  considera- 
tion agreed  to  be  paid  therefor  for  it  and  the  Indians  demanded 
that  by  every  principle  enunciated  by  the  highest  judicial  tri- 
bunals of  the  country  they  were  entitled  to  the  interest  on  the 
amount  of  the  principal  sum  withheld  from  them;  they  further 
alleged  that  of  the  $275,000  agreed  in  the  treaty  to  be  paid  to 
the  chiefs  of  the  tribes,  $250,000  was  paid  by  a  representative  of 
the  United  States,  to  one  Hugh  Tyler,  a  stranger  in  the  country, 
contrary  to  their  wishes  and  against  which  they  protested  in 
violation  of  the  treaty's  stipulation  and  the  act  of  congress  mak- 
ing the  appropriation.  By  the  act  of  congress  February  16,  1863, 
the  lands  and  annuities  of  the  Indians  were  declared  forfeited  to 
the  United  States ;  and  by  another  act  of  March  3,  1863,  the  presi- 
dent was  authorized  and  directed  to  set  apart  for  these  bands  of 
Indians  a  tract  of  unoccupied  country  outside  the  limits  of  any 
state,  in  extent  to  assign  each  member  of  the  band  eighty  acres  of 
good  agricultural  land.  The  bands  numbered  at  that  time  4,524 
Indians  and  the  quantity  of  land  directed  to  be  assigned  them 
amounted  to  361,920  acres.  They  claimed  the  act  of  Congress 
was  never  complied  with  and  the  lands  were  never  set  apart  for 
them  as  directed,  and  they  were  therefore  entitled  to  payment 
for  these  lands. 


Tyler  Made  Good  Haul. 

Of  the  $70,000  authorized  by  the  third  article  of  the  treaty  of 
1858  with  the  Indians  to  be  used  by  them  in  their  discretion  and 
open  council,  for  payment  of  their  just  debts  and  obligations, 
$55,000  was  paid  to  this  man  Hugh  Tyler  for  getting  the  treaty 
through  the  Senate,  and  for  necessary  disbursements.  In  1857  a 
trader  pretending  that  he  was  getting  the  power  of  attorney  to  get 
back  the  money  which  had  been  paid  to  the  traders  out  of  the 
funds  provided  by  the  treaty  of  1851  obtained  the  signatures  of 
the  Indians  to  vouchers  by  which  they  claim  he  swindled  them 
out  of  $12,000.  These  bands  of  Indians  have  always  said  they 
remained  loyal  to  the  government  during  the  outbreak  of  1862 
and  many  of  them  claim  to  have  rendered  valuable  services  to 
the  government  during  the  time  of  the  outbreak,  acting  as  scouts 
and  soldiers,  and  of  the  4,524  Indians  at  that  time,  only  124  ever 
took  any  prominent  part  in  the  outbreak.  This  was  found  by 
Justice  Nott  of  the  court  of  claims  in  the  case  of  the  Sisseton  and 
Wahpeton  Indians  against  the  United  States.  By  the  forfeiture 
act  of  1863,  Congress  fixed  $100,000  as  the  amount  to  be  paid  out 
of  the  annuities  of  these  bands  of  Indians  to  white  settlers 
on  account  of  damages  sustained  by  reason  of  this  outbreak.  The 
court  of  claims  and  the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States,  in 
the  final  hearing  of  this  case  charges  the  sum;  of  $586,328.95 
against  the  annuities  of  the  Indians  in  payment  of  damages 
resulting  from  the  outbreak,  in  direct  violation  of  the  positive 
terms  of  the  act  of  1863  and  of  sections  2097  and  2098  of  the 
United  States  Eevised  Statutes.  The  Indians  contended  this  to 
be  unjust  and  unreasonable  to  charge  any  portion  of  the  damages 
against  annuities  of  the  loyal  members  of  the  Sisseton  and 
Wahpeton  bands. 

Are  "Farmer  Indians." 

These  bands  of  Indians  claimed  to  be  farmer  Indians  and  by 
their  thrift  and  industry  had  well  improved  farms,  with  all  the 
necessary  outbuildings,  machinery  and  tools  for  cultivating  them 
and  also  had  at  that  time  large  herds  of  stock. 

As  the  result  of  the  outbreak  of  1862  the  Indians  claimed 


that  they  lost  $425,000  and  $70,000  worth  of  their  crops  were 
taken  to  subsist  the  troops  of  the  United  States,  a  total  of 
$495,000  which  was  vouched  for  in  the  report  of  the  commission 
of  Indian  affairs  for  the  year  1863.  The  treaty  of  February  19, 
1867,  was  made  with  the  loyal  members  of  these  Indians,  those 
who  took  none  but  a  friendly  part  in  the  outbreak.  It  was  pro- 
vided by  an  amended  article  of  this  treaty  that  Congress  would 
from  time  to  time,  at  its  discretion,  make  such  appropriations  as 
might  be  deemed  requisite  to  enable  the  Indians  to  return  to  an 
agricultural  life  under  the  system  in  operation  on  the  Sioux 
reservation  in  1862. 

Losses  Not  Reimbursed. 

The  Indians  claim  Congress  from  time  to  time  appropriated 
the  sum  of  $464,953.40,  being  $31,006.60  less  than  the  amount  of 
their  losses  during  the  outbreak.  It  was  evident  from  this  treaty 
and  from  the  circumstances  which  brought  it  about  that  it  was 
the  intention  of  Congress  in  this  way  to  reimburse  the  Indians 
for  the  losses  sustained  by  them  during  the  outbreak,  and  it  was 
so  understood  by  the  Indians.  They  further  claimed  that  the 
court  of  claims  and  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  in  the  final 
determination  of  their  case  charged  the  sum  of  $464,963.40 
against  their  annuities  in  direct  violation  of  the  terms  made. 
The  courts  in  one  case  charged  against  their  annuities  $200,000 
appropriated  for  subsistence  while  the  records  of  the  Interior 
Department  showed  that  the  whole  sum  was  expended  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Medawakanton  and  Wahpakwota  bands  of  Indians. 
By  an  agreement  made  in  1872,  the  Indians  ceded  to  the  United 
States  their  lands  in  Dakota  (now  North  and  South  Dakota), 
except  two  reservations,  for  the  sum  of  $800,000.  The  commis- 
sioners who  negotiated  the  agreement  estimating  the  area  ceded 
at  8,000,000  acres,  fixing  the  price  at  10  cents  per  acre. 

It  has  since  been  ascertained  that  the  area  contained  in  said 
cession  is  largely  in  excess  of  the  estimation  made  by  the  com- 
missioners, and  for  which  excess  the  Indians  claimed  they  were 
entitled  to  payment.  By  article  two  of  the  treaty  of  February  19, 
1867,  the  Indians  claimed  they  ceded  to  the  United  States  the 
right  to  construct  wagon  roads,  railroads,  mail  stations,  telegraph 



lines  and  such  other  improvements  as  the  government  might 
require,  over  and  across  the  land  described  in  the  treaty.  The 
Northern  Pacific  Eailroad  Company  secure  a  right  of  way  of  200 
feet  in  width  on  each  side  of  its  road  for  seventy  miles  over  and 
across  the  lands  of  these  Indians,  including  all  the  necessary 
grounds  for  station  buildings,  work  shops,  depots,  machine  shops, 
switches,  side  tracks  and  turntables  and  water  stations,  for  which 
cession  the  Indians  claimed  they  never  received  any  consideration, 
and  for  which  they  felt  entitled  to  payment. 



Webster  Merrifield, 

President  of  the  University  of  North  Dakota. 

The  University  of  North  Dakota. 

The  history  of  higher  education  in  North  Dakota  dates  from 
the  passage  through  the  legislature,  February  23,  1883,  and  its 
approval  by  Governor  Ordway  four  days  later,  of  the  bill  creating 
the  University  of  North  Dakota.  Dr.  "W.  T.  Collins,  at  that  time 
a  citizen  of  Grand  Forks,  seems  to  have  .been  the  first  to  entertain 
the  idea  of  securing  a  public  institution  of  higher  education  for 
North  Dakota,  or  at  least  for  Grand  Forks.*  The  territorial  legis- 
lature, as  early  as  1881,  established  a  territorial  university  at 
Vermillion  and  provided  conditionally  for  the  establishment  of 
five  normal  schools ;  but  all  of  these  were  to  be  located  in  that 
part  of  Dakota  territory  which  subsequently  became  the  state  of 
South  Dakota.  In  a  letter  addressed  to  Hon.  George  H.  Walsh, 
member  of  the  territorial  council  from  Grand  Forks  county,  under 
date  of  January  8,  1883,  Dr.  Collins  suggested  that  the  former 
make  an  effort  to  secure  a  territorial  normal  school  for  Grand 
Forks.  Mr.  Walsh  answered  in  part  as  follows : 

*Note:  Since  this  chapter  was  put  in  type,  Hon.  James  Twamley  of  Grand 
Forks,  a  member  of  the  First  Board  of  Eegents  of  the  University,  has  stated 
to  the  writer  that  he  was  the  first  one  to  suggest  a  territorial  university  for 
Grand  Forks.  He  claims  to  have  made  the  suggestion  to  Governor  Ordway 
several  months  prior  to  the  date  of  Dr.  Collins'  letter  of  January  8,  1883, 
to  Mr.  Walsh. 



' '  Territory  of  Dakota,  Council  Chamber, 

Yankton,  D.  T.,  January  17,  1883. 
W.  T.  Collins, 

Grand  Forks, 
My  Dear  Sir: — 

In  reference  to  a  normal  school,  the  governor  is  not  favorably 
inclined,  as  you  can  see  by  his  message.  How  would  an  agricul- 
tural college  or  university,  with  a  section  providing  for  a  normal 
department,  do?  I  think  probably  that  the  governor  would  be 
more  favorable  to  an  institution  of  this  kind. 


George  H.  Walsh." 

The  suggestion  of  a  university  instead  of  a  normal  school 
seems  to  have  impressed  Dr.  Collins  favorably  and  he  at  once 
wrote  Mr.  Walsh  strongly  urging  the  university  idea.  On  Febru- 
ary 8  Dr.  Collins  received  another  letter  from  Mr.  Walsh,  dated 
February  1,  1883,  asking  to  have  a  bill  prepared  for  the  proposed 
university  and  forwarded  to  him  for  introduction.  Dr.  Collins 
at  once  set  to  work  to  draft  a  bill  which  he  forwarded  by  express 
to  Mr.  Walsh  at  Yankton  on  February  10. 

After  writing  his  letter  of  February  1  to  Dr.  Collins,  Mr. 
Walsh  was  called  to  St.  Paul  and  while  there  learned  that  another 
member  from  the  northern  half  of  the  territory  had  a  bill  in 
preparation  for  the  location  of  a  university  at  Jamestown.  On 
learning  this,  Mr.  Walsh  at  once  returned  to  Yankton  and,  not 
finding  the  expected  bill  from  Dr.  Collins,  had  a  bill  (probably 
the  Wisconsin  bill)  copied  and  introduced.  This  bill,  materially 
amended  after  its  introduction,  is  the  present  organic  act  of  the 

Following  the  passage  of  this  bill,  Mr.  Walsh  introduced  and 
secured  the  passage  of  another  bill  appropriating  $30,000.00  to 
the  university  provided  the  citizens  of  Grand  Forks  should  con- 
tribute a  site  of  not  less  than  ten  acres  of  land,  and  also  a  sum  of 
not  less  than  $10,000.00  for  the  erection  and  equipment  of  an 
astronomical  observatory.  To  carry  out  the  provisions  of  the 
two  bills  just  described  a  board  of  regents  was  appointed  by 
Governor  Ordway  consisting  of  Dr.  W.  T.  Collins,  Dr.  C.  E.  Teel 


and  Mr.  James  Twamley,  of  Grand  Forks;  Dr.  R.  M.  Evans,  of 
Minto,  and  Mr.  E.  A.  Healy,  of  Dray  ton— Messrs.  Healy,  Teel 
and  Twamley  for  a  term  of  four  years  and  Messrs.  Collins  and 
Evans  for  a  term  of  two  years.  The  appointments  were  promptly 
confirmed  and  the  new  board,  having  qualified,  held  its  first 
meeting  at  the  city  hall,  Grand  Forks,  on  the  21st  of  April.  A 
temporary  organization  was  effected  by  the  election  of  C.  E. 
Teel  as  president  and  "W.  T.  Collins  as  secretary. 

At  this  meeting  it  was  decided  to  advertise  for  tenders  for 
a  site  for  the  university,  and  also  for  plans  and  specifications 
for  the  new  building. 

At  the  next  meeting  of  the  board,  May  16th,  a  code  of  by-laws 
was  adopted,  the  tender  of  twenty  acres  of  land  and  $10,000  for 
the  erection  and  equipment  of  an  astronomical  observatory,  made 
by  Messrs.  William  Budge,  M.  Ohmer  and  John  McKelvey,  was 
accepted,  and  plans  were  adopted  for  the  new  building.  Ground 
was  broken  May  25th  and  the  contract  for  the  construction  of 
the  new  building  was  let  August  15th  to  E.  P.  Broughton,  of 
Minto,  for  $32,500.  The  cornerstone  was  laid,  with  imposing 
ceremonies,  October  2,  1883,  the  program  being  arranged  and 
carried  out  under  the  auspices  of  the  Acacia  Lodge  of  Free 
Masons  of  Grand  Forks.  Among  the  many  distinguished  guests 
present  were :  The  governor  of  the  territory,  Hon.  N.  G.  Ordway, 
who  made  an  address,  and  Hon.  D.  L.  Kiehle,  superintendent  of 
public  instruction  for  Minnesota,  who  was  the  orator  of  the 
occasion,  taking  for  his  theme  ''Intelligence  the  Basis  of  Chris- 
tian Civilization." 

The  new  building  progressed  without  adverse  incident  and 
was  so  far  completed  as  to  be  opened  for  the  reception  of  students 
September  8,  1884.  The  first  year's  faculty  consisted  of  William 
M.  Blackburn,  D.  D.,  recently  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  president  and 
professor  of  metaphysics;  Henry  Montgomery,  B.  S.,  M.  A., 
recently  of  Toronto  University,  professor  of  natural  science; 
Webster  Merrifield,  B.  A.,  recently  a  member  of  the  faculty  of 
Yale  University,  assistant  professor  of  Greek  and  Latin;  and 
Mrs.  E.  H.  Mott,  preceptress  and  instructor  in  mathematics  and 
English.  The  enrollment  during  the  first  year  was  seventy-nine 
students,  classified  as  follows : 


Senior  preparatory  10 

Junior  preparatory 18 

Special  students  (mainly  of  seventh  and  eighth 
grades) 51 

Total  79 

In  the  absence  of  all  students  of  college  rank,  most  of  the 
members  of  the  instructional  force  were  called  upon  to  give 
instruction  in  departments  other  than  those  over  which  they  had 
been  called  to  preside.  At  the  end  of  the  first  school  year  Presi- 
dent Blackburn  resigned  to  accept  the  presidency  of  the  Presby- 
terian College  at  Pierre,  D.  T.,  and  Mrs.  Mott  also  resigned  her 
position  as  preceptress.  Professor  Henry  Montgomery  served  as 
acting  president  for  two  years,  and  Miss  Jennie  Allen,  principal 
of  the  Grand  Forks  high  school,  was  elected  to  succeed  Mrs. 
Mott  as  preceptress.  Professor  John  Macnie,  M.  A.,  a  graduate 
of  Glasgow  and  Yale  universities,  and  Professor  Horace  B.  Wood- 
worth,  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  College  and  for  many  years  a 
Congregational  clergyman,  were  elected  to  the  faculty  at  the 
close  of  the  first  year,  the  first  as  professor  of  French,  German 
and  English,  and  the  second  as  professor  of  mathematics,  physics 
and  astronomy.  Both  of  these  men  remained  with  the  university 
for  twenty  years  or  more. 

In  September,  1887,  Colonel  Homer  B.  Sprague,  Ph.  D.,  a  grad- 
uate of  Yale,  formerly  professor  of  English  at  Cornell  University, 
and  at  various  times  the  head  of  several  well  known  institutions 
of  higher  and  secondary  education  in  New  York,  New  England 
and  on  the  Pacific  coast,  was  elected  to  the  presidency.  Colonel 
Sprague  had  served  as  a  commissioned  officer  throughout  the 
Civil  War,  and  was  well  known  as  a  writer,  as  a  popular  platform 
orator,  and  particularly  as  editor  of  numerous  poems  and  plays 
of  Milton  and  Shakespeare. 

Colonel  Sprague 's  greatest  service  to  the  university  during 
the  three  years  that  he  held  the  office  of  president  consisted  in 
his  making  the  institution  known  through  the  addresses  and  plat- 
form lectures  which  he  gave  in  great  numbers  throughout  the 
state.  During  his  administration  the  attendance,  which  had  for 


various  reasons  fallen  from  seventy-nine  the  first  year  to  forty- 
eight  and  seventy-five  respectively  the  two  succeeding  years,  rose 
to  ninety-eight  and  one  hundred  ninety-nine  respectively  during 
the  first  two  years  of  his  presidency.  During  his  administration 
the  faculty  also  increased  from  nine  to  fourteen  members.  In 
March,  1891,  Colonel  Sprague  resigned  the  presidency  to  assume 
the  management  of  a  young  ladies'  school  in  California,  and 
Webster  Merrifield,  professor  of  Greek  and  Latin,  was  elected 
as  his  successor,  first  as  acting  president,  and  then,  at  the  follow- 
ing commencement,  as  president  of  the  university.  Under  Presi- 
dent Merrifield  Js  administration  the  university  has  experienced 
in  full  measure  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune.  The  governor's  veto 
of  the  university  appropriation  and  that  of  the  two  normal 
schools  in  1895,  on  the  ground  that  the  state's  revenue  was 
insufficient  to  provide  for  the  maintenance  of  the  state  educa- 
tional institutions,  threatened  for  a  time  the  very  existence 
of  the  institution;  but,  once  recovered  from  the  shock  of  sur- 
prise, the  citizens  of  Grand  Porks  and  of  the  northeastern  portion 
of  the  state  rallied  to  the  support  of  the  university  under  the 
leadership  of  Hon.  William  Budge,  a  local  member  of  the  board 
of  trustees,  and  what  at  first  threatened  to  be  an  irreparable 
calamity  proved  a  blessing  in  disguise,  winning  to  the  cordial 
support  of  the  institution  many  whose  attitude  had  hitherto  been 
one  of  lukewarmness  or  indifference. 

The  appropriation  of  1897,  following  Governor  Allen's  veto, 
was  fairly  liberal,  and  in  1899  came  the  passage  of  the  two-fifths 
mill  bill,  giving  the  university,  for  the  first  time,  an  income  not 
only  fairly  adequate  to  her  needs,  but  one  which  is  permanent 
and  increases  with  the  growth  of  the  state  in  wealth  and  with 
the  growing  demands  made  upon  the  university  in  consequence. 

During  the  first  year  of  President  Merrifield 's  administration 
the  attendance  numbered  151.  For  the  few  years  following,  the 
annual  increase  in  attendance  was  small,  owing  to  the  fact  that, 
instead  of  being,  as  heretofore,  the  only  state  educational  institu- 
tion, it  was  now  one  of  four  such  institutions,  the  agricultural 
college  and  the  two  state  normal  schools  having  been  opened  for 
the  reception  of  students  in  September,  1891. 

The  growth  of  the  university  in  student  attendance,  in  the 



ci  > 
r  525 


number  of  graduates  and  in  the  number  of  instructors,  is  indi- 
cated in  the  following  tables : 

Student  attendance,   1884-5 79 

Student  attendance,   1887-8 99 

Student   attendance,   1890-91 151 

Student   attendance,   1893-4 156 

Student   attendance,   1896-7 265 

Student  attendance,  1899-  '00 306 

Student   attendance,   1902-3 413 

Student  attendance,   1905-6 733 

Student  attendance,   1907-8 861 

Beginning  with  1895  the  attendance  in  the  summer  session  is 
included  in  the  total  enrollment. 


Law.    neering.  Total. 


6  ..  28 

25  6  55 

31  11  93 

*Changed  to  Teachers'  College  in  1907. 

Number  of  Instructors. 

1884 4  1887 9 

1890 14  1893 21 

1896 13  1899 23 

1902 38  1905 49 

1908 ' 65 

The  total  number  of  graduates,  including  the  class  of  1908, 
is  566 ;  total  number  of  diplomas  granted,  626. 

Upon  the  admission  of  North  Dakota  to  statehood,  the  Uni- 
versity received  a  grant  of  126,080  acres  of  public  land  from 



Arts.  Normal.* 
8      0 


6      2 


15      3 


10     13 

1902  . 

12     10 

1905.  .7.  

11     13 


22     29 


the  federal  congress — 40,000  acres  of  this  grant  going  to  the 
School  of  Mines,  which  had  been  united  with  the  university  under 
the  provisions  of  the  constitution  of  the  state. 


Under  the  provisions  of  the  organic  act  creating  the  Uni- 
versity, the  following  colleges  and  departments  have  thus  far 
been  established.  The  numerals  and  letters  following  the  name 
of  each  college  indicate  the  year  in  which  it  was  organized  and 
the  degrees  granted  by  it : 

I.  College  of  Liberal  Arts,  1883 ;  B.  A.,  M.  A. 

II.  Teachers  College,  1907  (successor  to  the  Normal  College 
established    by    law    as    a    department    of    the    University    in 
1883) ;  B.  A. 

III.  College  of  Mining  Engineering,  1898 ;  E.  M. 

IV.  College  of  Law,  1899;  LL.B. 

V.     College    of    Mechanical    and    Electrical    Engineering, 
1901 ;  M.  E. 

VI.     College  of  Medicine,  1905. 

VII.     Model  High  School,  1908  (successor  to  the  Preparatory 
Department,  1884,  and  School  of  Commerce,  1901.) 

At  the  legislative  session  of  1907  a  Public  Health  Laboratory 
was  established  and  located  at  the  University  in  charge  of  a 
resident  director. 


The  government  of  the  university  is  vested  in  a  Board  of 
Trustees,  five  in  number,  who  are  appointed  by  the  governor  and 
confirmed  by  the  senate,  and  who  hold  office  for  a  term  of  four 
years  each.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  trustees  to  determine  the  policy 
of  the  university  in  all  its  departments  and  to  act  as  conserva- 
tors of  the  interests  of  the  state  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  the 

Buildings  and  Grounds. 

The  university  is  housed  in  eleven  substantial  buildings 
located  on  the  university  campus,  which  is  situated  one  mile 
west  of  the  city  limits  of  Grand  Forks  on  the  main  line  of  the 


Great  Northern  Railway.  These  buildings,  with  the  dates  of 
their  erection,  are  as  follows: 

Main  building,  1883-4;  Davis  Hall  (a  young  women's  dormi- 
tory), 1887;  Macnie  Hall  (a  young  women's  dormitory),  1893, 
greatly  enlarged  and  named  Macnie  Hall  in  honor  of  Prof.  John 
Macnie,  professor  emeritus  of  French  and  Spanish,  1907;  Budge 
Hall  (men's  dormitory,  named  in  honor  of  Hon.  William  Budge), 
1899;  Power  House,  1899;  Science  Hall,  1902;  Mechanical  Engi- 
neering building,  1902;  President's  House,  1903;  Carnegie 
Library,  1907 ;  Gymnasium,  1907 ;  School  of  Mines  building,  1907. 

The  Law  School  occupies,  for  the  present,  rented  quarters  in 
the  city  of  Grand  Forks.  The  university  campus  contains  100 
acres,  forty  acres  of  which,  lying  east  of  the  English  Coulee, 
have  been  handsomely  laid  out  in  walks  and  drives  and  orna- 
mented with  trees,  shrubs  and  flowers.  Of  these  forty  acres, 
twenty  were  given  to  the  university  by  President  Merrifield  in 
1906.  It  is  expected  that  the  sixty  acres  west  of  the  English 
Coulee  will  eventually  become  the  university  athletic  field.  The 
university  is  connected  with  the  city  of  Grand  Forks  by  means 
of  a  trolley  line  making  half  hour  trips  daily,  and  also  by  means 
of  the  main  line  of  the  Great  Northern  Railway. 

The  Affiiliation  Plan. 

No  history  of  the  University  would  be  complete  which  failed 
to  make  mention  of  the  movement  looking  to  the  grouping  of 
the  church  schools  of  the  different  religious  denominations  of 
the  state  about  the  State  University.  In  1906  the  trustees  passed 
a  resolution  inviting  all  educational  agencies  of  the  state  to 
make  use  of  the  educational  facilities  afforded  by  the  State  Uni- 
versity to  whatever  extent  it  might  serve  their  convenience  to 
do  so.  Acting  upon  this  invitation,  the  Methodist  Church  of 
North  Dakota  in  1906  removed  its  educational  institution  (Red 
River  Valley  University)  from  Wahpeton  to  a  new  location 
adjoining  the  State  University,  changing  the  name  of  the  same 
(except  that  it  retains  the  old  title  for  corporate  purposes)  to 
Wesley  College.  For  a  more  detailed  account  of  this  movement 
the  reader  is  referred  to  the  History  of  Wesley  College  narrated 
in  later  pages  of  this  chapter. 


The  Baptist  Church  of  North  Dakota  has  committed  itself 
to  some  form  of  association  with  the  State  University  in  the 
carrying  on  of  its  educational  work.  It  is  understood  also  that 
the  Presbyterian  Church  of  North  Dakota  has  a  similar  proposi- 
tion under  advisement.  The  plan  has  received  wide  attention 
and  approval  throughout  the  country  as  offering  the  wisest 
solution  as  yet  proposed  of  the  problem  of  the  co-operation  of 
church  and  state  in  the  great  work  of  education — particularly  in 
the  newer  states  in  which  the  several  religious  denominations 
have  not  yet  committed  themselves  to  elaborate  and  expensive 
independent  educational  plants. 


In  May,  1906,  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie  gave  to  the  University, 
through  President  Merrifield,  the  sum  of  $30,000  for  the  erection 
of  a  library  building  on  the  University  campus.  In  1907  Mr. 
James  J.  Hill  gave  the  University,  through  Dr.  James  E.  Boyle, 
of  the  department  of  Economics,  the  sum  of  $3,500  to  be  used  in 
the  purchase  of  books  on  railway  transportation  and  allied  sub- 
jects. At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  trustees  in  June,  1907, 
President  Merrifield  donated  to  the  University  the  twenty  acres 
of  land  lying  immediately  to  the  east  of  the  main  campus,  the 
gift  being  without  conditions  as  to  the  use  to  be  made  of  it.  The 
trustees  accepted  the  gift  and  have  used  the  land  in  extending 
the  main  University  campus  to  the  east.  Messrs.  Patton  and 
Miller,  at  the  request  of  the  trustees,  have  drawn  plans  for  the 
larger  campus,  and  the  new  Carnegie  library  and  the  new  School 
of  Mines  building  have  been  erected  on  the  land  donated  by 
President  Merrifield. 

North  Dakota  Agricultural  College. 

An  agricultural  college  was  first  located  at  Fargo,  Cass  county, 
in  1883  by  act  of  the  Territorial  Legislature,  when  the  university, 
the  Hospital  for  the  Insane  and  the  penitentiary  were  respec- 
tively located  at  Grand  Forks,  Jamestown  and  Bismarck.  The 
act  locating  this  college  at  Fargo  named  a  board  of  trustees,  and 
imposed  conditions  as  to  procuring  a  tract  of  land  for  the  same. 
The  importance  of  this  institution  did  not  then  appeal  to  the 


people  of  Fargo ;  the  trustees  would  not  qualify,  and  nothing  was 
done.  The  author  of  the  act  (S.  G.  Roberts,  of  Fargo),  believing 
that  such  an  institution  would  in  the  future  be  of  the  greatest 
importance  and  benefit  to  the  development  of  an  agricultural 
country,  succeeded  in  having  an  act  passed  by  the  Territorial 
Legislature,  in  1885,  reenacting  and  continuing  in  force  the  act 
of  1883,  thereby  keeping  the  location  of  the  college  at  Fargo 
until  1889,  when  the  Constitutional  Convention,  assembled  at 
Bismarck,  permanently  located,  and  the  following  Legislative 
Assembly  of  the  newly  admitted  State  of  North  Dakota  perma- 
nently established  it  at  Fargo  under  the  name  of  the  "North 
Dakota  Agricultural  College." 

The  last  named  act  provided  for  the  organization  of  the  col- 
lege, erection  of  buildings,  etc.,  to  make  effective  the  provisions 
of  the  Morrill  Act  of  1862,  having  for  its  purpose  the  education 
of  the  industrial  classes  in  the  science  of  agriculture  and  the 
mechanical  arts. 

The  Morrill  Act  gave  to  each  state  and  territory  30,000  acres 
of  land  for  each  member  of  Congress  representing  that  state  or 
territory.  North  Dakota,  when  admitted  to  statehood,  was 
entitled  to  three  representatives  (two  Senators  and  one  member 
of  the  lower  house),  and  accordingly  received  90,000  acres  of  land 
under  the  Morrill  Act  for  the  endowment  of  a  state  agricultural 

The  '  *  Enabling  Act, ' '  under  which  North  Dakota  was  admitted 
to  statehood,  gave  the  state  40,000  acres  of  land  in  addition  to 
that  given  under  the  Morrill  Act,  making  a  total  of  130,000  acres. 
The  legislative  act  establishing  the  college  also  endowed  it  with 
the  section  of  land  immediately  northwest  of  the  city  of  Fargo 
on  which  the  college  is  located.  The  same  act  provided  an  appro- 
priation of  $25,000  for  buildings  and  equipment.  Under  the 
Morrill  Act  of  August  30,  1890,  each  state  agricultural  college 
receives  $25,000  annually  from  the  federal  government.  Begin- 
ning with  the  year  1908,  the  Nelson  Amendment  increases  this 
appropriation  by  $5,000  annually  until,  in  1912,  each  state  agri- 
cultural college  will  receive  $50,000  annually  from  the  federal 


The  Hatch  Act  of  March  2,  1887,  gave  each  state  $15,000 
annually  for  a  state  experiment  station,  and  the  Adams  Act  of 
March  16,  1906,  provided  for  an  increase  of  that  amount  to 
$20,000  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1906,  and  for  an  increase  of 
$2,000  yearly  thereafter  until,  in  1911,  the  yearly  appropriation 
will  amount  to  $30,000,  making  a  total  of  $80,000  received  an- 
nually from  the  federal  government  by  each  state  agricultural 
college  and  experiment  station.  This  handsome  income  is  sup- 
plemented by  an  annual  appropriation  from  the  state  of  a  fixed 
tax  of  20/100  of  a  mill  on  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  state  for 
purposes  of  taxation. 

By  constitutional  and  statutory  provisions,  the  college  lands 
cannot  be  sold  for  less  than  $10  per  acre.  The  land  grant  of  the 
State  Agricultural  College  will  thus  yield  a  permanent  endow- 
ment considerably  in  excess  of  $1,300,000,  as  the  lands  already 
sold  have  yielded  an  average  price  considerably  in  excess  of  $10 
per  acre.  Only  the  annual  income  from  this  endowment  may  be 
expended  by  the  college,  the  state,  under  the  terms  of  the 
"Enabling  Act,"  being  required  to  guarantee  the  perpetuity  of 
the  principal  derived  from  the  sale  of  all  the  institutional  lands 
received  from  the  federal  government  upon  admission  to  state- 

The  college  was  organized  October  5,  1890,  with  Hon.  H.  F. 
Miller,  of  Fargo,  as  president  of  the  first  board  of  trustees.  H.  E. 
Stockbridge,  Ph.  D.,  was  elected  the  first  president  of  the  college. 
The  faculty  and  officers  for  the  first  year  numbered  eight  mem- 
bers besides  the  president.  The  institution  was  opened  for  the 
reception  of  students  September  8,  1891,  in  rented  rooms  in  the 
basement  of  the  main  building  of  Fargo  College.  There  were  five 
students  in  attendance  on  the  opening  day,  and  122  were  enrolled 
during  the  first  year.  The  present  Administration  Building  was 
so  far  completed  as  to  be  ready  for  occupancy  January  1,  1892. 
This  building  contains  the  offices  of  administration,  the  chapel 
and  various  class  rooms.  It  also  contained  originally  the  library 
and  laboratories.  Other  buildings  have  been  added  from  time 
to  time  out  of  special  appropriations  made  by  the  legislature  for 
building  purposes  until  now  (1908)  the  college  has  seventeen 


buildings  in  all,  some  of  them  being  among  the  finest  college 
buildings  in  the  northwest.  Among  the  more  important  buildings 
are  the  following: 

Administration  Building,  Mechanical  Building,  Science  Hall, 
Francis  Hall  (for  class  rooms  and  laboratories),  new  heating 
plant,  horse  barn,  cattle  barn,  the  Chemical  Laboratory,  Carnegie 
Library,  Engineering  Building,  Mill  and  Flour  Testing  Labora- 
tory, and  Horticultural  Green  House.  The  last  and  finest  of  all 
the  buildings  is  the  new  Engineering  Building,  for  which  the 
legislature  of  1907  appropriated  $65,000. 

In  1901  the  legislature  passed  the  so-called  Newman  Bill, 
under  the  provisions  of  which  a  permanent  tax  of  one  mill  was 
levied  upon  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  state  for  the  purpose 
of  maintaining  the  educational  institutions  of  the  state.  Under 
the  terms  of  this  act  the  Agricultural  College  receives  one-fifth  of 
the  entire  proceeds  of  the  tax,  yielding  for  the  year  1908  $42,500. 
This  may  be  used  only  for  maintenance.  The  legislature  makes 
special  appropriations  from  time  to  time  for  buildings.  The 
special  appropriations  made  to  the  Agricultural  College  by  the 
Legislative  Assembly  of  1907  amounted  to  $102,000  for  buildings 

In  1895  President  Stockbridge  was  succeeded  in  the  presi- 
dency by  Col.  J.  B.  Power,  a  practical  and  successful  farmer  of 
the  state  on  a  large  scale.  In  1895  Hon.  J.  H.  Worst,  LL.D.,  a 
former  lieutenant  governor  of  the  state  and  a  member  for  some 
sessions  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  was  elected  president.  Most 
of  the  growth  of  the  Agricultural  College  has  been  made  under 
President  Worst's  exceedingly  able  and  energetic  administration. 
During  the  first  year  of  President  Worst's  administration  there 
were  185  students  enrolled.  During  the  year  1906-7  there  were 
818  students  in  attendance  and  55  enrolled  in  the  correspondence 
course.  The  great  majority  of  these  were  enrolled  in  the  short 
courses.  These  short  courses  are  exceedingly  practical  and  use- 
ful, and  through  them  the  Agricultural  College  is  gradually 
transforming  the  agriculture  of  North  Dakota.  During  President 
Worst's  administration  the  teaching  staff  has  increased  from  less 
than  a  dozen  members  to  more  than  forty,  and  the  number  of 
separate  departments  from  five  or  six  to  fourteen.  The  alumni 


number  forty-nine  members.  Five  full  courses  of  study  of  four 
years  each  are  provided  for,  each  leading  to  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Science,  viz. :  Agricultural,  mechanical  engineering, 
civil  engineering,  scientific,  and  pharmaceutical  chemistry.  The 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts  is  also  conferred  for  graduate  work. 

Several  members  of  the  college  faculty,  notably  Professors 
Bolley  and  Ladd,  have  won  a  national  reputation,  the  former  for 
his  original  contributions  to  the  knowledge  of  the  cause  and  cure 
of  flax  wilt,  the  latter  for  his  remarkably  vigorous  and  efficient 
work  as  pure  food  commissioner  for  North  Dakota,  in  which  field 
North  Dakota  is  generally  recognized  as  having  done  pioneer 
work  under  the  able  direction  of  Professor  Ladd. 

Under  the  wise  direction  of  President  Worst,  the  Agricultural 
College  is  doing  much  to  transform  agriculture  in  our  state  from 
a  make-shift  into  a  profession  based  upon  strictly  scientific 

State   Normal   Schools. 

That  the  Dakotas  were  to  have  normal  schools  was  predeter- 
mined. All  Western  states  had  been  providing  for  them  and 
they  clearly  met  a  definite  need  of  the  times.  The  only  question 
that  would  interest  an  antiquarian  is  how  the  schools  came  to 
be  where  they  are.  This  is  a  long  story,  and  no  one  is  in  pos- 
session of  all  the  facts. 

The  prominence  of  the  normal  school  idea  in  the  minds  of 
the  people  is  clearly  shown  in  the  legislation  which  took  place 
in  the  territorial  legislature  of  1881,  providing  for  the  location 
of  five  normal  schools,  all  of  them,  however,  in  South  Dakota, 
and  all  upon  the  condition  that  the  towns  or  cities  where  they 
were  located  should  furnish  a  site  comprising  160  acres,  with 
the  evident  intention  of  producing  an  endowment  fund  by  the 
sale  of  lots. 

Division  of  the  territory  had  already  been  talked  of  and  in 
1883 Bother  normal  schools  were  located,  nearly  all  of  them  in 
North  Dakota;  one  at  Pembina,  one  at  Minto,  one  at  Larimore. 
These,  likewise,  were  upon  the  condition  of  a  donation  of  160 
acres  of  land  by  each  of  the  towns.  This  condition  in  each  case 


seems  never  to  have  been  met,  either  through  indifference  of  the 
cities  themselves  or  inability. 

Meantime  the  people  of  Milnor,  finding  it  so  easy  to  locate 
normal  schools,  organized  and  established  what  they  called  the 
Territorial  Normal  School,  maintaining  the  same  by  contributions 
from  their  own  people,  in  the  expectation  that  when  the  division 
of  the  territory  was  realized,  they,  having  a  real  working  normal 
school,  would  be  the  first  community  to  be  recognized  under 
the  new  constitution.  They  had  called  a  veteran  teacher  and 
educational  writer,  John  Ogderi,  to  the  headship  of  their  insti- 
tution. He  was  assisted  by  Emma  F.  Bates.  Both  of  these  indi- 
viduals were  afterwards  superintendents  of  Public  Instruction, 
and  both  had  much  to  do  with  the  early  history  of  the  normal 
school  at  Valley  City. 

Two  of  the  normal  schools  in  South  Dakota  were  by  this 
time  organized  and  maintained  by  the  Territory  of  Dakota.  In 
the  report  of  the  Territorial  Board  of  Education  to  the  governor 
and  legislature  in  1888,  written  by  the  present  president  of  the 
State  Normal  School  at  Valley  City,  speaking  of  the  normal 
schools  then  in  existence,  the  writer  says:  "We  desire  to  call 
your  attention  and  that  of  the  legislature  to  the  pressing  need 
of  a  normal  school  at  some  central  and  accessible  point  in  North 
Dakota.  At  present  there  is  no  public  school  in  that  section 
where  teachers  can  be  trained  for  thorough  work  in  our  common 
schools."  Everyone  now  felt  that  the  division  of  the  territory 
was  assured,  and  the  people  of  North  Dakota  were  anxious  to 
duplicate  the  institutions  of  South  Dakota.  The  legislature  to 
which  this  report  was  made  had  been  elected.  A  member  thereof 
from  LaMoure,  anxious  to  do  something  to  commend  himself  to 
his  constituents,  directed  covetous  eyes  toward  the  normal  school 
at  Milner,  and  decided  to  introduce  a  bill  in  the  Territorial 
Council  to  locate  a  normal  school  at  his  city.  In  furtherance  of 
this  plan,  he  wrote  to  the  Hon.  Hkigh  McDonald,  of  Valley  City, 
a  member  of  the  Territorial  Council,  soliciting  his  assistance. 
Whereupon  Mr.  McDonald  thought  it  would  be  a  good  plan  to 
secure  something  for  his  people  and  introduced  a  bill  in  the 
winter  of  1889  locating  the  North  Dakota  Agricultural  College 
at  Valley  City.  This  bill  passed  both  branches  of  the  legislature, 


but  was  vetoed  by  the  Democratic  governor,  Louis  K.  Church. 
Inasmuch  as  the  Agricultural  College  had  been  on  two  or  three 
occasions  located  at  Fargo — though  nothing  had  been  done  to 
organize  it  there — the  Fargo  influence  took  alarm  at  the  success 
of  Mr.  McDonald.  Accordingly,  when  the  federal  act  was 
passed  permitting  division,  and  providing  for  the  formation  of 
the  constitution,  the  Fargo  influence  was  quite  willing  that  Valley 
City  should  have  a  state  institution  other  than  the  Agricultural 
College.  When  the  Constitutional  Convention  was  organized, 
Hon.  H.  F.  Miller,  of  Cass  county,  was  made  chairman  of  the 
Committee  on  Public  Institutions  and  Buildings,  and  to  this 
committee  was  referred  the  whole  question  of  the  location  of 
public  institutions.  Fargo,  of  course,  wanted  the  Agricultural 
College.  Several  of  the  state  institutions  were  already  located. 
It  was  soon  conceded  that  Valley  City  should  have  a  state  insti- 
tution, and  as  the  most  valuable  thing  left  was  the  normal  school, 
the  location  of  a  North  Dakota  state  normal  school  was  conceded 
to  Valley  City.  But  some  opposition  to  the  bill  providing  for 
the  location  of  all  the  institutions  developed  in  the  convention, 
and  in  order  to  assure  the  passage  of  the  report  of  the  majority 
of  the  Committee  on  Public  Institutions,  it  was  deemed  advisable 
to  placate  another  section  of  the  state  by  locating  a  second 
normal  school  at  Mayville,  in  order  thereby  to  secure  a  few 
additional  votes  in  the  convention.  The  report  of  this  committee 
was  adopted  on  the  16th  of  August,  1889,  after  a  protracted  and 
somewhat  bitter  debate,  the  opposition  conning  mainly  from  com- 
munities not  to  be  recognized  in  the  distribution  of  institutions. 
The  federal  government  had  made  an  appropriation  of  80,000 
acres  of  land  for  the  support  of  normal  schools,  and  the  Consti- 
tutional Convention  assigned  50,000  acres  to  the  Valley  City,  and 
30,000  acres  to  the  Mayville  normal. 

Mayville  Normal  School. 

The  State  Normal  School  at  Mayville  was  established  by  the 
Constitutional  Convention  of  this  state  and  made  a  part  of  the 
public  school  system.  It  was  endowed  with  30,000  acres  of  land, 
the  provisions  of  Article  XIX  of  the  State  Constitution. 



It  opened  its  doors  to  students  in  the  city  hall  in  1890.  Later 
it  occupied  rooms  in  the  public  school  building  until  late  in 
1893,  when,  its  own  building  being  completed,  it  removed  to  it. 

The  Normal  School  Building. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Management  in  October,  1891, 
it  was  agreed  to  purchase  of  Mr.  Boyum  ten  acres  from  his 
tract  of  land  fronting  on  K  street,  at  $80  an  acre.  This  was  to 
be  used  as  a  site  for  the  normal  school. 

On  April  29,  1892,  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the  outside 
of  the  building  was  awarded  to  John  A.  Weedal  of  Wilmar, 
Minn.,  according  to  plans  and  specifications  made  by  Architect 
T.  D.  Allen.  The  contract  price  of  the  new  building  was  to  be 

Work  began  at  once  and  was  completed  in  November.  During 
1893  contracts  were  entered  into  to  complete  the  different  stories 
and  entrances  of  the  building  by  F.  Field,  of  Mayville,  for  the 
sum  of  $6,095. 

In  August,  1893,  bids  for  heating  and  ventilating  the  building 
were  accepted  from  the  firm  of  Saxton-Philips  Company,  of  Min- 
neapolis, for  $3,693. 

In  November,  1898,  the  matter  of  enlarging  the  present  build- 
ing for  the  better  accommodation  of  students  came  before  the 
Board  of  Management,  and  it  was  decided  to  ask  the  legislature 
for  an  appropriation  for  this  purpose.  On  March  20,  1905,  the 
ninth  legislature  appropriated  $45,000  to  make  an  addition  to 
the  old  building.  On  April  12,  1905,  the  contract  was  awarded 
to  Johnson  &  Powers,  of  Fargo,  under  plans  and  specifications 
made  by  W.  C.  Albrant,  of  Fargo.  This  addition  was  completed 
in  the  fall  of  1907,  after  an  additional  appropriation  had  been 
made  by  the  tenth  legislature  of  $15,000. 

The  tenth  legislature  also  appropriated  $20,000  for  the  erec- 
tion of  a  woman's  dormitory  and  this  building  is  under  process 
of  construction,  the  contract  having  been  awarded  to  Johnson, 
Anderson  &  Johnson,  of  Fargo,  according  to  plans  and  specifica- 
tions, made  by  Hancock  Bros.,  of  Fargo,  N.  D. 


Management  of  the  School. 

The  first  president  of  the  school  was  James  McNaughton,  and 
he  had  a  faculty  of  four  members.  Students  enrolled  during  the 
year  1891-2  numbered  eighty-five  in  the  normal  department. 

The  second  year  of  the  school  the  faculty  numbered  nine 
members,  including  the  president  of  the  school,  and  students 
enrolled  in  the  normal  department  numbered  145. 

The  second  president  was  L.  B.  Avery,  1893-1895. 

The  third  president  was  J.  T.  Perigo,  1895-1897. 

The  fourth  president  was  Joseph  Carhart,  1897-1907. 

The  fifth  president  is  Thomas  A.  Hillyer,  1907. 


The  following  list  shows  the  number  of  graduates  in  the  dif- 
ferent years : 

1895,  15;  1896,  13;  1897,  7;  1898,  3;  1899,  13;  1900,  20; 
1901,  15;  1902,  22;  1903,  21;  1904,  26;  1905,  33;  1906,  54;  1907,  48. 


November  23,  1899,  the  school  was  presented  with  $1,000  by 
Mr.  Grandin  for  the  purpose  of  starting  a  reference  library.  At 
different  times  books  were  received  from  friends  of  the  school 
and  various  appropriations  have  been  made  by  the  state  for  the 
purchase  of  books.  The  library  now  numbers  about  3,100  vol- 

In  January,  1901,  permission  was  gained  to  use  the  city 
schools  for  practice  purposes. 

Valley  City  Normal  School. 

In  the  first  state  legislature  a  bill  was  introduced  by  Hon. 
Duncan  McDonald,  who  was  a  member  of  the  lower  house,  pro- 
viding for  the  organization  and  establishment  of  a  normal  school 
at  Valley  City.  This  bill  passed  and  received  the  executive 
approval  March  8,  1890,  but  as  it  carried  no  appropriation,  little 
could  be  done  in  starting  a  school.  Therefore,  the  people  of 
Valley  City  contributed  funds  sufficient  to  open  school  in  a  small 
way  on  the  13th  of  October,  1890,  in  a  room  of  the  public  school 


building  rented  for  the  purpose.  The  Rev.  J.  W.  Sifton,  a  local 
pastor,  was  made  principal.  In  the  succeeding  legislative  assem- 
bly, that  of  1891,  Frank  White,  since  governor  of  the  state,  intro- 
duced a  bill  to  provide  for  the  erection,  operation  and  manage- 
ment of  the  normal  schools  of  the  state.  After  being  considered 
by  the  various  committees  and  both  branches  of  the  legislature, 
this  bill,  under  which  the  normal  schools  of  North  Dakota  have 
since  worked,  was  approved  March  7,  1892.  About  the  same 
time  Senator  Joel  S.  Weiser  introduced  in  the  senate  a  bill  pro- 
viding $5,000  for  the  Valley  City  Normal  School.  This  passed 
and  was  approved  March  2,  1891,  and  furnished  means  whereby 
Principal  J.  W.  Sifton  was  able  to  open  the  school  in  rented 
quarters  in  the  fall  of  that  year,  when  a  school  session  of  nine 
months  was  held. 

In  1897  the  diploma  of  the  normal  school  was  made  a  county 
certificate  of  the  first  grade ;  after  two  years '  experience,  a  state 
normal  certificate ;  and  after  three  years '  experience,  a  life  pro- 
fessional certificate.  By  an  act  of  1905  the  law  regarding  diplomas 
was  slightly  changed,  making  the  diploma  a  state  certificate  of 
the  second  class,  good  for  three  years,  and  then  permitting  the 
issue  of  a  life  professional  certificate  when  the  holder  thereof 
has  been  successful.  Another  slight  amendment  to  the  normal 
school  law  was  made  in  1901,  when  the  members  of  the  Board 
of  Management,  heretofore  acting  without  pay,  were  granted  $3 
per  day  in  addition  to  their  necessary  expenses. 

The  effort  to  maintain  all  of  its  institutions  had  cost  the 
young  state  a  tremendous  struggle.  Every  possible  method  of 
relieving  the  situation  was  considered;  finally,  in  1901  the  school 
was  by  definite  act  made  a  part  of  the  public  school  system  and 
an  especial  annual  levy  of  a  one  mill  tax  on  each  dollar  of  the 
assessed  valuation  of  the  property  of  the  state  was  authorized 
in  support  of  the  state  educational  institutions,  and  the  income 
from  12-100  of  this  mill  tax  was  assigned  to  the  Valley  City 
State  Normal  School.  Also,  10,000  acres  of  the  government  grant 
to  normal  schools  was  ordered  sold  in  order  to  produce  an  in- 
come for  the  schools  from  this  source.  This  legislation  was 
really  constructive  and  placed  the  educational  institutions  of 
the  state,  the  normal  school  at  Valley  City  included,  on  a  firmer 


basis,  and  here  began  what  might  be  called  the  era  of  expansion 
of  the  normal  schools.  They  were  relieved  from  the  anxieties  of 
annual  appropriations  and,  the  prosperity  of  the  state  increasing 
rapidly,  the  value  of  their  land,  of  course,  increased  pro  rata  and 
soon  began  to  produce  a  handsome  income. 

But  funds  from  both  these  sources  were  for  maintenance. 
The  school  must  have  buildings,  equipment  and  improvements. 
Its  students  were  increasing  rapidly  in  numbers  and  the  demand 
for  a  broader  form  of  work  required  greater  facilities.  In  1903 
an  act  was  passed  authorizing  the  institution  to  bond  its  lands 
for  the  purpose  of  securing  an  additional  building  for  school 
work  and  a  dormitory.  When  these  buildings  were  well  under 
way,  the  state  treasurer,  Hon.  Dan  McMillan,  declined  to 
pay  out  money  on  the  account  of  the  board  of  university  and 
school  lands,  to  whom  the  bonds  had  been  sold,  and  the  ques- 
tion was  thrown  into  the  Supreme  Court,  which  decided  that 
the  bonds  were  illegal.  The  emergency  board  of  the  state  came 
to  the  rescue  with  an  appropriation  of  $20,420,  and  the  balance 
of  the  debt  incurred  by  the  erection  of  the  two  buildings  was 
carried  over  to  the  next  legislature.  Since  that  time,  however, 
definite  appropriations  have  been  made  for  the  erection  of 

The  Building  Record. 

As  indicated  above,  the  school  began  its  career  in  a  room 
rented  from  the  public  school  in  the  fall  of  1890.  Scarcely  more 
than  a  half  dozen  were  present  the  first  day,  nearly  all  of  whom 
were  from  Valley  City  families.  Several  of  these,  however, 
graduated  from  the  normal  school,  and  have  been  teachers  in 
the  state  for  many  years.  The  second  year,  October  13,  1891, 
the  school  re-opened  under  the  principalship  of  Rev.  J.  "VV.  Sifton, 
in  quarters  rented  for  the  purpose  in  a  building  which  afterwards 
was  occupied  by  the  Salvation  Army,  and  more  recently  by  the 
Valley  City  Bottling  Works.  The  rooms,  however,  were  com- 
fortable and  well  adapted  to  the  use  of  the  school.  Meantime, 
Prof.  John  Ogden  had  become  superintendent  of  public  instruc- 
tion and  had  taken  a  great  interest  in  the  development  of  the 
state's  normal  schools.  Emma  F.  Bates,  also  previously  con- 


nected  with  the  Territorial  Normal  School  at  Milnor,  had  been 
brought  over  to  Valley  City  at  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Ogden  to 
assist  Principal  Sifton.  The  school  showed  considerable  growth, 
and  by  the  1st  of  January,  1892,  Lura  L.  Perrine,  then  teacher 
at  Oakes,  was  brought  to  the  school  as  a  regular  teacher,  and 
Mr.  M.  W.  Barnes,  a  teacher  in  Barnes  county,  having  special 
qualifications  for  the  teaching  of  penmanship,  came  to  the  school 
twice  each  week  during  the  winter  term  to  give  lessons  in  pen- 
manship. A  bill  having  passed  authorizing  an  issue  of  bonds  to 
the  amount  of  $20,000  for  building  purposes,  a  site  was  secured 
in  the  south  part  of  the  city  and  the  erection  of  a  building  begun. 
The  usual  struggle  incident  to  the  location  of  a  public  institu- 
tion in  a  Western  city  had  been  experienced.  Three  members 
of  the  board  were  residents  of  Valley  City,  each  the  partisan  of 
a  different  site;  it  therefore  devolved  upon  the  non-resident 
members,  Hon.  J.  W.  Goodrich,  of  Jamestown,  and  Thomas 
Elliott,  of  Elliott,  to  determine  the  location  of  the  building.  At 
first  there  was  much  opposition  to  the  location  chosen,  but  no 
one  now  outside  or  inside  of  Valley  City  Would  have  it  changed. 
A  commodious  building,  costing  about  $25,000,  was  completed 
on  the  6th  of  December,  1892.  Little  was  done  for  many  years 
to  add  to  this  building.  The  state  was  now  passing  through  an 
era  of  hard  times.  In  1895  Gov.  Roger  Allen  vetoed  appropria- 
tions for  the  support  of  the  school  with  the  exception  of  $4,600, 
enough  to  provide  a  custodian  of  the  building  and  keep  it  warm 
for  winter.  No  building  was  undertaken  until  1903,  when  the 
west  wing,  or  Science  hall,  was  erected  and  the  dormitory  under- 
taken. Meantime,  however,  the  board  had  purchased  a  large  resi- 
dence in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  city,  known  as  the  Olsby 
house,  with  seven  acres  of  land,  and  had  started  a  dormitory  in  a 
small  way.  In  1905  another  appropriation  was  secured  for  the 
Model  school,  which  is  now  known  as  the  East  wing,  and  in  1907  a 
further  appropriation  for  the  erection  of  an  auditorium.  Thus, 
in  the  space  of  five  years,  three  great  buildings  have  been  added 
to  the  original  plant  for  school  purposes  and  two  dormitories 

The  original  site  comprised  ten  or  eleven  acres  at  the  very 
edge  of  the  city.     This  site  has  been  increased  by  the  purchase 


of  the  seven  acres  above  referred  to  for  dormitory  purposes,  two 
lots  on  the  east  of  the  grounds  and  fronting  on  Sunnyside  ave- 
nue, thirteen  acres  to  the  southeast  of  the  main  grounds  and 
twenty-five  acres  extending  across  the  entire  quarter  section  and 
lying  south  of  the  grounds. 

The  School  and  Its  Work. 

As  revealed  by  the  foregoing,  Rev.  J.  W.  Sifton  was  the  first 
principal,  through  a  short  term  beginning  in  1890  and  through 
part  of  the  year  beginning  1891.  In  April,  1892,  he  resigned, 
leaving  the  school  in  the  hands  of  Emma  F.  Bates  and  Lura  L. 
Perrine.  The  board  now  began  to  look  for  his  successor  and 
attention  was  attracted  to  Prof.  George  A.  McFarland,  of  the 
State  Normal  School  at  Madison,  S.  D.,  who  had  been  a  member 
of  the  territorial  board  of  education,  1887  to  1889,  and  was  well 
known  by  the  educators  of  both  sections  of  the  territory.  He 
was  written  to  and  came  on  for  a  conference  with  the  board  of 
management  in  May,  1892,  was  engaged  and  assumed  the  duties 
of  principal  the  1st  of  August  of  that  year.  The  school  opened 
its  third  session  on  the  28th  of  September,  1892,  with  twenty- 
eight  students  present.  The  principal  was  assisted  by  Emma  F. 
Bates,  Lura  L.  Perrine,  M.  W.  Barnes  and  Amanda  Harmon,  who 
conducted  a  kindergarten,  the  latter  partly  independent  and 
partly  under  the  auspices  of  the  normal  school.  On  December 
6  of  that  year  the  new  building  was  occupied.  The  dedication 
was  a  great  public  event.  The  governor,  most  of  his  advisers, 
and  other  public  officials,  prominent  educators  and  others  were 
present  and  gave  addresses. 

In  1893  the  school  re-opened,  and  the  catalogue  shows  a  fac- 
ulty of  nine,  among  whom  are  Elsie  Hadley,  instructor  of  mathe- 
matics, afterwards  well  known  to  the  state  as  Mrs.  Frank  White. 
At  the  end  of  this  year  the  first  class  was  graduated,  and  con- 
sisted of  three  students :  Maud  Bronson,  of  Jamestown ;  Lenora 
Arestad,  of  Cooperstown;  and  Jennie  F.  MacNider,  of  Bismarck. 

In  1894  the  names  of  Joseph  Schafer  and  Cora  M.  Rawlins 
appeared  on  the  faculty  roll  for  the  first  time.  Mr.  Schafer  was 
afterwards  a  candidate  for  superintendent  of  public  instruction, 
and  Miss  Rawlins,  after  thirteen  years,  is  again  a  member  of  the 



faculty.  At  the  end  of  that  year  a  class  of  eleven  was  gradu- 
ated, one  of  wjiom  is  Miss  Alice  J.  Fisher,  at  present  a  critic  in 
the  primary  department,  and  another  Miss  Ellen  Matteson,  county 
superintendent  of  Eddy  county.  This  was  the  largest  class  to 
graduate  until  June,  1902.  In  1896  there  were  five;  in  1897, 
nine;  in  1898,  one;  in  1899,  four;  in  1901,  ten;  in  1902,  eighteen; 
in  1903,  thirty-three ;  in  1904,  thirty-three ;  in  1905,  forty-eight ; 
in  1906,  sixty-nine ;  and  in  1907,  eighty-nine.  The  rapid  growth 
in  the  number  of  students  and  graduates  is,  undoubtedly,  due 
to  the  fact  that  early  graduates  were  thoroughly  qualified  for 
the  positions  they  accepted  and  demonstrated  in  their  work  the 
value  of  the  institution.  Many  of  these  students  have  since  risen 
to  eminence.  In  the  class  of  1896,  for  instance,  were  several 
who  were  in  the  school  the  day  it  opened.  Several  of  them  have 
taught  successfully,  since  graduation,  in  the  schools  of  Valley 
City.  In  1897  the  class  included  Mr.  E.  R.  Brownson,  for  several 
years  superintendent  of  schools  at  Williston,  later  county  super- 
intendent of  the  schools  of  that  county,  and  more  recently  a 
leading  business  man  of  Williston  and  a  member  of  the  board  of 
management  of  the  state  normal  school  at  Valley  City.  Mr. 
Christian  Westergaard  is  the  only  member  of  the  class  of  1898. 
He  is  at  present  occupying  a  position  as  instructor  of  farm  me- 
chanics in  the  University  of  California,  and  lecturer  before  the 
farmers'  institute  of  that  state.  To  name  others  individually 
would  lead  to  details  not  intended  in  this  article,  and  for  which 
there  is  no  space. 

In  the  fall  of  1899  the  faculty  was  increased  from  eight  to 
ten ;  in  1901,  to  eleven ;  in  1902,  to  fourteen ;  in  1903,  to  sixteen ; 
in  1904,  to  eighteen;  in  1905,  to  twenty-five;  until  at  the  present 
time  the  total  number  of  teachers  employed  is  thirty-one,  the 
student  body  having  increased,  within  the  memory  of  the  present 
president,  from  five,  on  the  25th  day  of  May,  1892,  to  537  in 
February,  1908,  in  the  normal  department.  Including  the  model 
school,  the  summer  school,  and  other  departments  of  its  work, 
the  school  serves  over  one  thousand  people  each  year.  Its  gradu- 
ates are  found  in  all  parts  of  our  state  and  many  have  found 
profitable  employment  in  other  states. 

Its  income  has  increased  from  $5,000  for  the  first  and  second 


years  of  its  existence  to  about  $50,000  a  year,  and  yet,  with  this 
marvelous  growth  in  financial  support,  building  and  equipment, 
it  has  not  been  able  to  keep  pace  with  the  demands  made  upon 
it  by  the  young  people  of  the  state  for  a  proper  vocational 

State  School  of  Science.    . 
(Academy  of  Science.) 

Among  the  educational  institutions  located  by  the  constitu- 
tion was  "a  scientific  school  or  such  other  educational  or  chari- 
table institution  as  the  legislative  assembly  may  prescribe  at 
the  City  of  Wahpeton,  County  of  Richland,  with  a  grant  of 
40,000  acres  of  land."  In  accordance  with  this  provision  of  the 
constitution,  the  legislative  session  of  1903  established  a  state 
school  of  science  with  location  at  Wahpeton.  The  school  was 
organized  and  formally  opened  for  the  reception  of  students  in 
rented  rooms  in  the  building  owned  and  occupied  by  the  Red 
River  Valley  University  in  September,  1903.  Prof.  Earle  C. 
Burch,  teacher  of  science  in  the  Fargo  high  school,  was  elected 
the  first  president.  Upon  the  removal  of  the  Red  River  Valley 
University  to  Grand  Forks  in  1905,  the  Academy  of  Science 
purchased  its  building,  an  appropriation  being  made  for  this 
purpose  by  the  legislative  assembly.  In  addition  to  this  building, 
there  was  erected,  in  the  summer  of  1905,  a  commodious  and 
substantial  one-story  building  of  cement  blocks,  30x70  feet  in 
dimensions,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  department  of  mechan- 
ical engineering.  In  it  are  located  the  machinery,  wood  and 
forge  shops.  A  commodious  building  to  be  used  as  a  gymnasium 
was  erected  in  the  summer  of  1907. 

The  early  appropriations  to  the  school  for  maintenance  were 
meagre,  but  upon  the  passage  of  the  so-called  Purcell  bill  (1907) 
providing  for  a  redistribution  of  the  mill  tax,  the  Academy  of 
Science  was  admitted  to  a  participation  in  the  benefits  of  the 
tax  and  was  given  4/100  of  a  mill  as  its  share.  The  legislative 
assembly  of  1907  also  more  specifically  defined  the  scope  of  the 
school  in  the  following  terms : 

"The  North  Dakota  Academy  of  Science,  heretofore  estab- 
lished at  Wahpeton,  is  hereby  continued  as  such.  The  object  of 


the  academy  shall  be  to  furnish  (such)  instruction  in  the  pure 
and  applied  sciences,  mathematics,  languages,  political  science 
and  history  as  is  usually  given  in  schools  of  technology  below  the 
junior  year,  the  chief  object  being  the  training  of  skilled  work- 
men in  the  most  practical  phases  of  applied  science.  A  general 
science  course  may  also  be  offered  consisting  of  three  years '  work 
above  the  high  school  course.  Upon  the  completion  of  either  of 
the  above  courses,  the  board  of  trustees  may  grant  appropriate 
certificates  of  the  work  accomplished." 

The  Academy  of  Science  offers  three-year  courses  in  general 
science  and  two-year  courses  in  mechanical,  electrical  and  civil 
engineering,  and  offers  in  addition  a  preparatory  course  of  three 
years  and  a  commercial  course.  During  the  school  year  of 
1906-7  the  faculty  of  the  school  numbered  eight  members  and 
seventy-eight  students  were  enrolled,  exclusive  of  110  enrolled 
in  the  summer  school. 

Fargo  College. 

Fargo  College  has  its  source  in  an  idea.  That  idea  is  the 
necessity  of  the  Christian  college  for  the  perpetuity  of  our  free 
institutions  and  democratic  form  of  government.  In  fulfillment 
of  this  idea,  the  first  "General  Association  of  Congregational 
Churches"  meeting  at  Fargo,  October  18,  1882,  adopted  a  reso- 
lution appointing  a  committee  to  take  steps  toward  founding 
Christian  academies  in  the  territory.  At  the  next  meeting 
$1,400.00  was  pledged  for  the  founding  of  a  Christian  college.  At 
each  subsequent  meeting  the  matter  was  considered,  and  in  July, 
1887,  the  association  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  citizens  of 
Fargo  to  locate  there.  In  the  same  month  the  college  committee 
of  the  association  united  with  them  certain  others  who  became 
the  original  board  of  incorporators,  by  whom,  and  from  whose 
number,  the  Board  of  Trustees  are  chosen.  The  certificate  of 
incorporation  was  issued  by  the  secretary  of  the  territory  March 
28,  1888. 

In  the  fall  of  1887,  Professor  F.  T.  Waters  was  engaged  as 
principal,  and  about  October  1  Fargo  College  began  its  work 
with  a  few  scholars  in  the  McLauch  block  on  Eighth  street.  The 
first  student  was  a  red-headed  young  man,  later  county  superin- 


tendent,  from  the  western  part  of  the  state.  The  college  has  had 
four  presidents  previous  to  its  present  leader.  The  first  was 
Rev.  G.  B.  Barnes,  who  was  elected  in  November,  1888.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Dr.  R.  A.  Beard,  now  pastor  of  the  First  Congre- 
gational Church  of  Fargo,  whose  term  began  September  1,  1892. 
Rev.  H.  C.  Simmons,  then  superintendent  of  home  missions,  was 
elected  July  28,  1894,  and  died  suddenly  December  21,  1899.  Rev. 
J.  H.  Morley  began  his  term  February  1,  1900,  and  his  resignation 
took  effect  January  1,  1906.  President  Vittum  began  his  work 
early  in  January  of  1907. 

The  first  principal,  as  stated  above,  was  F.  T.  Waters.  He 
remained  until  the  spring  of  1891  and  seems  to  have  been  suc- 
ceeded by  Professor  Burdick.  In  September,  1892,  A.  D.  Hall 
became  principal  and  was  succeeded  in  the  summer  of  the  fol- 
lowing year  by  Professor  E.  T.  Curtis,  who  served  the  college 
until  September,  1895,  when  W.  A.  Deering  came  with  the  title  of 
dean  and  remained  until  September,  1897.  P.  G.  Knowlton  then 
became  dean  and  held  the  position  until  the  fall  of  1904,  when 
Professor  H.  W.  Fiske  succeeded  him.  Dr.  F.  E.  Stratton  began 
his  work  as  dean  in  the  fall  of  1906. 

Miss  L.  Belle  Haven  was  the  first  preceptress.  Miss  Sheldon, 
now  wife  of  Professor  Bolley,  of  the  Agricultural  College,  came 
in  1893.  Miss  Annie  Adams  was  dean  of  women  from  the  fall  of 
1897  until  the  summer  of  1902,  and  was  succeeded  by  Miss 
Jennette  E.  Marsh,  who  remained  two  years,  as  did  her  successor, 
Miss  Alice  N.  Baldwin.  The  present  head  of  the  women's 
department,  Miss  Margery  J.  Moore,  assumed  the  office  in 
September,  1906. 

After  remaining  in  the  rented  rooms  on  Eighth  street  for  a 
short  time,  the  work  was  carried  on  in  what  was  then  called  the 
Garfield  block  on  Ninth  street,  near  the  Methodist  church,  until 
the  college  entered  its  present  home  in  Jones  Hall  in  the  spring 
of  1890.  Jones  Hall  was  made  possible  by  the  gifts  of  Mr.  James 
Gould  and  his  sister,  Mrs.  Bassett,  who  became  interested  in  the 
college  through  the  efforts  of  Rev.  Mr.  Phillips,  now  at  James- 
town. It  was  named  in  memory  of  their  brother-in-law,  George  H. 
Jones,  and  cost  about  $35,000.  It  was  dedicated  October  7,  1890. 

Dill  Hall,  named  in  honor  of  its  largest  giver,  contains  the 

n  o 

O  ffi 


gymnasium,  Y.  M.  C.  A.  room,  several  lecture  and  recitation 
rooms  and  the  science  laboratories.  It  was  first  occupied  in 
January,  1908. 

Provision  was  made  for  the  study  of  music  from  the  beginning, 
and  Professor  E.  A.  Smith  was  in  charge  of  that  department 
until  the  close  of  the  year  1899-1900.  His  plans  for  a  conservatory 
were  carried  out  by  Professor  J.  C.  Penniman,  who  remained  until 
the  close  of  the  college  year,  1894-95,  when  he  was  succeeded  by 
Professor  George,  who  is  still  in  charge. 

A  business  department  was  organized  in  September,  1891, 
and  was  continued  until  the  year  1900,  when  it  was  made  an 
integral  part  of  the  regular  work  of  the  college. 

In  November,  1894,  Dr.  D.  K.  Pearsons,  of  Chicago,  offered  to 
give  $50,000  toward  the  permanent  endowment  of  the  college  on 
condition  that  $150,000  additional  be  raised  by  the  college, 
authorities.  President  Simmons  took  up  the  work  of  raising  the 
money  at  once  and  labored  most  earnestly  for  its  completion  until 
his  death  in  December,  1899.  Not  until  the  close  of  1902,  under 
his  successor,  President  Morley,  was  the  condition  met.  On  the 
evening  of  January  11,  1903,  was  held  the  banquet  to  celebrate 
the  completion  of  the  first  permanent  endowment  fund  of  $200,000. 

The  first  class  graduated  from  the  college  in  June,  1896,  and 
numbered  three,  Miss  Curtis,  Donald  G.  Golo  and  James  Mullen- 
bach.  According  to  the  catalogue  of  1890-91,  the  college  enrolled 
two  freshmen,  twenty  preparatory  students  and  forty-one  English 
students.  In  all  thirty-three  students  have  graduated  from  the 
regular  college  course.  The  first  permanent  regular  faculty  was 
engaged  in  the  fall  of  1889.  The  following  embodies  the  faculty 
pages  of  the  catalogue  of  1890-91: 

"Third  annual  catalogue.  President,  Rev.  G.  B.  Barnes,  pro- 
fessor of  mental  and  moral  philosophy.  F.  T.  Waters,  principal, 
and  professor  of  Latin  language  and  literature,  English  literature 
and  kindred  branches.  Rev.  G.  S.  Bascom,  professor  of  Greek 
language  and  literature.  Worollo  Whitney,  professor  of  mathe- 
matics, political  economy,  and  the  natural  sciences.  Bertha 
Hebard,  principal  of  ladies'  department,  professor  of  modern 
languages,  rhetoric  and  history.  E.  A.  Smith,  director  of  conserv- 


atory  of  music,  teacher  of  piano  and  harmony."  Surely  "There 
were  giants  in  those  days." 

In  January,  1907,  Edward  March  Vittum,  D.D.,  was  elected 
to  the  presidency.  President  Vittum  is  a  graduate  (B.A.  and 
M.A.)  of  Dartmouth  College  and  (B.D.)  of  Yale  University.  He 
has  occupied  a  number  of  pastorates  in  the  Congregational  church 
in  Connecticut  and  Iowa,  his  last  pastorate  being  at  Grinnell 
College,  Grinnell,  Iowa. 

The  instructional  force  of  the  college  numbers  (1908)  twenty 
members,  and  the  student  enrollment  310,  of  whom  forty-six  are 
enrolled  in  the  college,  sixty-eight  in  the  preparatory  department 
and  the  remainder  in  the  conservatory  of  music.  The  graduates 
in  1907  numbered  nine,  all  taking  the  A.B.  degree. 

Wesley  College. 

Among  the  first  questions  that  concerned  the  pioneer  Meth- 
odists of  North  Dakota  was  that  of  education.  The  Red  River 
Institute  had  been  located  at  Fargo  in  the  early  eighties — though 
it  was  never  formally  opened — and  this  institution  received  the 
endorsement  of  the  Mission  Conference  at  its  first  session  in  1884 
and  again  in  the  succeeding  year.  The  North  Dakota  Annual 
Conference,  in  its  first  session,  held  in  1886,  and  again  in  1887, 
earnestly  advocated  the  need  of  an  institution  of  higher  learning, 
and  this  action  was  heartily  supported  by  the  Lay  Electoral 

Each  year  the  matter  was  brought  up  and  in  1890  a  committee 
was  appointed  and  directed  to  act  "under  certain  conditions  and 
within  a  fixed  time."  The  project  took  definite  form  in  the 
following  resolution: 

"Resolved,  1,  That  the  committee  chosen  to  locate  a  college  in 
the  North  Dakota  Conference,  shall  give  every  place  the  oppor- 
tunity of  making  a  new  bid  or  increasing  a  bid  already  made, 
and  that  on  the  20th  of  January,  1891,  all  bids  shall  be  in  and  no 
bid  shall  be  received  thereafter,  and  not  later  than  March  1,  1891, 
the  committee  shall  decide  as  to  which  bid  they  will  accept,  and 
that  no  bid  shall  be  accepted  of  less  than  eighty  acres  of  land, 
or  its  equivalent,  and  $10,000  in  money. 

"Resolved,  2,  That  the  committee  shall  consist  of  the  presid- 


ing  elders  and  one  member  and  one  layman  from  each  district, 
with  the  bishop  residing  at  Minneapolis  ex-officio  chairman,  and 
that  the  bishop  and  his  cabinet  be  requested  to  present  nomina- 
tions for  the  balance  of  the  committee  at  the  closing  session  of 
the  conference." 

The  articles  of  incorporation  bear  the  date  February  25,  1891, 
and  the  institution  was  named  "The  Red  River  Valley 
University. ' ' 

As  the  city  of  Wahpeton  had  offered  a  tract  of  eighty  acres 
valued  at  $4,000,  and  a  cash  donation  of  $21,000,  including 
$10,000  from  a  Chicago  friend,  Mr.  J.  Q.  Adams,  that  city  was 
selected  as  the  site  of  the  future  institution.  Rev.  J.  N.  Fraden- 
burgh,  Ph.  D.,  D.D.,  was  elected  the  first  president  of  the  college, 
and  under  his  administration  the  work  of  building  was  begun, 
the  foundation  being  completed  June  25,  1891.  In  this  same  year 
a  faculty  of  four  teachers  was  selected  to  carry  on  the  work  of 
instruction.  The  heroism  of  devotion  of  these  friends  of  the 
struggling  school,  in  the  interests  of  the  future  commonwealth, 
deserves  the  highest  praise  and  even  veneration.  No  complete 
list  could  be  given  here,  but,  among  others,  the  early  records 
often  mention  such  names  as  Larimore,  Lynch,  White,  French, 
Adams,  Plannette,  and  others  worthy  of  mention,  and  many 
smaller  gifts  and  services  are  equally  precious  in  that  they  reveal 
the  spirit  and  will  of  the  citizens  of  the  state.  Their  sacrifices 
and  high  ideals  remind  us  of  the  doughty  Hollanders  who,  offered 
exemption  from  heavy  debts  or  the  gift  of  a  university,  chose  the 

In  June,  1892,  Dr.  Fradenburgh  felt  it  his  duty  to  accept  a 
call  to  another  field  and  Rev.  M.  V.  B.  Knox,  D.D.,  was  chosen 
to  succeed  him.  In  the  following  October  the  college  was  for- 
mally opened  and  wor£  was  begun.  Rev.  D.  C.  Plannette,  who 
from  the  first  had  aided  the  work,  accepted  an  appointment  as 
financial  agent  and  began  again  a  systematic  canvass  of  the 
state.  The  records  show  a  gift  of  $500  from  far-away  Rhode 
Island.  This  first  year  the  attendance  aggregated  eighty,  rising 
the  next  year  to  115,  and  120  in  the  year  following. 

In  1900  Rev.  E.  P.  Robertson,  A.M.,  D.D.,  was  called  to  the 
presidency.  Under  his  leadership  more  money  was  raised,  debts 


were  paid,  the  plant  improved,  and  the  enrollment  was  increased. 
In  1904-05  the  attendance  was  284,  classified  as  follows: 

College,  18;  academy,  57;  commercial,  49;  music,  160. 
Total,  284. 

About  this  time  President  Merrifield,  of  the  University  of 
North  Dakota,  in  an  address  before  the  annual  conference  in 
session  in  Grand  Forks,  March,  1900,  discussed  the  university- 
college  affiliation  idea,  and  at  the  close  extended  to  the  Methodist 
church  of  the  state  an  invitation  to  move  their  college  to  a  loca- 
tion adjoining  the  State  University  and  to  make  such  use  of  the 
facilities  of  the  State  University  as  might  seem  feasible.  Moral 
obligations  to  certain  benefactors  and  to  the  citizens  of  Wahpeton 
prevented  action  at  the  time,  but  in  1904,  after  some  twelve 
years  of  successful  work,  the  officials  and  friends  of  the  university 
began  to  consider  the  advisability  of  accepting  the  overtures  of 
the  State  University  to  remove  its  location  to  Grand  Forks.  The 
reasons  for  such  action  were:  (1)  The  strength  of  the  denomina- 
tion in  the  northern  and  western  parts  of  the  state ;  (2)  Unlike 
the  older  states,  North  Dakota  was  still  sparsely  settled,  and 
multiplicity  of  institutions  seemed  unnecessary;  (3)  As  the  mem- 
bers of  the  denomination,  in  common  with  other  citizens  of  the 
state,  contribute  to  the  support  of  the  State  University,  it  seemed 
wise  to  make  use  of  the  facilities  thus  afforded;  (4)  Though  suc- 
cess had  been  achieved,  it  seemed  to  the  patrons  of  the  school 
that  in  the  new  location,  under  new  conditions,  the  same  expendi- 
ture of  effort  would  be  productive  of  larger  results;  (5)  By  con- 
centration of  energies,  the  college  could  render  to  the  church  a 
larger  service  in  this  new  field,  which  was  more  centrally  located, 
and  in  a  section  where  a  large  Methodist  population  was  to  be 
found.  In  January,  1905,  the  heads  of  the  two  institutions  met, 
and,  after  deliberation,  came  to  an  agreement  on  the  now  historic 
memorandum  which  has  become  the  basis  of  cooperation : 

Whereas,  the  State  University  is  in  theory  the  university  of 
all  the  people  of  the  state,  and  is  supported  by  the  taxes  of  the 
members  of  the  several  denominations  as  well  as  by  the  other 
citizens  of  the  state,  it  would  seem  to  be  appropriate  and  fitting 
that  the  churches  of  the  several  denominations  in  the  state  should 
avail  themselves  of  the  privileges  which  belong  to  their  members 


as  citizens  of  the  state  and  should  use,  to  whatever  extent  may 
seem  desirable  in  the  conduct  of  their  educational  work,  the 
facilities  afforded  by  the  State  University. 

It  is  recognized  that  the  State  University  is  a  civic  institution 
and  has  for  its  mission  the  training  of  the  youth  of  the  state  for 
efficient  service  as  citizens.  It  is  recognized,  also,  that  the  dis- 
tinctive object  of  the  church  in  maintaining  schools  of  its  own  is 
to  insure  trained  leadership  in  religious  and  denominational  work. 
There  is,  therefore,  logically  no  conflict  between  their  respective 
missions,  for  the  same  young  people  are  to  serve  in  both  these 
capacities.  These  two  missions  being  in  no  sense  antagonistic, 
but  supplementary,  it  would  seem  the  part  of  wise  economy  that 
these  two  educational  agencies  should  avail  themselves,  so  far  as 
possible,  of  the  facilities  and  appliances  of  each  other  in  the 
working  out  of  their  respective  missions,  keeping  always  in  view 
the  principle  of  the  separation  of  the  church  and  state  in  so  far 
as  regards  the  control  and  expenditure  of  the  financial  resources 
of  each. 

Accepting  the  foregoing  principles  as  fundamentally  sound, 
the  University  of  North  Dakota  cordially  invites  the  people  of  the 
various  denominations  of  the  state  to  the  consideration  of  a 
plan  under  which  the  members  of  the  several  denominations, 
while  preserving  their  denominational  identity  and  maintaining 
separate  institutions  for  such  educational  work  as  they  may  deem 
necessary,  shall  join,  as  citizens,  in  patronage  of  the  State  Uni- 
versity as  the  common  agency  for  the  higher  education  of  the 
youth  of  the  state. 

As  a  basis  of  cooperation  between  the  State  University  and 
the  Methodist  church  of  the  state,  the  following  suggestions  seem 
practicable : 

1.  That  the  Methodist  church  change  the  name  of  its  insti- 
tution from  Red  River  Valley  University  to  Wesley  College. 

2.  That  a  building  or  buildings  be  erected  in  near  proximity 
to  the  State  University  but  on  a  separate  campus  to  include  a 
guild  hall,  such  recitation  rooms  as  may  be  required  for  the  work 
proposed,  possibly  dormitories  for  young  men  and  young  women, 
and  a  president's  house. 

3.  That  the  course  of  study  may  be : 


(a)  Bible    and    church    history,    English   Bible,    New 
Testament  Greek,  Hebrew,  Theism,  and  such  other  subjects  as 
the  college  may  elect  in  pursuance  of  its  purpose. 

(b)  A  brief  course  that  may  be  designated  as  a  Bible 
normal   course,   intended   especially   to   fit   students   to   become 
efficient  Sunday  school  teachers  and  lay  workers,  and  upon  the 
completing  of  which  certificates  of  recognition  may  be  granted. 

(c)  Instruction  in  music  and  elocution  may  be  given 
if  desired  and  appropriate  certificates  granted. 

(d)  Guild  hall  lectures. 

4.  That  the  State  University  grant  for  work  done  in  subjects 
included  under  (a)  above,  such  credit  toward  the  B.A.  degree  as 
it  gives  to  technical  work  done  in  its  own  professional  schools 
and  to  work  done  in  other  colleges  of  reputable  standing.    Like- 
wise, Wesley  College  shall  give  credit  for  work  done  in  the  State 
University  in  similar  manner  as  preparation  for  any  degree  or 
certificate  it  may  offer. 

5.  Each  institution  shall  have  full  control  of  the  discipline 
of  students  upon  its  own  grounds. 

6.  It  shall  be  deemed  proper  for  students  to  take  degrees 
from  both  institutions  if  they  so  desire. 

University,  N.  D.,  Jan.  9,  1905. 

The  year  1905-06  was  spent  in  securing  additional  funds.  As 
the  citizens  of  Wahpeton  had  given  a  considerable  share  toward 
the  founding  of  the  school,  it  was  felt  that  this  property  should 
be  disposed  of  to  the  advantage  of  the  city  of  Wahpeton. 
Accordingly  the  land  with  the  building,  estimated  at  $45,000, 
was  transferred  to  the  State  Science  School,  located  in  the  same 
city,  for  the  sum  of  $20,000,  the  balance,  $25,000.  being  pledged 
by  the  city  of  Grand  Forks. 

In  the  fall  of  1906  work  was  resumed  under  the  educational 
name  of  Wesley  College,  though  for  business  purposes  the  old 
corporation  name,  "Red  River  Valley  University,"  is  retained. 
The  lines  of  activity  developed  are  precisely  those  laid  down  in 
the  memorandum : 


1.  The  purpose  of  the  instruction  given  in  Wesley  College 
School  of  Arts  is  to  provide,  in  cooperation  with  the  University 
of  North  Dakota,  courses  that  may  be  counted  toward  the  degree 
of  Bachelor  of  Arts.     This  will  include  such  courses  as,  though 
properly  arts  courses,  are  not  offered  in  the  university  itself. 

The  requirements  of  the  degree  in  arts  are  equivalent  to 
those  of  the  University  of  North  Dakota  and  meet  the  standards 
established  by  the  university  senate  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 

Candidates  for  a  degree  from  Wesley  College  may  elect  work 
in  either  the  university  or  Wesley  College,  provided  that  the 
options  from  the  college  equal  at  least  eight  units  toward  the 
total  number  of  units  necessary  for  the  degree.  In  like  manner 
the  university  accepts  credits  from  Wesley  College  equivalent  to 
one  year's  full  work. 

2.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  School  of  Music  to  maintain  high 
standards  of  instruction,  and  in  the  interests  of  higher  musical 
education  to  make  the  cost  as  low  as  in  any  conservatory  offering 
work  of  equally  high  grade.    It  is  the  desire  of  the  management 
to  bring  the  advantages  of  the  school  within  the  reach  of  the 
largest  possible  number  of  deserving  students.  It  is  not  the  pur- 
pose of  the  school  to  secure  a  large  attendance  for  the  sake  of 
numbers  only,  but  to  work  for  artistic  development  in  those  who 
give  evidence  of  musical  talent.    Regarding  music  not  as  a  mere 
accomplishment,  but  as  a  serious  study  deserving  a  high  place 
in  the  public  esteem,  the  trustees  and  faculty  of  Wesley  College 
propose  to  give  the  people  of  the  Northwest  an  opportunity  for 
conservatory  training  of  a  high  order. 

3.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  Bible  Normal  School  to  provide 
opportunity  for  persons  engaged  in  church  and  other  forms  of 
religious  work,  who,  though  not  planning  to  take  a  college  course, 
are  desirous  of  making  further  preparation.    The  courses  offered 
below  will,  it  is  believed,  furnish  such  equipment.    They  must  not 
be  confounded  with  the  courses  in  Wesley  College  leading  to  an 
academic  degree. 

4.  The  Wesley  guild  has  been  formed  in  order  to  effect  a 
closer  fellowship  among  the  Methodist  students  of  the  university 
and  Wesley  College  and  to  cultivate  a  more  intelligent  apprecia- 


tion  of  the  principles  of  the  church.  From  time  to  time  distin- 
guished representatives  of  the  denomination  are  the  guests  of  the 
guild  that  the  young  people  may  have  an  opportunity  to  meet 
and  become  acquainted  with  the  leaders  of  the'  church  and  to 
learn  first-hand  what  the  denomination  stands  for. 

5.  The  tenth  month  of  the  academic  year  is  to  be  devoted 
to  institute  work  throughout  the  state,  at  such  points  and  for 
such  periods  as  may  seem  wise. 

When  a  student  has  passed  the  stated  requirements  for  college 
graduation  he  is  granted  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts  by 
Wesley  College  provided  he  has  at  least  eight  full  credits  taken 
in  Wesley  College.  Such  students  may  also  be  a  graduate  of  the 
State  University  provided  he  has  met  the  requirements.  In  that 
case  he  may  graduate  from  both  institutions  without  additional 
cost  of  time.  It  is  clear  that  Wesley  College  enjoys  no  rights 
in  relation  with  the  State  University  that  are  not  equally  open 
to  all  other  colleges  that  may  choose  to  become  associated  on  the 
same  plan. 

No  tuition  fee  is  charged  in  either  the  State  University  or 
School  of  Arts  of  Wesley  College.  This  is  an  important  consid- 
eration for  the  average  student  when  choosing  a  college.  Here, 
in  one  opportunity,  is  offered  the  best  that  state  and  church  can 
provide  in  their  respective  fields  of  instruction,  and  offered  free 
excepting  a  small  registration  fee. 

The  attendance  the  first  year  was  124,  as  follows  (the  Acad- 
emy and  School  of  Business  being  discontinued  to  avoid  duplicat- 
ing the  work  of  the  State  University)  :  Arts  (college),  21;  music, 
106;  (duplicates,  3). 

The  accepted  plans  of  the  architect  provide  for  a  group  of 
nine  buildings  so  connected  or  related  as  to  form  three  sides  of 
a  quadrangle,  open  toward  the  university  campus  on  the  south. 
The  first  building,  Sayre  Hall,  so  named  in  honor  of  the  chief 
donor,  Mr.  A.  J.  Sayre,  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees,  and 
a  staunch  friend  of  the  college,  was  occupied  in  September,  1908. 
It  is  a  four-story  structure  of  reinforced  concrete,  fire-proof,  with 
modern  equipment,  steam  heat,  electric  lights,  hot  and  cold  water 
in  every  suite,  and  lavatory  on  every  floor. 

Thus  has  been  inaugurated,  after  years  of  devoted  effort,  a 


r  K 

H  W 

g  5 


movement  destined,  as  leading  educators  are  free  to  say,  to 
become  one  of  the  most  significant  and  far-reaching  of  the 


The  writer  makes  acknowledgment  to  The  Agassiz,  published 
by  the  junior  class  of  the  Agricultural  College;  to  President 
Thomas  A.  Hillyer,  of  the  State  Normal  School  at  Mayville;  to 
President  George  A.  McFarland,  of  the  State  Normal  School  at 
Valley  City ;  to  Dr.  P.  G.  Knowlton,  of  Fargo  College,  and  to  Dr. 
Wallace  N.  Stearns,  of  Wesley  College,  for  valuable  information 
contained  in  this  chapter.  The  portions  of  the  chapter  relating 
to  the  Mayville  Normal  School,  the  Valley  City  Normal  School, 
Fargo  College,  and  Wesley  College,  are  printed  substantially  in 
the  form  in  which  they  were  prepared  by  Messrs.  Hillyer, 
McFarland,  Knowlton  and  Stearns,  respectively.  President 
McFarland  also  wrote  the  matter  which  appears  under  the  head 
of  " State  Normal  Schools." 


A  Trip  to  the  Black  Hills  by  Ox  Cart.    Yung  Bear's  Ox  Cart 
Transportation  by  Sledge,  Travoise,  and  Cart. 

The  well-known  ox  cart  of  the  Eed  Eiver  Valley  first  came 
into  use  at  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century.  The  journal 
of  Alexander  Henry  when  speaking  of  this  vehicle  says :  ' '  Very 
little  if  anything  is  known  of  the  Eed  Eiver  country  between 
1799-1809,  the  period  immediately  prior  to  the  establishing  of 
the  colony  of  Lord  Selkirk. 

In  September,  1801,  Henry  sent  out  a  party  of  men  under 
John  Cameron  to  Grand  Forks  to  establish  a  trading  post,  and 
writes:  "None  of  my  neighbors  have  a  horse;  all  their  trans- 
portation is  on  their  men's  backs."  At  the  time  the  original 
Eed  Eiver  cart  makes  its  advent,  the  record  again  says:  "Men 
now  go  again  for  meat  with  some  small  low  carts,  the  wheels  of 
which  are  of  one  solid  piece  sawed  from  the  ends  of  trees  whose 
diameter  is  three  feet.  These  carriages  we  find  are  more  con- 
venient and  advantageous  than  to  load  our  horses  on  the  back, 
and  the  country  being  so  smoothe  and  level  we  can  make  use  of 
them  to  go  in  all  directions."  A  year  later  the  writer  gives  us 
a  description  of  a  cart  somewhat  in  advance  of  the  original  one, 
but  yet  not  exactly  like  the  one  now  in  the  museum  at  Bismarck : 
"We  require  horses  to  transport  the  property,  of  which  we  now 
have  a  sufficient  number  for  all  purposes,  'and  a  new  sort  of  a 
cart.'  They  are  about  four  feet  high  and  perfectly  straight,  the 
spokes  being  placed  perpendicularly  without  the  least  bending 
outwards,  and  only  four  in  each  wheel.  These  carts  will  carry 
about  five  pieces,  and  all  drawn  by  one  horse." 



The  following  description  of  Yung  Red  Bear's  cart  and  har- 
ness, which  was  loaned  to  the  State  Historical  Society  by  C.  W. 
Andrews  of  Walhalla,  is  taken  from  the  Fargo  Forum,  October  4, 
1907.  It  says : 

"A  number  of  years  ago  the  government  began  to  give  to  the 
Indians  an  iron-tired  cart  and  Mr.  Andrews  knew  that  it  was 
only  a  question  of  time  when  the  famous  Red  River  cart  would 
be  a  thing  of  the  past.  So  he  asked  his  brother  to  drive  across  the 
country  to  the  Turtle  mountains  and  pick  up  one  of  the  old  carts. 
He  bought  this  cart  of  Yung  Red  Bear,  who  said  his  father  made 
it  in  1848.  The  harness,  which  is  equally  valuable  as  a  relic,  is 
sewed  with  sinew  and  was  made  in  1869.  The  cart  has  made  a 
number  of  trips  to  St.  Cloud,  Minn.,  and  the  Turtle  Mountains. 

"These  carts  were  the  freighters  of  the  pre-locomotive  days 
and  were  a  common  sight  in  this  great  northwest.  They  were  made 
wholly  of  wood  without  a  scrap  of  iron  or  steel.  The  ax  and  the 
augur  were  the  only  tools  used  in  its  construction  and  with  the 
aid  of  rawhide  any  break  could  be  mended  at  once.  The  old 
settlers  tell  us  that  it  was  a  common  sight  to  see  hundreds  of  these 
in  a  train  wending  their  way  across  the  prairie.  The  cart  could 
hold  about  1,000  pounds  of  freight,  but  generally  a  much  lighter 
load  was  carried.  One  characteristic  which  the  old  settler  never 
fails  to  mention  is  the  piercing  squeak  of  the  cart  wheels.  This 
noise  could  be  heard  for  miles  and  this  inborn  mark  was  never 
eliminated.  The  question  is  asked  many  times  why  these  carts 
disappeared  so  suddenly  from  us  and  the  answer  generally  given 
by  the  old  settler  is  that  they  were  used  to  build  some  campfire  or 
heat  some  cabin." 

A  Trip  to  the  Black  Hills  for  Gold  by  Ox  Cart. 

On  February  4,  1876,  a  party  from  Grand  Forks  made  a  trip 
to  the  Black  Hills  in  ox  carts  in  search  of  gold.  They  left  Grand 
Forks,  February  4,  and  reached  their  destination  about  the 
middle  of  April,  going  by  the  way  of  Bismarck.  The  party  con- 
sisted of  D.  M.  Holmes,  William  Budge,  J.  S.  Eshelman,  George 
Fadden,  Thomas  Hall,  Peter  Girard,  W.  C.  Myrck,  James  Mul- 
ligan, James  Williams,  A.  F.  McKinley  and  Al  Wright.  They  had 
five  teams  and  made  the  journey  in  good  shape,  traveling  a  dis- 


tance  of  about  500  miles.  After  a  stay  of  two  or  three  months 
some  of  the  party  came  back  and  some  of  them  are  there  yet. 
The  Grand  Forks  party  received  quite  an  addition  to  their  number 
when  they  reached  Bismarck,  there  being  now  besides  ox  carts, 
horses,  and  a  drove  of  cattle,  about  fifty  persons  in  all.  Owing 
to  heavy  rains  and  deep  mud  the  journey  became  a  tedious  one 
and  progress  was  so  slow  they  often  camped  almost  within  sight 
of  the  fires  made  the  night  before.  They  had  not  a  few  bitter 
experiences  with  the  Indians  also.  In  an  encounter  with  the  red- 
skins at  Big  Meadow  they  lost  several  cattle,  had  one  man  killed, 
and  two  wounded.  It  was  the  rule  of  the  party  to  keep  a  guard 
night  and  day,  and  so  trying  were  the  exactions  of  the  journey, 
most  of  the  goods  became  despoiled  before  they  reached  Dead- 
wood.  One  man  started  with  2,800  pounds  for  his  load,  but  went 
into  the  city  of  his  destination  leading  his  horse  and  carrying  the 
harness.  In  the  mining  business  experiences  varied.  As  a  gen- 
eral thing  more  money  was  made  at  something  else  than  by 
digging  nuggets  of  gold.  One  old  miner,  however,  struck  it  right. 
His  name  was  Ward.  He  discovered  a  ledge  which  he  sold  for 
$25,000,  but  he  stayed  at  the  gaming  table  that  night  until  he 
lost  it  all,  not  an  unusual  experience  among  miners  in  that  day. 

In  his  journal,  under  date  of  October  3,  1802,  Mr.  Henry 
writes  the  following  description  of  the  first  Red  River  cart  train : 

"M.  Langlois  started  for  Hair  Hills.  This  caravan  demands 
notice  to  exhibit  the  vast  difference  it  makes  in  a  place  where 
horses  are  introduced.  It  is  true  they  are  useful  animals,  but,  if 
we  had  but  one  in  the  northwest  we  should  have  less  laziness,  for 
men  would  not  be  burdened  with  families,  and  so  much  given  to 
indolence  and  insolence.  *  *  *  But  let  us  now  take  a  view  of 
the  bustle  and  noise  which  attends  the  present  transportation  of 
five  pieces  of  goods.  The  men  were  up  at  the  break  of  day,  and 
their  horses  tackled  long  before  sunrise,  but  they  were  not  in 
readiness  to  move  before  10  o'clock,  when  I  had  the  curiosity  to 
climb  up  to  the  top  of  my  house  to  examine  the  movements  and 
observe  the  order  of  march.  Anthony  Payet,  guide  and  second 
in  command,  leads  off  with  a  cart  drawn  by  two  horses,  and 
loaded  with  his  own  private  baggage,  bags  and  kettles.  Madame 
Payet  follows  the  cart  with  a  child  one  year  old  on  her  back, 


and  very  merry.  C.  Bottineau,  with  two  horses  and  a  cart  loaded 
with  one  and  a  half  packs,  his  own  baggage,  two  young  children 
with  kettles  and  other  trash  hanging  to  his  cart.  Madam  Bot- 
tineau, with  a  young  squalling  child  on  her  back,  which  she  is 
scolding  and  tossing  about. 

"Joseph  Dubord  goes  on  foot,  with  his  long  pipestem  and 
calumet  in  his  hand.  Madam  Dubord  follows  her  husband  carry- 
ing his  tobacco  pouch. 

"Anthony  Thelliere,  with  a  cart  and  two  horses  loaded  with 
one  and  a  half  packs  of  goods  and  Dubord 's  baggage. 

"Anthony  LoPoint,  with  another  cart  and  two  horses  loaded 
with  two  pieces  of  goods  and  baggage  belonging  to  Brisbois, 
Jessemin  and  Poulliote,  and  a  kettle  suspended  on  each  side. 
Jessemin  goes  next  to  Brisbois  with  gun,  and  pipe  in  mouth, 
puffing  out  clouds  of  smoke.  Mr.  Poulliote,  the  greatest  smoker 
in  the  northwest,  has  nothing  but  pipes  and  pouch.  These  three 
fellows,  having  taken  the  farewell  dram  and  lighting  fresh  pipes, 
go  on,  brisk  and  merry,  playing  numerous  pranks.  Don  Liver- 
more,  with  a  young  mare,  the  property  of  M.  Langlois,  loaded 
with  weeds  for  smoking,  and  an  Indian  bag.  Madam's  property, 
and  some  squashes  and  potatoes,  and  a  keg  of  fresh  water  and 
two  young  whelps. 

"Next  comes  the  young  horse  of  Livermore,  drawing  a  traville 
with  his  baggage,  and  a  large  worsted  mashqueucate  belonging 
to  Madame  Langlois.  Next  appears  Madame  Cameron's  young 
mare,  kicking  and  roaring,  hauling  a  traville  which  was  loaded 
with  a  bag  of  flour  and  some  cabbage,  turnips,  onions,  a  small 
keg  of  water  and  a  large  bottle  of  broth.  M.  Langlois,  who  is 
master  of  the  band,  now  comes,  leading  a  horse  that  draws  a 
traville  nicely  and  covered  with  a  new  painted  tent,  under  which 
is  lying  his  daughter  and  Mrs.  Cameron,  extended  full  length 
and  very  sick.  This  covering  or  canopy  has  a  very  pretty  effect. 
Madam  Langlois  now  brings  up  the  rear;  following  the  traville 
with  a  slow  step  and  melancholy  air,  attending  to  the  wants  of 
her  daughter.  The  rear  guard  consisted  of  a  long  train  of  dogs, 
twenty  in  number.  The  whole  forms  a  string  nearly  a  mile  long 
and  appears  like  a  large  band  of  Assiniboines. " 


Mail,  Passenger  and  Freight,  by  Dog  Train,  Ox  Cart  and  Stage. 

Prior  to  1800  the  dog  sledge  was  used  chiefly  in  the  Red 
River  Valley  in  the  winter  and  the  travois  in  summer,  as  a  means 
of  transportation.  The  dog  sledge  was  much  like  a  toboggan — 
flat-bottomed — had  a  dashboard  in  front,  and  was  wide  enough 
to  seat  one  person,  and  each  sledge  was  drawn  by  three  dogs. 
There  were  frequently  as  many  as  twenty-five  sledges  in  a  train. 
The  dogs  were  held  in  check  by  a  cord  and  responded  to  a  motion 
of  the  whip  or  hand.  They  were  fed  a  pound  of  pemmican  once 
a  day  after  the  day's  work  had  been  done.  A  trained  leader  was 
worth  $20.  Their  life  of  usefulness  on  the  trains  ran  from  eight 
to  twelve  years.  A  dog  sledge  would  carry  about  400  pounds. 
A  gaily  caparisoned  sledge,  neatly  harnessed  dogs  covered  with 
bells  hurrying  across  the  pathless,  snowy  wastes  of  the  plains  or 
over  the  ice,  going  at  the  rate  of  forty  or  more  miles  a  day,  was 
not  an  unusual  sight  in  the  Red  River  Valley.  At  night  the 
party,  with  their  sledges,  camped  in  the  shelter  of  a  clump  of 
trees  or  bushes  and  built  their  campfire,  then  each  in  his  blankets, 
often  joined  by  the  favorite  dog  as  a  companion  for  heat,  sought 
rest  for  the  night,  with  the  thermometer  often  forty  degrees 
below  zero. 

The  travois  was  used  by  the  early  traders  in  the  Far  AVest 
for  transporting  burdens  long  distances.  The  travois  spoken  of 
by  Captain  Henry  consisted  of  two  stout  poles  fastened  together 
over  the  back  of  the  horse,  with  their  lower  ends  dragging  on  the 
ground.  It  could  be  used  for  transporting  about  400  pounds, 
or  a  woman  and  two  or  three  children.  The  travois  was  the 
product  of  the  needs  of  the  prairie,  and  was  an  Indian  mode  of 
conveyance  on  land. 

Under  the  regime  established  by  Governor  Simpson,  the  great 
winter  event  at  Red  River  was  the  leaving  of  the  northwest 
packet  about  December  10th.  By  this  agency  every  post  in  the 
northern  department  was  reached  by  sledges  and  snow  shoes. 
A  box  with  the  important  missives  was  fastened  on  the  back 
of  the  sledge.  One  packet  ran  from  Fort  Garry  to  Norway 
House,  a  distance  of  350  miles.  At  this  point  another  packet 
ran  eastward  to  Hudson  Bay,  while  still  another  ran  from  the 


Norway  House  up  the  Saskatchewan  to  the  western  and  northern 

The  runners  on  these  packets  underwent  great  exposures, 
but  they  were  fleet  and  athletic  and  knew  how  to  protect  them- 
selves in  storm  and  danger.  The  Red  River  cart  made  its  appear- 
ance in  1801.  The  wheels  were  large,  being  five  feet  in  diameter 
and  three  inches  thick.  The  felloes  were  fastened  to  one  another 
by  tongues  of  wood;  the  hubs  were  thick  and  strong;  every  part 
of  the  vehicle  being  made  of  wood — axles,  wheels,  even  the  truck 
pins — no  iron  whatever  being  used.  It  was  a  two-wheeled 
vehicle,  with  a  box  frame  tightened  by  wooden  pegs  and  fastened 
by  pegs  poised  on  the  axle.  The  price  of  a  cart  in  Red  River  of 
old  was  two  pounds. 

The  carts  were  drawn  by  single  ponies,  or  in  some  cases  by 
stalwart  oxen.  These  oxen  were  harnessed  and  wore  a  collar. 
Heavily  freighted  carts  made  a  journey  of  about  twenty  miles  a 
day.  The  Indian  pony,  with  a  load  of  400  or  500  pounds  behind 
him  would  go  at  a  measured  jog  trot  of  fifty  or  sixty  miles  a 
day.  A  train  of  carts  of  great  length  was  sometimes  made  to  go 
upon  long  expeditions.  A  brigade  consisting  of  ten  carts  was 
placed  under  the  charge  of  three  men.  Five  or  six  brigades  were 
joined  in  one  train,  and  this  was  placed  under  the  charge  of  a 
guide,  who  was  vested  with  great  authority  and  rode  horseback. 
At  one  time  a  train  of  500  carts  left  St.  Paul  laden  with  goods 
for  the  Canadian  Northwest.  One  of  the  most  notable  cart  trails 
was  that  from  Fort  Garry  to  St.  Paul,  Minnesota.  On  the  west 
side  of  the  river  the  road  was  excellent,  through  Dakota  territory 
for  some  250  miles,  and  then,  by  crossing  the  Red  River  into 
Minnesota,  the  road  led  for  200  miles  down  to  St.  Paul.  At  the 
period  when  the  Sioux  Indians  were  in  revolt  and  the  massacre 
of  the  whites  took  place  in  1862,  this  route  was  dangerous,  and 
the  road,  though  not  so  smooth  and  not  so  dry,  was  followed  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Red  River. 

Every  season  about  300  carts,  employing  about  100  men, 
started  from  Fort  Garry  for  St  Paul,  or  in  later  times  to  St. 
Cloud.  The  visit  of  these  bands  coming  with  their  wooden  carts 
and  harnessed  oxen,  bringing  huge  bales  of  precious  furs,  always 


awakened  great  interest.  At  Fort  Garry  was  a  wide  camping 
ground  for  traders.  It  was  a  sight  to  be  remembered  to  see  some 
of  those  trains  get  started.  Sometimes  they  lingered  day  after 
day  before  going.  But  finally,  after  much  leavetaking,  the  great 
train  would  start.  Then  the  hurry  of  women  and  children,  the 
multitude  of  dogs,  the  balky  horses,  the  restless  ponies,  as  well 
as  the  gaily  caparisoned  ones,  made  that  occasion  a  picturesque 
one ;  and  then  the  creaking  of  the  wooden  axles  began,  each  cart 
contributing  its  share,  that  could  be  heard  by  those  left  behind 
until  they  had  gotten  a  mile  away. 

One  time  a  train  of  500  carts  left  St.  Paul  laden  with  goods 
for  the  Canadian  Northwest. 

Following  the  travois  and  the  Red  River  cart  came  the  stage 
and  the  transportation  companies.  There  was  no  mail  route 
from  North  Dakota  to  Winnipeg  then,  or  Fort  Garry  prior  to 
1871.  But  in  the  spring  of  that  year  the  stage  route  was  extended 
from  Georgetown  to  Winnipeg.  Captain  Russell  Blakely,  of  St. 
Paul,  having  been  given  a  contract  to  run  a  mail  coach,  ran  the 
first  stage  into  Winnipeg  September  11,  1871.  In  1878,  a  railroad 
having  been  built  into  Winnipeg,  the  stage  and  transportation 
company  transferred  its  line  to  Bismarck. 


The  Red  River  of  the  North  is  neither  wide  nor  deep,  but 
navigable  from  Wahpeton  to  its  mouth.  It  is  186  miles  from 
Wahpeton  to  the  international  boundary  line,  but  the  river  is 
so  crooked  a  boat  travels  nearly  400  miles  in  going  that  distance. 
At  its  ordinary  stage  the  river  at  Wahpeton  is  943  feet  above  sea 
level;  the  altitude  of  Lake  Winnipeg  is  710  feet,  hence  the  falls 
of  the  navigable  part  of  the  river  is  233  feet.  The  range  between 
extreme  high  and  low  water  is  as  follows:  Wahpeton,  15  feet; 
Fargo,  32  feet ;  Belmont,  50  feet ;  Grand  Forks,  44  feet ;  Pembina, 
40  'feet,  and  at  Winnipeg,  39  feet.  The  maximum  point  of 
extreme  high  water  is  at  Belmont,  because  of  the  narrow  channel 
of  the  river  between  high  banks.  The  years  in  which  extra- 
ordinary floods  have  occurred  in  Red  River  and  been  recorded 
are  those  of  1826,  1852,  1860,  1861,  1862  and  1897. 

Appropriations  in  the  interests  of  navigation  on  the  Red  River 
were  begun  in  1876.  The  first  boat  on  the  Red  River  was  the 
Anson  Northrup.  Originally  it  was  the  North  Star  and  did 
service  on  the  Mississippi  river.  It  was  bought  by  Anson 
Northrup,  taken  up  the  river  and  laid  up  at  Crow  Wing.  In  the 
winter  of  1859  it  was  overhauled  and  lumber  and  machinery  were 
transported  across  to  Lafayette  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cheyenne. 
Thirty-four  teams  were  employed  in  this  hauling.  When  the 
work  was  completed  the  boat  was  launched  and  christened  the 
Anson  Northrup.  On  May  17,  1859,  it  left  for  Fort  Garry,  now 
Winnipeg,  and  arrived  at  the  latter  place  June  5,  1859.  After 
her  return  to  Abercrombie  with  twenty  passengers,  Captain 
Blakely  was  coolly  informed  that  as  the  boat  had  earned  the 



bonus  of  $2,000,  the  amount  offered  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
of  St.  Paul  to  the  first  boat  to  navigate  those  waters,  they  could 
buy  it,  as  there  was  no  money  in  running  it.  She  was  afterwards 
purchased  by  J.  C.  Burbank  for  the  Minnesota  Company. 

In  1898  Nicholas  Huffman,  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers  of  the 
Red  River .  Valley,  read  a  paper  at  the  old  settlers  meeting  in 
which  he  said : 

"There  was  an  old  steamboat  lying  in  the  Minnesota  river, 
six  miles  below  Big  Stone  lake,  which  was  intended  to  come  over 
into  the  Red  River  in  1857.  There  was  a  big  flood  in  the  Minne- 
sota river  and  Captain  John  B.  Davis  thought  he  could  run  the 
Freighter — for  that  was  the  name  of  the  boat — into  the  Red 
River,  but  the  waters  went  down  and  the  boat  was  left  stranded. 
The  boat  was  sold  at  sheriff's  sale  and  was  bought  by  J.  C. 
Burbank,  of  the  stage  company.  There  was  a  Welshman  left  in 
charge  of  the  boat,  and  here  he  stayed  nearly  four  years  away 
from  wife  and  children,  with  nothing  to  eat  only  what  he  could 
hunt  or  fish. 

"In  the  fall  of  1860  we  took  a  lot  of  teams,  wagons  and  tools, 
under  orders  from  Burbank,  and  took  the  boat  to  pieces  and 
brought  it  to  Georgetown.  We  found  the  boat  and  the  little 
Welshman  all  right.  His  hair  had  over  three  years'  growth  and 
his  whiskers  were  long.  You  may  be  sure  his  clothes  were  not 
of  the  latest  fashion  or  in  first-class  condition.  Coffee  sacks, 
window  curtains,  etc.,  had  been  used  to  keep  him  covered.  We 
divided  up  our  clothes  with  him,  but  they  were  not  good  fits,  as 
he  was  so  small. 

"A  second  trip  was  necessary  for  the  machinery.  There  were 
two  big  boilers,  but  we  brought  them  safely  to  Georgetown,  where 
the  boat  was  rebuilt.  We  did  not  reach  Georgetown  till  after 
Christmas  with  the  last  load,  and  the  weather  was  very  cold. 
The  water  was  bad  and  the  men  suffered  a  great  deal." 

The  Minnesota  Company  mentioned  above  was  the  result  of 
the  mail  contract  letting  in  1858,  and  was  organized  by  J.  C. 
Burbank,  Russell  Blakely  and  others.  They  had  the  contracts 
for  carrying  the  mail  from  St.  Paul  to  Fort  Abercrombie  and 
other  northwestern  points.  They  proposed  to  open  roads  and  put 


on  stages  to  run  from  St.  Cloud  via  Cold  Springs,  New  Munich, 
Melrose,  Winnebago  Crossing,  Sauk  Rapids,  Mendota,  Osakis, 
Alexandria,  Dayton  and  Breckenridge,  to  Fort  Abercrombie. 
The  party  left  St.  Cloud  in  June,  1859,  to  open  this  route.  Accom- 
panying the  expedition,  besides  teamsters,  bridge  builders,  station 
keepers  and  laborers,  were  Misses  Elenora  and  Christiana  Sterling, 
from  Scotland;  Sir  Francis  Sykes  and  others.  Northrup  having 
refused  to  operate  the  steamboat,  those  bound  for  the  north, 
including  the  baronet  and  the  ladies,  caused  to  be  built  a  flatboat 
at  Abercrombie,  and  they  went  down  the  river  in  it  to  Fort 
Garry.  George  "W.  Northrup  was  in  charge  of  this,  one  of  the 
first  boats  of  the  Red  River. 

Captain  Alexander  Griggs,  the  "Father  of  Grand  Forks," 
was  engaged  in  navigation  throughout  the  Red  River  district, 
and  was  identified  with  the  financial  growth  of  the  city  of  Grand 
Forks  and  vicinity. 

He  was  born  at  Marietta,  Ohio,  in  October,  1838,  and  was  a 
son  of  William  and  Esther  (McGibbon)  Griggs.  He  removed 
with  his  parents  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  when  a  boy,  and  later  his 
family  removed  to  Grand  Forks,  where  his  parents  died.  He  was 
reared  and  educated  in  St.  Paul,  and  at  an  early  age  began 
running  on  the  boats  of  the  Mississippi  river,  and  at  the  age  of 
twenty  years  was  given  command  of  a  boat.  He  continued  there 
until  1870,  and  then,  in  company  with  others,  went  up  the  Red 
River  to  Fargo  with  a  view  of  establishing  a  line  of  boats,  and 
during  that  year  the  Hill,  Griggs  &  Company  Navigation  Com- 
pany was  formed.  In  1871  Mr.  Griggs  went  to  where  Grand 
Forks  is  now  located,  and  he  entered  a  claim  to  the  land  on  which 
the  old  town  is  located,  and  named  the  place  Grank  Forks  on 
account  of  the  junction  of  the  two  rivers.  He  continued  to 
operate  a  line  of  boats  between  Grand  Forks  and  Winnipeg  for 
many  years  and  continued  in  command  until  1890.  He  was 
always  active  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  town  of  Grand  Forks, 
and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Second  National  bank,  of 
which  institution  we  has  president  for  many  years.  He  also 
acted  in  the  capacity  of  president  of  the  First  National  bank  of 
East  Grand  Forks  for  some  years,  and  established  the  gas  works 


in  company  with  William  Budge,  and  was  also  a  large  owner 
in  the  Grand  Forks  roller  mill.  He  served  as  railroad  commis- 
sioner for  some  years,  and  was  the  third  postmaster  of  Grand 
Forks  and  was  mayor  of  the  city.  He  assisted  in  building  the 
two  bridges  across  the  river,  and  by  his  hearty  support  and 
influence  endeared  himself  to  the  people  as  a  man  of  active 
public  spirit.  In  December,  1892,  Mr.  Griggs  left  Grand  Forks 
on  account  of  failing  health,  and  afterward  engaged  in  boating 
on  the  Upper  Columbia  river. 

Captain  Griggs  married  December  27,  1865,  in  Minnesota,  to 
Miss  Ettie  I.  Strong,  a  native  of  Brooklyn.  Eight  children, 
seven  of  whom  are  now  living,  have  been  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Griggs,  named  as  follows :  Lois,  now  Mrs.  W.  H.  Pringle ;  Ansel ; 
Jennie;  Esther;  Bruce;  James  and  Clifford.  Captain  Griggs 
moved  his  family  to  the  state  of  Washington,  where  he  died. 

Captain  Charles  B.  Thimens,  at  one  time  superintendent  of 
the  waterworks  at  Fargo,  was  an  old  steamboat  captain  on  the 
Red  River  for  many  years. 

In  the  fall  of  1851  Mr.  Thimens  landed  in  St.  Paul,  Minn., 
and  soon  began  lumbering  on  the  Rum  river.  Later  he  turned 
his  attention  to  steamboating  on  the  Mississippi  and  Minnesota 
rivers  and  followed  that  pursuit  for  thirty  years,  becoming  pilot 
and  captain,  and  also  part  owner  of  vessels  for  several  years. 
For  five  years  he  was  in  the  quartermaster's  department  during 
the  Civil  War,  carrying  troops  and  supplies  up  and  down  the 
river.  In  1874  he  went  to  Moorehead,  Minn.,  and  took  charge  of 
a  boat  for  the  Red  River  Transportation  Company,  running 
between  Moorehead  and  Winnipeg,  Manitoba,  for  fourteen  years. 
He  was  next  connected  with  the  Grandin  line  of  boats,  carrying 
grain  to  Fargo  and  Moorehead,  and  remained  with  that  company 
until  1893.  In  1882  he  took  up  his  residence  in  Fargo,  where  he 
has  since  continued  to  make  his  home. 

Captain  Thimens  was  in  charge  of  the  Freighter  on  the 
Minnesota  and  Mississippi  rivers.  This  boat  was  sold  to  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company  and  her  machinery  was  put  into  the 
International,  built  at  Georgetown  in  1860.  The  International 
was  successfully  run  on  the  Red  River  for  many  years.  In  1871 



the  Selkirk  was  built  at  McCauleyville  by  Captain  Alexander 
Griggs  and  James  J.  Hill.  She  was  operated  for  general  traffic, 
while  the  International  had  been  operated  by  and  for  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company.  In  1872  the  two  lines  were  consolidated  and  run 
under  one  management.  The  company  was  styled  the  Red  River 
Transportation  Company  and  they  built  the  Cheyenne  and  Dakota 
at  Grand  Forks  and  the  Alpha  at  McCauleyville.  Captain  M. 
L.  McCormack  was  interested  in  the  latter.  In  1875  the  mer- 
chants at  Winnipeg  built  the  Minnesota  and  Manitoba  at  Moore- 
head  under  the  management  of  James  Douglas,  the  old  time 
Moorehead  postmaster  and  merchant.  One  of  them  sunk  and 
soon  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  other  company.  As  an  oppo- 
sition line  they  were  a  failure.  The  next  was  the  Grandin,  built 
at  Fargo,  together  with  a  line  of  barges  which  hauled  wheat  from 
the  Grandin  farm  to  the  railroad  at  Fargo.  The  Alsip  brothers 
built  the  Pluck  on  the  Mississippi  and  brought  her  over  on  the 
cars  from  Brainerd,  and  in  1881  they  built  the  Alsip.  They  also 
built  a  number  of  barges  and  boats  and  operated  them  from 
Fargo  until  1885  or  1886. 

The  valley  of  the  Red  River  has  been  very  fertile,  supplying 
sufficient  produce  for  freight  on  boats.  During  the  years  of  steam- 
boating  the  whole  of  North  Dakota  was  in  one  county — Pembina. 
In  the  year  1871  the  Selkirk  and  one  barge  did  the  whole  business, 
which  amounted  to  150  tons.  In  the  year  1874  they  had  10,000 
tons.  In  the  second  year  they  employed  three  steamers  instead 
of  one,  and  in  the  fourth  year  seven  steamboats  and  twenty 
barges.  In  1882  the  amount  of  freight  that  was  shipped  on  the 
river  from  Pembina  to  Fargo  was  63,303,673  pounds,  while  mil- 
lions of  feet  of  logs  were  annually  run  down  the  river  to  Grand 

A  Ballad  of  the  Red. 

Patrick  H.  Donohue,  of  Grant  Forks,  an  old  riverman,  has  a 
decided  talent  for  versification.  The  following  ballad  was  com- 
posed by  him  and  it  will  commend  itself  to  the  general  reader  by 
its  pleasing  jingle,  and  to  the  old  timer  by  its  allusions  to  scenes 
and  incidents  once  familiar,  but  rapidly  being  forgotten : 


Now  again  'tis  lovely  May,  by  the  riverside  I  stray, 
And  the  song  birds  sing  around  and  overhead, 
And  I  watch  the  river  flow  as  I  did  long  years  ago 
When  the  Selkirk  in  her  glory  sailed  the  Red. 

As  I  watch  the  river  flow,  I  think  on  the  long  ago 
When  each  pioneer  was  granted  a  homestead 
In  the  land  so  bright  and  new,  in  the  land  so  fair  to  view 
In  the  valley  of  the  famous  River  Red. 

Then  the  Selkirk  in  her  prime,  on  the  river  made  good  time 

And  her  passengers  admired  her  as  she  sped 

Through  the  valley  bright  and  new,  through  the  valley  fair  to 

On  the  bosom  of  the  famous  River  Red. 

Fancy  hears  the  tinkle  ting  of  her  bells  as  they  would  ring 
For  to  start  or  stop  or  back  or  come  ahead, 

And  the  sounding  of  her  gong,  as  they  steamed  her  extra  strong 
Through  the  waters  of  the  famous  River  Red. 

And  now  it  comes  to  mind,  how  each  woodpile  they  would  find 
And  load  up  enough  to  keep  her  furnace  fed 
As  she  sailed  from  side  to  side  down  or  up  the  ruby  tide 
Landing  pioneer  along  the  River  Red. 

Men  of  fame  and  high  renown,  on  the  Selkirk  then  sailed  down 
To  find  out  its  great  resources  they  were  led 
That  they  might  see  and  write,  of  the  fertile  vale  so  bright, 
Lovely  valley,  flowery  valley,  River  Red. 

Now  to  you  I  will  relate,  'twas  in  Minnesota  state 
That  they  built  the  Selkirk  near  the  river  bed. 
It  was  at  McCauleyville,  just  below  the  old  saw  mill, 
That  they  built  and  launched  the  Selkirk  on  the  Red. 

But  the  Selkirk  is  no  more,  for  upon  Dakota's  shore 
She  was  wrecked  and  never  more  can  come  ahead. 


But  some  relics  of  her  still  lie  near  a  murmuring  rill 
In  the  willows  by  the  famous  River  Red. 

She  will  never  sail  again,  for  the  ice  cut  her  in  twain, 

And  no  more  upon  her  decks  can  old  friends  tread 

As  they  trod  in  days  of  yore,  as  she  sailed  from  shore  to  shore, 

Landing  pioneers  along  the  River  Red. 

I  recall  to  mind  today,  some  old  friends  who  went  away, 
Pioneers  who  went  where  bounden  duty  led, 
Friends  who  came  here  to  reside,  when  the  Selkirk  in  her  pride 
Towed  her  barges  filled  with  grain  upon  the  Red. 

Friends  are  leaving  one  by  one,  pioneers  have  gone, 

Some  have  gone  to  other  lands  and  some  are  dead, 

Some  of  them  are  laid  to  rest,  in  the  East,  North,  South  and  West, 

And  some  others  rest  beside  the  peaceful  Red. 

Then,  good-bye  old  friends,  good-bye,  for  the  dear  old  days  we 


And  live  o'er  again  some  youthful  years  now  fled, 
And  we'll  often  call  to  mind,  happy  days  we  left  behind 
In  the  valley  of  the  famous  River  Red. 

As  I  muse  and  watch  the  stream,  here  and  there  a  fish  doth  gleam, 

And  the  song  birds  sing  around  and  overhead, 

And  I  watch  the  river  flow,  as  I  did  long  years  ago, 

When  the  Selkirk  in  her  glory  sailed  the  Red. 

Grand  Forks.  — P.  H.  Donohue. 


The  Northern  Pacific  Railway,  the  Great  Northern,  and  other 
lines  for  the  transportation  of  the  products  of  this  portion  of  the 
state  of  North  Dakota,  have  been  the  forerunners  of  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Red  River  valley.  The  transportation  problem,  by 
the  incoming  of  these  roads,  settled  the  question  as  to  the  advis- 
ability of  farmers  locating  in  the  state,  and  to  the  foresight  and 
public  spirit  of  James  J.  Hill  and  others,  who  paved  the  way  for 
a  commonwealth  by  the  building  of  these  roads,  all  honor  is  due. 
The  six  or  seven  hundred  thousand  people  of  North  Dakota 
could  hardly  depend  upon  the  dog  sledge  and  the  travoise  of 
former  times,  especially  when  it  is  an  undisputed  fact  that  the 
freight  trains  of  these  railroads  are  the  longest  and  carry  the 
heaviest  burdens  of  any  trains  in  the  world.  Between  1846  and 
3865  many  thousands  of  Red  River  carts  were  engaged  largely 
in  the  transportation  of  the  furs  and  buffalo  hides  which  consti- 
tuted the  chief  products  of  North  Dakota  to  St.  Paul.  The 
navigation  of  the  Red  River  began  in  1859,  and  as  many  as  a 
dozen  steamboats  were  engaged  in  the  traffic,  but  with  the  advent 
of  the  railroads  the  steamboat  trade  fell  off  rapidly.  And  the 
stage  lines  did  a  large  business  also  in  the  valley  until  supplanted 
by  the  railroads. 

The  Northern  Pacific  Railroad. 

Dr.  Hartwell  Carver  was  the  person  who  first  conceived 
and  publicly  advocated  building  a  railway  across  the  American 
continent.  The  first  suggestion  of  a  railroad  across  the  Rocky 
mountains  occurred  to  him  while  in  Europe  in  1832,  while  cross- 



ing  the  Alps  on  the  Simplon  road  built  by  Napoleon.  But  it  was 
not  until  the  year  1845  when  Asa  Whitney  began  to  direct  public 
attention  to  the  project  that  any  interest  in  the  matter  was 
taken.  In  1854  Edwin  F.  Johnson,  of  Middletown,  Connecticut, 
published  a  book  with  a  map  advocating  the  claim  of  the  northern 
route  to  the  Pacific. 

The  public  mind  having  persistently  urged  the  necessity  of 
such  a  national  highway,  congress  passed  the  act  of  March  3, 
1853,  which  directed  that  the  secretary  of  war  should  cause  to  be 
surveyed  by  an  army  of  engineers  the  western  country  to  ascer- 
tain the  most  practical  route  from  the  Mississippi  river  to  the 
Pacific  ocean.  Jefferson  Davis  was  the  secretary  of  war,  and  he 
designated  the  several  chiefs  charged  with  the  survey.  These 
surveys  were  all  successfully  conducted  except  that  under  Captain 
Gunnison  on  the  line  of  the  thirty-eighth  parallel.  He,  together 
with  thirteen  of  his  men,  were  massacred  by  the  Indians  in 
October,  1853. 

The  northern  route  was  in  charge  of  Governor  I.  I.  Stevens,  of 
Washington  territory.  Among  his  assistants  were  Lieutenant 
George  B.  McClellan,  and  Captain  John  Pope.  While  Governor 
Stevens'  survey  proved  this  route  feasible,  Secretary  Davis, 
however,  was  not  disposed  to  give  the  northern  route  the  chance 
its  merits  demanded. 

The  people  of  Minnesota  and  the  citizens  of  St.  Paul  became 
advocates  of  the  Northern  Pacific  route  and  on  July  10,  1857, 
held  a  meeting  advocating  the  necessity  of  building  a  road  over 
that  line.  On  July  21,  1864,  Abraham  Lincoln  signed  the  charter 
granting  the  building  of  the  road.  Joseph  Perham  was  the  first 
president  of  the  Northern  Pacific.  In  1866,  J.  Gregory  Smith,  of 
Vermont,  became  president.  In  1869  Jay  Cooke  &  Co.,  of  Phila- 
delphia, took  the  financial  agency,  and  on  Thursday,  the  18th  of 
September,  1873,  the  banking  house  of  this  company  closed  its 
doors.  The  foreclosure  found  this  company  in  the  fall  of  1873 
in  the  possession  of  about  550  miles  of  completed  railroad.  Of 
these  350  extended  from  Duluth  to  Bismarck,  and  on  the  Pacific 
division  105  miles  extended  from  Kalama,  on  fhe  Columbia  river, 
to  Tacoma,  on  Puget  Sound.  It  had  earned  10.000,000  acres  of 


land.  But  the  Cooke  failure  having  overtaken  them  the  paralysis 
of  the  enterprise  was  made  complete. 

George  W.  Cass  now  became  president,  and  another  appeal 
was  made  to  congress,  May,  1874,  but  the  appeal  was  in  vain. 

On  the  16th  of  April,  1875,  the  United  States  Court  of  New 
York  appointed  a  receiver  of  the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad 
Company  and  on  the  12th  of  May  the  trustees  and  bondholders 
applied  for  a  final  decree  of  sale,  which  was  granted.  Charles 
B.  Wright  was  president  in  1877,  and  in  the  year  1878  wheat 
farming  in  Central  Dakota  had  become  very  active  and  profitable. 
The  five  successive  harvests  along  the  line  of  the  road  encouraged 
the  work  of  construction,  which  had  been  suspended  for  six 

After  the  fall  of  Jay  Cooke  &  Co.  an  epoch  memorable  in 
the  history  of  the  Northern  Pacific  followed.  Frederick  Billings 
had  become  president  of  the  company  and  under  his  administra- 
tion the  public  had  resumed  faith  in  the  enterprise.  A  sale  of  the 
road  was  made  by  him  to  a  syndicate  consisting  of  Drexel, 
Morgan  &  Co.,  Winslow  Lanier  &  Co.,  and  August  Belmont  &  Co., 
of  $40,000,000  of  general  first  mortgage  bonds.  The  hand  of 
Henry  Villard  soon  after  this  became  a  power  in  the  destiny  of 
the  road.  Villard  becoming  alarmed  at  the  purposes  of  the 
Northern  Pacific  Company  to  extend  their  road  to  Portland,  on 
the  north  side  of  the  Columbia  river,  and  thus  crowd  out  his 
railroad  interests  on  the  Pacific  coast,  conceived  the  idea  of 
buying  out  a  controlling  interest  in  the  great  road,  and  with 
this  end  in  view  organized  the  celebrated  "blind  pool,"  in  which 
daring  scheme  his  friends  were  asked  to  place  millions  of  money 
in  his  hands  for  an  unknown  purpose.  Confidence  being  the  only 
basis  for  the  transaction,  no  receipt  for  money  was  given.  When 
the  Villard  combination  had  secured  control  of  the  Northern 
Pacific,  Mr.  Oakes,  president  of  the  Consolidated  Railway  & 
Navigation  Companies  in  Oregon  (companies  endangered  by  the 
success  of  the  Northern  Pacific),  was  made  vice  president  and 
executive  manager,  and  to  his  ability  we  are  indebted  for  the 
marvelous  rapidity  with  which  the  last  800  miles  of  the  Northern 
Pacific  was  completed. 


Villard  and  Oakes  now  became  the  financiers  and  the  execu- 
tive managers  of  all  the  lines  in  Washington  and  Oregon  and  of 
the  Northern  Pacific  besides.  They  now  became  the  head  of  all 
these  combinations  and  they  furnished  means  to  build  branches, 
which  the  Northern  Pacific,  under  the  charter,  had  not  the  power 
to  do,  and  thus  prevent  the  encroachment  of  rival  lines.  To 
Villard  belongs  the  honor  of  completing  an  enterprise  equal  to 
one  of  the  Seven  Wonders  of  the  World.  The  total  length  of  the 
main  line  of  the  Northern  Pacific  from  Duluth  to  Puget  Sound, 
is  about  2,000  miles.  Its  total  cost  was  over  $100,000,000.  The 
road  has  many  important  connections  and  branches  in  North 
Dakota.  Among  these  are  the  Red  River  and  Winnepeg  branch 
from  the  state  line  to  the  international  boundary  line,  with  a 
length  of  ninety-six  miles;  Fargo  and  Southwestern  Fargo  to 
Edgerly,  108  miles ;  branch  from  Jamestown  to  La  Moure,  forty- 
eight  miles ;  Valley  Junction  to  Oakes,  fifteen  miles ;  and,  includ- 
ing all  the  branches,  the  Northern  Pacific  has  a  trackage  in 
North  Dakota  of  main  line  and  branch  lines,  all  told,  of  786.01 

The  officers  of  the  company  at  the  present  time  are  Howard 
Elliott,  president;  James  J.  Hill,  vice  president;  C.  A.  Clark, 

In  about  1886  the  Minneapolis,  St.  Paul  &  Sault  Sainte  Marie 
railroad  extended  their  Minnesota  division  across  the  boundary 
line  at  Fairmont,  Richland  county,  and  constructed  a  line  west- 
ward to  Ransom  in  Sargent  county.  In  the  '90s  this  same  com- 
pany constructed  a  road  from  Hankinson,  Richland  county,  to 
Portal,  Ward  county.  The  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Rail- 
road Company  also  built  a  branch  from  Ortonville,  Minnesota, 
to  Fargo. 

The  Great  Northern  Railway. 

In  1857  a  land  grant  was  made  by  Congress  to  the  territory 
of  Minnesota  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  a  railroad  from  Still- 
water  by  way  of  St.  Paul  to  Big  Stone  Lake,  with  a  branch  line 
to  the  navigable  waters  of  the  Red  River  via  St.  Cloud  and  Crow 
Wing.  The  grant  was  for  six  sections  of  land  for  every  mile  of 


road.  The  town  of  Breckenridge  was  designated  as  the  terminus 
of  the  main  line  and  St.  Vincent  as  the  terminus  of  the  branch. 
After  this  the  Minnesota  &  Pacific  railroad  was  organized  and  the 
line  located,  and  to  encourage  the  enterprise  after  Minnesota 
was  admitted  as  a  state  she  issued  bonds  in  aid  of  several  railroad 
enterprises,  taking  liens  on  the  roads  as  security.  The  first  road 
built  in  the  state  was  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad,  between 
St.  Paul  and  St.  Anthony,  now  Minneapolis,  which  was  opened 
to  traffic  in  1862.  In  1866  this  line  was  extended  from  St.  Paul 
to  Elk  River,  thirty  miles  distant,  and,  in  1866,  it  was  further 
extended  to  Sauk  Rapids. 

About  this  time  Mr.  James  J.  Hill,  then  the  St.  Paul  repre- 
sentative of  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad,  also  the  owner  of 
the  Red  River  Transportation  Company,  became  very  much 
impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  commercial  future  of  the 
Northwest.  In  conjunction  with  N.  "W.  Kittson,  another  of  the 
pioneers  of  the  transportation  business  in  North  Dakota,  plans 
were  formed  for  the  purchase  of  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific  railroad 
and  the  reorganization  of  the  Railroad  Company,  later  the  Great 
Northern,  was  completed  May  23,  1879,  under  the  name  of  St. 
Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba  railroad,  and  that  was  the  begin- 
ning of  an  era  of  development,  progress  and  prosperity  unpar- 
alleled in  the  United  States. 

George  Stevens,  of  Montreal,  was  the  first  president  of  the 
new  company,  but  in  1882  he  was  succeeded  by  James  J.  Hill, 
who  has  held  the  position  until  a  few  months  ago,  when  he  was 
elected  chairman  of  the  board  of  directors,  being  succeeded  as 
president  by  Mr.  L.  W.  Hill. 

The  line  down  the  east  side  of  the  Red  River  was  known  as 
the  St.  Vincent  extension,  and  was  extended  to  a  connection 
with  the  Breckenridge  line  at  Barnesville  in  1877,  and  to  the 
Canadian  border  in  1879,  connecting  there  with  the  Canadian 
Pacific.  The  line  between  Barnesville  and  Melrose  was  completed 
to  the  Red  River  during  the  same  year.  The  bridge  was  built 
during  the  winter  and  in  January,  1880,  Grand  Forks  was  con- 
nected with  the  outer  world  by  rail  and  North  Dakota  has  its 
second  road.  In  1880  the  line  was  extended  west  to  Ojata, 


twelve  miles,  and  south  to  Hillsboro.  In  July,  1880,  the  road 
crossed  the  Red  River  at  Wahpeton,  and  was  built  north  to  Fargo. 
In  May,  1881,  Fargo  and  Grand  Forks  were  connected  by  rail, 
and  in  December,  1881,  the  line  north  from  Grand  Forks  was 
opened  to  Grafton.  The  west  line  was  also  extended  to  Larimore. 
In  1882  the  north  line  was  extended  to  Neche,  and  the  west  line 
to  Bartlett. 

Soon  after  this  Mr.  Hill's  magnificent  project  of  extending 
the  road  to  the  Pacific  Coast  took  shape.  The  great  undertaking 
reached  Minot  in  1886,  and  the  western  boundary  of  the  state 
in  1887. 

The  Great  Northern  now  has  a  total  trackage  of  over  1,200 
miles  within  the  state  of  North  Dakota.  In  1882  the  road  had 
1,007  miles  of  track,  and  in  May,  1907,  over  6,500  miles  of  track 
were  being  operated.  Within  the  past  few  years  the  Great 
Northern  has  placed  in  service  several  fine  passenger  trains, 
notably  the  Winnipeg  Limited  and  the  Oriental  Limited.  The 
Winnipeg  Limited  is  in  daily  service  between  the  Twin  Cities 
and  Winnipeg.  The  compartment  observation  car,  standard 
sleepers  and  coaches  and  dining  car  are  the  very  best  cars 
builders  produce. 

The  Oriental  Limited  is  a  daily  train  between  St.  Paul,  Min- 
neapolis, and  Spokane  and  Seattle,  with  connections  for  all 
Puget  Sound  points.  The  splendid  equipment  used  in  this  train 
place  it  in  the  front  rank  of  the  famous  trains  of  the  world. 

The  depots  at  Grand  Forks  and  Fargo  for  the  Great  Northern 
are  the  finest  between  St.  Paul  and  the  city  of  Spokane,  while 
the  yards  of  the  company  at  Grank  Forks  are  the  largest  and 
most  complete  on  its  system  outside  of  its  terminals. 

The  North  Dakota  Magazine  says :  ' '  Following  the  grant  of 
land  to  the  three  Pacific  railroads,  congress  granted  to  the  state 
of  Minnesota  ten  sections  of  land  per  mile  to  aid  in  the  construc- 
tion of  certain  lines  of  railroad  in  that  state  including  the  main 
lines  of  the  Great  Northern  railroad.  The  state  had  also  granted 
certain  swamp  lands  and  a  subsidy  in  bonds  to  aid  in  the  con- 
struction. After  the  construction  of  the  main  line  to  Brecken- 
ridge,  which  it  reached  in  October,  1871,  beating  the  Northern 


Pacific  in  the  race  for  the  Red  River  valley  by  two  and  a  half 
months,  and  the  construction  of  the  St.  Cloud  line  to  Sauk 
Rapids,  which  it  reached  in  1865,  the  road  became  bankrupt  and 
the  road  passed  into  the  control  of  a  syndicate  organized  by 
James  J.  Hill,  to  whom  the  grant  was  finally  transferred  by  the 
state  of  Minnesota.  The  construction  of  the  St.  Cloud  line  was 
commenced  in  1862,  when  ten  miles  was  built  from  St.  Paul  to 
Minneapolis,  and  it  was  completed  to  Sauk  Rapids  in  1865.  The 
Breckenridge  line  was  commenced  in  1867  and  was  completed,  as 
stated,  to  Breckenridge  in  October,  1871.  The  St.  Cloud  line  was 
extended  from  Barnesville  to  Fisher's  Landing  in  1877,  and 
December  2,  1878,  the  track  layers  joined  the  rails  of  the  Cana- 
dian Pacific,  giving  a  through  line  to  Winnipeg,  the  connection 
having  been  made  from  Breckenridge  to  Barnesville.  In  1880  the 
road  was  extended  from  Crookston  to  Grand  Forks,  and  from 
thence  on  west  to  the  Pacific  Coast  by  successive  stages.  This 
system  was  at  first  known  as  the  St.  Paul  &  Pacific,  then  as  the 
St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Manitoba,  taking  its  present  name,  The 
Great  Northern,  in  1890. 

"The  land  grant  of  the  Northern  Pacific  doubled  when  the 
road  crossed  the  Red  River;  that  of  the  Great  Northern  ceased 
when  the  road  left  the  limits  of  Minnesota.  The  Northern 
Pacific  pushed  rapidly  westward,  relying  upon  its  through  traffic 
to  build  up  its  business  and  take  care  of  its  bonded  indebtedness ; 
the  Great  Northern  relied  upon  the  resources  of  the  country, 
building  spurs  and  branch  lines,  reaching  out  for  business,  send- 
ing out  agents  to  bring  in  people  to  possess  the  land.  Practically 
all  of  the  lands  along  its  line  were  free  lands,  while  half  of  the 
lands  along  the  Northern  Pacific  were  not  subject  to  homestead 
entry.  In  the  early  days  the  Northern  Pacific  was  built  and 
operated  with  reckless  extravagance;  the  Great  Northern  was 
noted  from  the  beginning  for  its  economical  administration  and 
since  its  management  passed  into  the  hands  of  James  J.  Hill, 
who  developed  and  built  up  its  several  systems,  it  has  had  no 
set  back  of  any  nature,  and  today  the  stocks  of  that  company 
are  quoted  higher  than  any  other  stocks  of  any  class  on  the 
market,  the  New  York  quotation  being  for  Saturday,  November 


10,  1906,  322V2 ;  m  railroad  stocks  the  Northern  Pacific  stood 
next,  at  220,  higher  than  any  other,  excepting  the  Great  Northern 
alone.  The  Northern  Pacific  has  done  much  for  the  development 
of  the  country  through  which  it  passes;  the  Great  Northern  has 
done  more. 

"The  Minneapolis,  St.  Paul  &  Sault  Ste.  Marie  railroad,  more 
familiarly  known  as  the  "Soo,"  has  also  done  much  for  the 
development  of  North  Dakota.  Its  lines,  too,  were  extended 
without  a  bonus  and  without  a  land  grant,  and  are  being  pushed 
in  competition  with  the  Great  Northern  to  almost  all  parts  of  the 
state.  They  have  been  extended  through  the  southern  part  to  the 
capital  and  on  north  to  the  coal  fields,  and  from  the  southeastern 
portion  diagonally  across  the  state,  and  from  the  east  to  the 
western  part  through  the  northern  counties,  entering  upon  a 
rivalry  with  the  Great  Northern,  born  of  the  rivalry  which  has 
always  existed  between  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis,  the  leading 
spirits  of  the  Soo  residing  at  Minneapolis,  while  the  home  of 
James  J.  Hill  is -at  St.  Paul,  where  he  began  life  as  a  humble 

"The  Chicago  &  Northwestern  railroad  enters  the  state  at 
Oakes.  What  it  may  do  in  the  way  of  development  remains  to  be 
seen.  The  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  has  a  line  to  Fargo, 
and  also  enters  the  state  at  Ellendale,  passing  on  northward 
toward  the  Northern  Pacific,  which  it  is  likely  to  cross  in  Stuts- 
man  county  and  again  in  Burleigh,  the  latter  line  being  an 
extension  from  Eureka  in  South  Dakota.  It  will  also  enter  the 
southwestern  part  of  the  state,  passing  through  Hettinger  and 
Bowman  counties." 

This  sketch  is  hardly  complete  without  some  notice  being 
made  of  the  large  steamers,  Dakota  and  Minnesota,  built  in  1879, 
that  plied  between  Seattle  and  the  Old  World.  It  was  Mr.  Hill's 
purpose  to  seek  customers  for  our  food  products  across  the 
ocean,  and  his  ambition  was  to  carry  flour  from  Minneapolis  to 
Hong  Kong  for  forty  cents  a  hundred,  when  the  rate  from  Minne- 
apolis to  New  York  was  twenty-five  cents.  In  this  connection 
we  can  do  no  better  than  make  a  clipping  from  the  Grand 
Forks  Silver  Anniversary  Edition,  published  in  1879,  and  that 


we  may  better  understand  something  more  definite  about  the 
comprehensive  plans  for  the  development  of  the  Northwest  at 
the  risk  of  commerce,  by  the  projection  of  this  great  enterprise 
whose  spirit  went  beyond  mere  personal  gain.  A  few  words 
will  also  be  inserted  about  Mr.  Hill  himself.  This  article  when 
speaking  of  this  railroad  magnate  when  beginning  in  business, 

"H.  P.  Hall,  the  veteran  newspaper  man  of  St.  Paul,  says 
that  when  he  first  came  to  St.  Paul  James  J.  Hill  was  one  of  the 
characters  on  the  levee,  where  he  was  employed  as  a  check  clerk 
by  a  firm  of  warehouse  men  at  a  salary  of  $60  per  month.  His 
duty  was  checking  freight  from  the  manifest  of  the  steamboats 
as  the  roustabouts  brought  it  from  the  boats  for  storage  in  the 
warehouse.  When  the  first  railroad  started  in  St.  Paul,  the  old 
St.  Paul  Pacific,  Mr.  Hill  became  the  station  agent,  under  con- 
tract to  handle  all  the  traffic  at  so  much  per  ton.  Then  when  the 
railroad  was  extended  north  to  the  big  woods  country  Mr.  Hill 
made  an  exclusive  contract  with  the  railroad  by  which  he  alone 
could  bring  wood  into  the  city  at  a  given  rate  per  cord.  Wood 
was  the  only  fuel  to  be  secured  there  at  that  time.  He  made  his 
prices  reasonable  and  was  soon  doing  a  large  wood  business  and 
later  engaged  in  general  warehouse  business,  and  from  that  into 
the  steamboat  business  on  the  Red  River.  From  that  to  the 
railroad  business. 

Launching  the  Dakota. 

The  launching  of  the  steamship  Dakota  in  February  last  at 
New  London,  Conn.,  was  an  event  of  more  than  ordinary  interest 
to  the  people  of  North  Dakota  and  of  the  entire  northwest.  The 
Dakota  is  the  second  of  the  two  great  steamships,  the  largest  in 
the  world  in  carrying  capacity,  building  for  the  Great  Northern 
Steamship  Company.  These  great  ships  are  the  outcome  of  a 
project  of  James  J.  Hill  for  carrying  the  products  of  the  north- 
western states  to  Japanese  and  Chinese  markets,  and  within  a 
few  months  the  Dakota  and  her  sister  ship,  the  Minnesota,  now 
Hearing  completion,  will  be  engaged  in  Pacific  ocean  traffic. 

By  invitation  of  President  Hill  a  party  of  northwestern  people 


attended  the  launching,  and  Miss  Mary  Bell  Memington,  repre- 
senting the  University  of  North  Dakota,  christened  the  majestic 
craft  as  it  took  its  first  plunge  into  its  native  element.  The 
editor-in-chief  of  The  Herald  was  included  in  the  party  attending 
the  ceremony.  Two  Great  Northern  sleepers  were  attached  to  a 
Burlington  train  which  left  St.  Paul  on  the  evening  of  Feb- 
ruary 3,  bound  for  Chicago,  under  the  charge  of  C.  E.  Stone, 
assistant  general  passenger  agent  of  the  Great  Northern  Railway, 
and  containing  the  guests  of  President  Hill. 

The  party  reached  New  York  Friday  evening  and  early  Sat- 
urday morning  took  a  special  train  provided  by  President  Mellen 
of  the  New  York,  New  Haven  &  Hartford  railroad,  for  New  Lon- 
don. The  train  consisted  of  ten  coaches,  all  filled  with  guests  of 
President  Hill,  including  the  North  Dakota  delegation  at  Wash- 
ington and  others  to  the  number  of  several  hundred. ' ' 

The  following  sketch  by  The  Herald  fully  describes  these 
boats : 

' '  The  Dakota  and  Minnesota  are  each  630  feet  long,  or  nearly 
an  eighth  of  a  mile,  and  73  feet  6  inches  beam.  They  have  five 
complete  decks  the  whole  length  of  the  ships  and  three  passenger 
decks  above  in  the  superstructure.  To  transport  a  full  cargo  of 
one  of  these  ships  2,500  freight  and  passenger  cars  of  ordinary 
size  would  be  required,  or  125  trains  of  twenty  cars  each.  They 
will  carry  provisions  for  1,500  people  for  a  month  and  5,000  tons 
of  coal.  The  height  from  the  keel  to  the  navigating  deck  is  88 
feet,  or  equal  to  a  seven  or  eight  story  building.  The  ships  will 
have  all  improvements  that  modern  science  can  suggest.  They 
will  be  electrically  lighted  and  heated  and  their  cargoes  will  be 
handled  by  electric  power.  Their  engines  will  have  an  indicated 
horsepower  of  4,800  each  with  a  steam  pressure  of  230  pounds. 
The  smokestacks  are  elliptical  in  shape,  16x13  feet,  and  124  feet 
high.  The  ships  will  have  complete  refrigerating  and  ice-making 
plants  of  large  capacity.  The  Minnesota  is  now  rapidly  nearing 
completion  and  the  Dakota  is  to  be  ready  this  winter  to  make 
her  first  journey  of  many  thousand  miles  around  Cape  Horn  to 
Seattle,  and  thence  to  engage  in  commerce  with  the  orient." 


The  introduction  of  the  mower  and  reaper  into  the  Dakota 
territory,  particularly  the  Red  River  valley  of  the  North,  dates 
back  to  about  as  early  a  period  as  we  have  any  authentic  record 
of  settlers  in  that  country.  Fort  Abercrombie  was  located  at  the 
head  of  the  Red  River  in  what  is  now  Richland  county,  North 
Dakota.  There  was  a  settlement  at  that  point  as  far  back  as  the 
early  '60s  under  the  protection  of  this  fort.  These  farmers,  in 
addition  to  cultivating  a  small  area  of  land,  put  up  hay  under 
contract  for  the  government.  About  this  time  there  were  some 
scattering  settlers  in  the  Red  River  valley  near  the  Canadian 
line.  The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  purchased  mowing  machines 
in  St.  Paul  and  sold  them  to  these  settlers.  The  machines  were 
hauled  overland  by  wagon  trains  to  the  head  of  the  Red  River 
valley,  and  were  taken  north  by  boat  down  the  river  to  the  fur 
company's  post. 

After  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad  was  completed  to  Fargo, 
many  settlers  commenced  to  flock  to  what  is  now  the  Red  River 
valley.  This  was  in  the  late  '60s  and  early  '70s.  Many  of  these 
settlers  took  mowers  and  reapers  with  them,  while  others  pur- 
chased machines  in  St.  Paul,  which  point  at  that  time  was  the 
general  headquarters  for  machine  companies  in  the  West,  As 
the  settlers  commenced  to  cultivate  farms  and  open  new  lands 
in  the  Red  River  valley,  and  as  emigrants  began  to  flock  in  at  a 
pretty  lively  rate,  many  representatives  of  the  several  mowing 
and  reaping  machine  companies  invaded  this  territory  and  estab- 
lished agencies  throughout  the  Red  River  valley.  During  this 
period  the  different  companies  operated  from  St.  Paul  and  Min- 



neapolis,  but  later  as  the  trade  grew  and  the  demand  for  machines 
became  greater,  several  of  the  reaping  and  mowing  machine  com- 
panies established  headquarters  in  Fargo,  Grand  Forks  and 
other  points  in  the  valley. 

During  the  period  from  1875  to  1881,  North  Dakota  enjoyed 
an  enormous  influx  of  farmer  emigrants  who  made  the  raising 
of  wheat  a  specialty,  and  this,  of  course,  developed  a  very  large 
demand  for  both  grain  and  grass  cutting  machines.  Before  this 
time  there  was  a  small  settlement  of  farmers  in  the  vicinity  of 
Fort  Totten,  which  is  located  near  Devil's  lake.  These  settlers 
went  in  there  a  little  later  than  those  around  Fort  Abercrombie. 
The  farming  operations  there  were  carried  on  very  much  the 
same  as  those  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Abercrombie — the  farmers 
used  mowing  machines  and  put  up  hay  for  the  military  post. 
These  machines  were  also  purchased  in  St.  Paul  and  hauled  over- 
land by  wagons.  In  1879  several  of  the  different  harvesting 
machine  companies,  some  of  which  comprise  the  present  Inter- 
national Harvester  Company  of  America,  opened  branch  houses 
in  Fargo,  some  locating  their  branches  at  Grand  Forks  in  order 
to  place  their  stock  of  extras  and  machines  near  the  settlements, 
and  the  machine  trade  was  worked  from  these  points. 

After  the  passing  of  the  self-rake  reaper,  such  of  the  several 
harvesting  machine  companies  as  manufactured  wire  binders 
and  harvesters  sold  that  class  of  machines  and  enjoyed  a  large 
trade.  Later  the  twine  binder  replaced  both  the  reaper  and  the 
wire  binder,  as  well  as  the  old  hand  harvester.  Some  of  the  prin- 
cipal companies  that  now  comprise  the  International  Company 
had  branch  houses  at  Fargo  and  Grand  Forks,  and  they  were  all 
located  there  as  early  as  1883,  or  1884,  with  general  agencies  that 
worked  the  trade  through  the  Red  River  valley,  and  as  far  west 
in  Dakota  as  there  were  settlers  to  be  found.  In  1879  there  were 
four  or  five  regularly  established  local  agencies  as  far  west  as 
Bismarck,  which  was  then  the  terminus  of  the  Northern  Pacific 
railroad.  Indeed,  it  may  be  said  that  there  was  more  activity  in 
the  binder  and  mower  business  in  the  Red  River  valley  at  that 
time  than  there  has  been  at  any  time  since.  In  those  days  the 
farmers  devoted  unusually  large  areas  to  the  growing  of  small 


grain  crops,  and,  naturally,  there  was  a  very  large  demand  for 
harvesting  machines. 

As  early  as  1880  all  the  harvesting  companies  that  have  been 
merged  into  the  International  Company,  except  the  Piano  Com- 
pany, maintained  regularly  established  branch  houses  in  either 
Fargo  or  Grand  Forks.  The  Piano  company  was  represented 
later.  In  other  words,  the  Champion,  Deering,  McCormick,  Mil- 
waukee, Osborne  and  Piano  machines  made  possible  the  develop- 
ment of  the  northwest  country.  These  machines  were  improved 
with  the  development  of  the  Red  River  valley. 

This  great  valley  is  the  birthplace  of  many  of  the  more  impor- 
tant improvements  that  have  been  made  on  agricultural  machines 
during  the  last  quarter  of  a  century.  It  is  here  that  the  manu- 
facturers sent  their  new  machines  for  field  trials,  because  they 
knew  full  well  that  if  a  machine  would  work  successfully  under 
the  varying  conditions  to  be  found  here  it  would  work  success- 
fully anywhere.  One  improvement  suggested  another,  and  not 
infrequently  unusual  conditions  were  encountered  that  necessi- 
tated an  entirely  new  machine  or  implement.  In  this  way  the 
whole  varied  line  of  modern  agricultural  machines  and  imple- 
ments was  gradually  developed  and  perfected.  Few  realize  how 
extensive  the  modern  requirements  of  the  North  Dakota  agricul- 
turist have  grown  to  be  in  the  line  of  machines  and  implements. 
In  addition  to  the  binders  and  mowers  already  referred  to,  the 
Red  River  valley  agriculturist  today  cannot  carry  on  his  farming 
operations  without  headers,  header-binders,  hay  tedders,  self- 
dump  hay  rakes,  sweep  rakes,  hay  loaders,  hay  stackers,  hay 
balers,  feed  grinders,  cream  separators,  gasoline  engines,  manure 
spreaders,  wagons,  threshing  machines,  tillage  implements,  and 
binder  twine,  all  of  which  this  company  is  supplying. 

The  development  of  this  line  of  machines  has  brought  about  a 
consequent  development  of  means  to  care  for  the  distribution  of 
them,  and  at  Grand  Forks  and  Fargo  there  have  been  erected 
immense  brick  warehouses  of  modern  construction  of  sufficient 
capacity  to  house  thousands  of  these  machines  and  accessories  to 
supply  the  demand  for  quick  shipment  to  the  hundreds  of 
agencies  throughout  this  district.  These  permanently  constructed 



buildings  are  a  credit  to  the  company  as  well  as  an  ornament 
James  J.  Hill  is  at  St.  Paul,  where  he  began  life  as  a  humble 
to  the  state  and  cities  in  which  they  are  located,  and  enable  the 
company  to  keep  on  hand  at  all  times  to  supply  the  needs  of  the 
farmers  duplicates  of  every  part  of  the  machines,  which  consti- 
tutes a  very  great  saving  of  time  in  making  repairs  when  a  break- 
age from  any  cause  occurs  in  the  harvest  or  hay  field  or  any 
other  field  of  operation. 

This  development  has  not  only  extended  to  the  Red  River 
valley  but  the  company  has  opened  and  is  maintaining  immense 
warehouses  and  general  agencies  at  Minot,  Bismarck  and  other 
points  in  the  state,  and  is  giving  employment  to  thousands  of 
men  who  are  continuously  reaching  all  industries  in  caring  for 
the  very  large  trade  that  has  developed. 

Half  a  century  ago  this  whole  region  was  a  howling  wilder- 
ness, but  with  indefatigable  pluck  and  infinite  skill  the  sturdy 
sons  of  this  valley  have  carved  out  an  empire.  Today  North 
Dakota  has  a  population  of  nearly  500,000.  There  are  approxi- 
mately 50,000  farms,  embracing  15,000,000  acres  of  land  under 
cultivation.  In  1906  this  state  devoted  some  5,000,000  acres  to 
growing  wheat  and  produced  75,000,000  bushels  of  that  cereal, 
valued  at  upward  of  $52,000,000.  In  the  same  year  some  50,000,- 
000  bushels  of  oats,  worth  $10,000,000,  were  grown  in  the  state. 
The  figures  covering  the  hay  crop  are  not  available,  but  the  value 
of  the  hay  crop  in  North  Dakota  is  perhaps  greater  than  that 
of  the  wheat  and  oats  crops  combined. 

The  rapid  settlement  of  the  Missouri  slope  country,  and  the 
successful  gathering  of  their  immense  harvests,  would  have  been 
impossible  without  these  improved  machines.  The  great  farms 
where  the  furrow  is  plowed  for  miles  and  where  the  line  of  bind- 
ers sweep  across  wheat  fields  embracing  thousands  of  acres  was 
made  possible  by  the  use  of  these  machines.  The  hay  fields  were 
so  large  that  means  had  to  be  found  to  handle  the  crop  faster 
and  to  better  advantage.  The  several  companies  that  now  com- 
prise the  International  company  were  quick  to  recognize  the 
needs  of  the  agriculturists  in  this  new  country,  and  they  blazed 
the  trail  across  the  vast  stretches  of  valley  lands  that  was  after- 
wards followed  by  the  railroads. 


It  is  therefore  not  difficult  to  understand  that  the  development 
of  the  Eed  Eiver  valley,  which  is  now  North  Dakota,  is  due  in 
no  small  measure  to  the  several  harvesting  machine  companies 
that  now  comprise  the  International  company.  Their  representa- 
tives closely  studied  the  requirements  of  the  farmers  and  fur- 
nished them  grain  and  grass  cutting  machines  so  that  it  was 
possible  for  them  to  harvest  their  crops.  Indeed,  it  is  not  too 
much  to  say  that  the  Red  Eiver  valley  could  never  have  raised 
and  harvested  such  enormous  crops,  and  this  great  valley  would 
never  have  become  so  famous  in  history  as  the  bread  basket  of 
the  world,  had  it  not  been  for  the  various  harvesting  machine 
companies  that  supplied  the  binders  and  mowers  to  harvest  the 
crops.  During  the  pioneer  days  the  reaper  moved  civilization 
westward  at  the  rate  of  thirty  miles  a  year,  and  it  was  the  reaper 
that  enabled  the  early  settlers  of  the  great  Eed  Eiver  valley  to 
achieve  their  industrial  independence. 


Thomas  B.  Walker. 

North  Dakota  is  one  of  the  four  large  central  states,  of  almost 
entirely  prairie  lands,  the  other  three  comprising  South  Dakota, 
Nebraska  and  Kansas,  which  are  all  practically  untimbered  ex- 
cepting small  areas  of  hardwood  lands  in  Kansas  and  Nebraska, 
which  are  now  practically  denuded,  and  a  small  area  of  pine  in 
the  Black  Hills  of  South  Dakota.  These  four  states,  with  portions 
of  Texas,  Oklahoma,  Iowa,  Minnesota  and  a  small  portion  of 
Wisconsin  and  Indiana,  constitute  the  great  open  prairie  land 
district  of  the  central  portion  of  the  United  States.  This  ex- 
tensive territory  covers  an  area  of  about  522,000  square  miles  of 
rich  agricultural  land,  subject  to  cultivation  and  abundant  crops 
without  irrigation.  Of  this  North  Dakota  covers  an  area  of  about 
70,000  square  miles.  The  easterly  half  of  this  consists  mainly 
of  agricultural  land,  while  the  westerly  half  is  largely  a  grazing 
area,  more  or  less  of  which  is  subject  to  cultivation.  The  Red 
River  valley,  which  bounds  the  state  on  its  entire  eastern  bound- 
ary, covers  an  area  of  nearly  seven  million  acres,  and  consists 
of  some  of  the  richest  and  most  productive  land  in  the  world. 

The  state  produces  now  nearly  10  per  cent  of  the  wheat  and 
oats  and  about  40  per  cent  of  the  flaxseed  raised  in  the  United 
States.  There  is  now  under  cultivation  only  about  16  per  cent  of 
the  entire  area.  When  the  state  is  developed  as  fully  as  it  may 
be  expected  in  the  course  of  the  next  twenty-five  years  there 
should  be  under  direct  cultivation,  exclusive  of  pasture  lands 
and  timber  culture  land,  32  to  40  per  cent  of  the  entire  area,  ex- 



elusive  of  hay  and  grazing  land,  which  will  probably  bring  the 
total  crop  production  up  to  two  or  three  times  what  it  is  now  pro- 
ducing, exclusive  of  the  large  amounts  of  stock  and  dairy 

North  Dakota,  not  having,  a  timber  supply  of  its  own,  has 
relied  upon  the  pine  lands  of  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  in  large 
part  for  its  building  timber.  Its  supply  of  hardwood  for  its  fur- 
niture, tools,  implements  and  machinery  made  of  hardwood  has 
come  from  that  extensive  tract  embracing  large  parts  of  Texas, 
Arkansas,  Missouri,  the  southern  part  of  Illinois,  most  of  Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky,  Indiana,  Ohio,  portions  of  southern  or  central 
Minnesota,  and  Wisconsin,  southern  Michigan  and  portions  of 
West  Virginia,  the  western  part  of  Pennsylvania,  the  west  half 
of  Virginia,  and  the  westerly  portion  of  North  Carolina. 

This  great  hardwood  timber  tract,  embracing  an  area  of  about 
507,000  square  miles  or  324,000,000  acres,  has  furnished  the  sup- 
ply of  hardwood  lumber  for  this  country  and  is  the  foundation 
of  extensive  manufactures  of  hardwood  products  that  have  gone 
into  foreign  trade.  But  these  lands,  to  the  extent  of  more  than 
four-fifths,  have  been  denuded  of  their  timber.  A  very  large 
fractional  part  has  been  wasted  and  burned  to  clear  the  land  in 
order  to  reach  the  soil.  The  timber  was  an  incumbrance  which 
has  worn  out  in  the  most  severe  service  countless  multitudes  of 
industrious  farmers,  the  first  generation  of  whom,  as  early  set- 
tlers, devoted  their  lives  to  clearing  away  and  getting  the  soil 
ready  for  producing  crops. 

In  this  respect  the  timber  has  been  far  more  of  a  drawback, 
and  made  the  early  settlements  less  successful  than  in  the  prairie 
area,  where  breaking  the  sod  required  much  less  work  and  time 
than  clearing  up  the  timber  lands.  And  when  the  prairie  was 
once  broken  the  vast  aggregate  of  old  stumps  that  would  take  a 
generation  to  remove  were  not  an  incumbrance  as  in  the  timber 

The  advantages  from  living  amongst  the  hardwoods,  as  against 
the  prairie  states,  furnished  an  advantage  in  the  way  of  logs  out 
of  which  to  build  the  houses,  stables  and  fences,  and  fuel.  But 
in  general  the  farmers  of  the  timber  states  were  much  slower  in 
gaining  a  comfortable  home  and  abundant  or  sufficient  means  to 


make  them  independent  of  debt  and  to  supply  them  with  the  nec- 
essaries, comforts,  conveniences  and  even  luxuries  of  life. 

The  prairie  farmers  have,  to  a  very  unusual  extent,  prospered 
and  become  full  handed,  and  are  now  really  the  principal  bankers 
who  supply  the  money  in  the  cities  of  the  middle  West,  through 
the  agency  of  the  country  banks  in  which  the  farmers  deposit 
their  large  surplus  of  money.  A  large  part  of  the  money  used  in 
Minneapolis,  St.  Paul,  Duluth,  Chicago,  St.  Louis  and  Kansas 
City  is  supplied  by  the  small  banks  throughout  these  states,  who 
buy  commercial  paper  and  in  this  way  are  enabled  to  pay  the 
farmers  interest  on  their  deposits.  The  mortgages  have  been  prac- 
tically all  paid  and  the  farmers  in  large  part  freed  from  debts  or 
obligations,  and  have  met  with  a  prosperity  such  as  has  never  in 
the  history  of  the  world  reached  as  extensive  a  class  of  cultivators 
of  the  soil  as  here  in  the  prairie  states. 

One  of  the  principal  things  which  led  to  the  successful  de- 
velopment of  these  states  was  the  very  cheap  lumber  supply,  both 
of  the  pine  and  hardwood.  But  now  the  pine  timber  supply  of 
Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  as  well  as  Michigan,  Maine,  New  Hamp- 
shire, Vermont,  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  is  in  large  part  ex- 
hausted, there  being  perhaps  not  more  than  ten  or  fifteen  per  cent 
of  the  original  amount  of  timber  now  standing. 

The  southern  pine  has  been  only  fractionally  cut,  but  is  be- 
ing very  rapidly  consumed  by  the  heavy  demands  of  a  constantly 
increasing  use  of  lumber  and  wood  products. 

This  southern  pine  will  probably  furnish  something  of  a  sup- 
ply for  the  main  portion  of  the  United  States  for  the  next  fifteen 
or  twenty  years,  but  during  that  time,  the  remaining  pine  and 
hemlock  of  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  will  afford  a  limited  supply 
for  five  or  ten  years. 

The  southern  pine  belt  is  so  far  distant  from  North  Dakota 
that  after  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  cease  to  be  able  to  furnish 
the  supply,  which  will  be  but  a  few  years,  the  Kocky  Mountain 
region,  will  be  drawn  upon  for  many  years  until  that  limited  sup- 
ply becomes  exhausted.  Then  the  Pacific  Coast  states — Wash- 
ington, Oregon  and  California — will  be  drawn  upon.  These  lat- 
ter pine  areas  will  be  sufficient  to  furnish  a  reasonable  supply 
for  probably  twenty-five  or  thirty  years,  and  if  intelligent 


methods  are  continued  by  the  counties,  states  and  general  gov- 
ernment in  the  handling  of  these  mountain  forest  lands,  a  con- 
tinued supply  through  re-foresting  can  be  produced  that  will, 
to  some  extent,  furnish  wood  for  supplying  those  needs  that  can- 
not be  met  by  other  substitutes. 

The  remnant  of  the  great  hardwood  forests  will  practically 
disappear  within  the  next  very  few  years,  and  when  this  is  ex- 
hausted there  is  no  western  hardwood  area  as  there  is  of  the 
pine,  to  continue  the  supply.  So  that  this  hardwood  question  is 
one  that  is  likely  to  be  of  as  great  importance  as  that  of  the 

The  resources  for  securing  any  further  stock  of  hardwood 
must  be  made  by  re-foresting  both  on  the  non-agricultural  avail- 
able lands  throughout  all  the  states,  where  a  timber  crop  can  be 
grown,  but  also  to  cultivate  and  grow  timber  to  more  or  less 
extent  on  agricultural  lands. 

Timber  is  reproduced  by  slight  drafts  on  the  soil,  but  to  large 
extent  upon  the  air  and  water,  and  in  this  way  it  is  a  renewal  of 
the  soil  and  will  tend  to  lengthen  out  the  agricultural  life  of 
farming  lands  that  have  been  more  or  less  exhausted  or  where 
it  is  of  poor  quality  for  farming  purposes. 

And  while  in  North  Dakota  the  larger  part  of  all  the  land  can 
be  cultivated,  yet  a  fractional  part  might  as  profitably  be  used 
for  producing  timber  for  lumber,  both  as  building  material  and 
other  purposes  for  which  it  is  available  and  essential,  as  to  at- 
tempt to  use  it  all  for  agricultural  purposes. 

The  timber  supply  is  becoming  exhausted  so  rapidly,  that 
unless  the  states  generally  take  up  the  question  of  re-foresting 
and  this  without  much  further  delay,  it  will  become  practically 
impossible  to  obtain  a  sufficient  supply  to  meet  the  absolute  needs 
in  the  way  of  lumber  for  building  and  for  furniture,  implements, 
etc.,  independent  of  other  very  necessary  uses  for  which  wood  is 
now  used.  And  this  will  come  not  only  to  be  an  inconvenience 
but  to  bring  so  much  less  of  the  comforts  and  conveniences  of 
life,  that  living  will  be  on  a  much  lower  scale  than  has  prevailed 
in  the  past.  In  fact,  lumber  is  of  far  greater  importance  and  a 
more  essential  necessity  than  we  are  accustomed  to  realize.  And 
it  now  appears  that  while  re-foresting  and  the  production  of  a 


stock  of  lumber  is  much  discussed  by  forestry  associations  and 
presidential  conferences  and  by  newspapers  and  periodicals  and 
by  congress  and  state  legislatures — politicians  and  orators  gen- 
erally— practical  forestry  will  not  be  entered  upon  with  sufficient 
energy  and  promptness  by  the  general  government,  the  states 
and  the  farmers,  in  sufficient  numbers  to  meet  the  imperative  de- 
mands of  the  comparatively  near  future.  When  the  supply  is  so 
far  exhausted — ti.e  needs  so  urgent — and  it  becomes  understood 
by  the  men  who  have  surplus  acres  which  they  can  devote  to 
raising  timber  that  it  can  be  produced  with  a  good  return  for  the 
use  of  the  land  and  the  labor  and  expense  devoted  to  this  crop, 
the  raising  of  timber  will  be  entered  upon  in  a  practical  way,  to 
furnish,  in  the  course  of  time,  a  limited  supply. 

There  are  two  facts  or  features  that  will  develop  in  the  future 
that  will  make  the  occupation  of  tree  raising  and  lumber  produc- 
ing a  profitable  enterprise.  Lumber  will  considerably  increase 
in  price  from  now  until  the  present  stock  is  practically  consumed. 
This  increased  price  of  lumber  will  make  forestry  more  profitable 
in  consequence  of  increased  value  of  the  lumber,  and  when  the 
further  consideration  is  added — that  lumber  will  be  much  more 
economically  manufactured  whereby  a  log  will  be  made  to  pro- 
duce a  much  greater  amount  of  lumber  that  will  sell  at  a  much 
greater  price — the  two  features  will  make  timber  culture  and 
lumber  producing  more  profitable. 

The  processes  whereby  lumber  will  be  so  much  more  econom- 
ically cut,  will  be  the  exceedingly  thin  veneer  cutting  saws,  or 
probably  still  more  economical  processes  of  using  planing  knives, 
to  cut  the  thin  lumber  without  the  waste  of  sawdust.  These 
thin  veneers  of  lumber  will  be  glued  or  cemented  into  a  thicker 
piece  by  placing  two  layers  of  the  thin  lumber  parallel  and  an- 
other one  crossways  between  them,  putting  the  better  grade  of 
lumber  on  the  outside  and  the  commoner  qualities  inside  and  on 
the  bottom.  These  three  thicknesses  of  lumber  will  not  need  to 
make  more  than  three-eighths  of  an  inch,  for  what  will  be  used 
for  ordinary  boards.  For  such  purposes  as  will  require  thicker 
lumber,  more  layers  of  the  thin  lumber  can  be  put  together,  mak- 
ing for  flooring  enough  to  make  a  thickness  of  three-fourths  of 
an  inch,  putting  the  lower  grade  of  lumber  out  of  sight,  and 


making  the  upper  sheet  a  thicker — perhaps  one-fourth  of  an 
inch — in  order  that  the  wear  may  not  cut  away  the  upper  one 
too  early. 

And  it  is  probable  also  that  another  method  of  making  the 
composition  board  will  be  by  using  cotton  cloth  as  an  interior 
sheet  to  form  part  of  the  composition  board  by  being  strongly 
glued  in  between  two  or  more  outer  sheets  of  wood.  In  other 
words,  to  use  a  cloth  sheet  in  place  of  one  of  the  thin  wooden 
sheets  above  noted.  This  cloth  with  the  glue  filling  will  form  a 
strong  binding,  give  strength  and  toughness  and  elasticity  suf- 
ficient to  take  the  place  of  boards  for  most  uses.  Or  three  or 
more  sheets  of  wood  can  be  used  with  two  sheets  of  thin  cloth 
filling.  When  composition  boards  so  made  are  painted,  oiled  or 
varnished  either  on  one  or  both  sides,  the  latter  in  general  more 
preferable,  it  will  furnish  very  satisfactory  material  for  a  large 
part  of  the  constructions  where  lumber  is  ordinarily  used.  And 
being  thinner  and  weighing  less  than  the  ordinary  thick  lumber, 
it  can  be  produced,  transported  and  sold  for  less  per  thousand 
feet  than  usual  thickness  lumber. 

It  is  probable  that  the  superstructure  of  buildings  will  be 
largely  made  from  cement,  brick  or  stone  and  the  joists  and 
floor  timber  will  be  made  of  lumber  cut  with  thin  saws,  or  per- 
haps with  planing  knives  and  made  into  a  composition  lumber 
that  will  need  to  be  made  of  sufficient  thickness  to  carry  the  load 
placed  upon  them. 

Doors  will  be  made  of  a  composition  probably  almost  alto- 
gether of  thin  boards  cemented  together  as  above  outlined.  The 
machinery  for  cutting  thin  lumber  will  in  general  be  made  of 
much  smaller  logs  than  that  which  has  come  from  the  natural 
forests.  Another  feature  of  the  future  lumber  supply  which 
will  also  aid  in  making  timber  culture  more  profitable  and  de- 
sirable, will  be  improved  methods  of  making  thick  paper  boards 
of  wood  pulp,  after  the  general  manner  that  is  used  in  making 
printing  and  wrapping  paper,  and  paper  board.  Sheets  of  any 
reasonable  thickness  and  of  sufficient  strength  and  solidity  to 
be  used  for  general  purposes  where  boards  are  now  employed  can 
be  made  from  any  sized  trees,  from  saplings  four  or  five  inches 
in  diameter  up  to  full  sized  saw  timber.  The  pulp,  to  make  a  de- 


sirable  quality,  would  require  partly  chemical  pulp  fiber  mixed 
with  a  certain  proportion  of  ground  wood  pulp,  the  toughness 
and  durability  depending  in  large  part  upon  the  proportion  of 
the  former.  Some  manner  of  adhesive  sizing  may  be  mixed  with 
the  pulp  in  forming  the  board  that  will  make  it  harder,  stronger 
and  more  durable.  Lumber  made  in  this  way,  of  one-fourth  or 
one-half  of  an  inch  in  thickness,  could  probably  be  purchased  at 
a  price  of  from  $20  to  $30  per  thousand  feet,  surface  measure, 
and  give  a  very  good  return  for  the  use  of  the  land,  the  labor, 
and  expense  in  raising  the  trees  and  producing  the  lumber.  And 
although  this  price  is  above  that  which  has  prevailed  and  above 
that  for  some  years  to  come,  as  a  price  for  common  grades  of 
lumber,  yet  it  will  be  within  the  range  of  the  prices  that  will 
prevail  in  the  course  of  the  next  twenty  years  or  by  the  time  any 
crop  of  timber  could  be  raised,  starting  in  at  the  present  time. 

Lumber  manufactured  from  cultivated  trees,  either  in  the 
way  of  being  cut  with  thin  saws  or  planing  knives  or  from  wood 
pulp,  can  use  profitably  small  logs  and  in  which  less  expensive 
neighborhood  mills  can  be  used  to  good  advantage  by  the  farm- 
ers or  local  business  men  to  furnish  employment  for  considerable 
numbers  and  produce  it  as  economically  and  with  as  little  ex- 
pense as  could  be  done  in  larger  plants,  where  large  capital  is 
necessarily  employed,  as  at  the  present  time  and  with  the  methods 
now  used. 

The  manufacture  of  paper  board  lumber  can  also  be  pro- 
duced with  what  will  probably  be  much  improved  methods  of 
dissolving  the  wood  fiber  if  not  in  producing  the  ground  wood 
pulp.  A  crop  of  rapidly  growing  timber  planted  at  the  present 
time  will  yield  in  the  course  of  eighteen  to  thirty  years  to  pro- 
duce timber  from  the  size  of  telegraph  poles,  or  eight  and  ten 
inches  in  diameter  to  that  which  will  then  be  considered  respect- 
able sized  saw  logs  from  trees  fifteen  to  twenty-two  inches  in 
diameter.  Timber  raised  of  this  smaller  size  and  grown  thicker 
together  may  be  as  profitable  as  to  wait  for  larger  growth.  The 
stumps  of  the  smaller  trees  can  be  removed  more  readily  than  the 
larger  ones,  and  will  not  be  in  the  way  any  more,  if  as  much,  in 
replanting  among  them. 

The  farmer  who  has  the  ordinary  sized  quarter  section  farm 


might  very  profitably  lay  off  about  one-eighth  part  of  his  land 
or  a  twenty-acre  piece  to  plant  in  timber  as  early  as  he  can  ac- 
complish it. 

The  kind  of  timber  most  profitable  to  cultivate  is  a  question 
that  will  need  particular  consideration,  and  for  this  and  other 
matters  pertaining  to  forestry,  and  to  furnish  a  bureau  of  in- 
formation and  advice,  a  commission  of  one  or  more  should  be 
appointed,  whose  investigations  and  studies  of  forestry  in  this 
and  other  countries  should  furnish  the  people  sufficient  informa- 
tion to  enable  them  to  determine  the  kind  of  timber  that  would 
nourish  to  the  best  advantage  and  be  the  most  profitable  to  cul- 

In  the  westerly  part  of  the  state  it  is  probable  that  spruce  or 
pine  will  be  the  most  desirable  crop;  in  the  eastern  half  certain 
grades  of  hardwood,  perhaps  white  and  black  ash,  and  for  boards 
and  building  lumber,  poplar,  with  perhaps  some  lighter  varieties 
of  pine  and  spruce.  The  lumber  producing  trees  must  be  of  a 
quality  that  will  not  warp  and  twist,  as  it  will  make  lumber  of 
little  value,  such,  for  instance,  as  the  cottonwood  and  the  water 
elm.  The  red  elm  might  perhaps  be  serviceable. 

North  Dakota,  with  its  large  individual  holdings  of  land, 
prosperous  condition  of  the  farmers,  who  can  afford  to  wait  for 
a  term  of  years  for  the  returns  from  land  appropriated  and 
money  and  work  devoted  to  cultivating  timber,  either  for  them- 
selves or  their  children,  should  promptly  take  up  the  question  of 
reforesting,  which  can  be  done  equally  well  there,  as  in  any  of 
the  states,  and  in  such  manner  that  it  will  not  draw  too  heavily 
on  the  resources  of  the  settlers  for  the  next  ten  or  twenty  years. 
Such  timber  growth  will  make  a  far  more  agreeable  country  to 
live  in — act  as  a  wind  break  and  a  protection  for  cattle  in  storms, 
in  addition  to  furnishing  a  supply  of  fuel  from  trimmings  of 
the  trees  and  the  future  supply  of  lumber  at  what  will  be  a 
profitable  investment  as  a  return  for  the  use  of  the  land,  the 
labor  and  expenditures. 

This  co\irse  will  aid  materially  in  bringing  prosperity  and 
comfortable  conditions  for  the  coming  generations,  without 
which,  in  this  state,  as  in  the  country  generally,  a  failure  to 
enter  upon  reforesting  will  result  in  a  condition  of  not  mere  in- 


convenience,  but  of  hardship  that  will  reduce  the  comforts  of 
living  far  below  that  which  has  prevailed  or  that  would  take 
place  if  reforesting  is  entered  upon  with  sufficient  general  prac- 
tice to  insure  a  reasonable  supply  of  timber  to  cover  the  neces- 
sities for  comfortable  living  in  future  years. 



James  Twamley. 

Trade  and  commerce  are  the  forerunners  of  civilization.  It 
has  blazed  the  way  for  the  missionary  and  made  it  possible  for 
him  to  reach  the  hearts  of  the  heathen.  Men  have  deprived  them- 
selves of  the  comforts  of  home  and  friends  and  risked  their  lives 
and  health  in  the  interest  of  trade.  Corporations  and  trusts  have 
been  formed  for  the  purpose  of  introducing  the  products  of  one 
nation  to  another  who  was  unable  to  produce  the  same  line  of 

Thus  we  see  Germany,  France  and  England  controlling  the 
trade  of  a  large  part  of  the  globe.  It  brings  the  Christian  and 
the  heathen  together.  When  their  interests  are  at  stake,  trade 
has  made  it  possible  to  soothe  the  savage  breast.  This  we  see  in 
North  Dakota  as  well  as  in  Africa,  China  and  Japan. 

The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  was  chartered  by  Charles  II 
on  May  2nd,  1670.  The  charter  gave  unlimited  powers  to  con- 
trol all  trade  of  that  country  that  lay  within  the  entrance  of 
Hudsons  straits,  if  not  actually  possessed  by  British  subjects  or 
any  other  Christian  prince  or  state.  All  was  called  "Rupert's 
Land"  as  a  compliment  to  Prince  Rupert,  cousin  of  King  Charles. 
The  gentlemen  adventurers,  as  they  were  called,  were  King 
Charles,  Prince  Rupert,  the  Duke  of  York  and  the  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough.  They  hoped  to  find  a  shorter  route  to  India,  or  a 
Northwest  passage.  Some  estimate  of  the  company's  power  may 
be  imagined  when  it  is  known  that  it  had  authority  over  one- 
third  of  the  whole  North  America  to  hold  as  absolute  proprietors 



with  power,  not  only  governing  their  own  officers  and  servants, 
but  all  people  upon  the  land. 

The  Indians  had  absolute  trust  in  the  good  faith  of  the  com- 
pany and  much  credit  is  due  the  company  that  its  methods  were 
so  honest.  They  made  enormous  profits  on  their  merchandise 
by  exchanging  the  skins  of  the  mink,  beaver,  coon  and  fox  for 
a  few  beads,  ear  pipe  and  wampum.  The  promises  made  were 
kept,  the  company's  word  was  reliable  and  the  Indians  were 
oftentimes  the  best  friends  the  company  had.  Naturally  the 
operations  that  are  most  interesting  to  the  North  Dakotan  are 
those  pertaining  to  the  Red  River  valley.  It  was  not  until  1799 
that  the  Red  river  proper  was  taken  possession  of.  Lord  Sel- 
kirk, a  Scottish  nobleman,  had  a  great  scheme  for  colonizing  the 
interior  of  North  America.  He  finally  determined  to  do  it  by 
means  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  He  had  patriotic  and  lofty 
aims,  but  these  could  not  all  be  carried  out. 

In  May,  1811,  he,  with  friends,  purchased  land  on  the  Red 
River  of  the  North  with  a  view  to  settling  a  colony  there.  They 
were  to  assume  the  expense  of  transporting,  governing  and  pro- 
tecting the  colonists,  and  provide  them  with  the  essentials  to  be- 
come established.  One  hundred  and  ten  thousand  square  miles 
of  fertile  land  on  the  Red  and  Assiniboine  rivers  were  secured  in 
June,  1811.  A  company  numbering  about  seventy  started  from 
Orkney  islands.  Captain  McDonald,  who  was  chosen  to  assist 
Lord  Selkirk,  brought  oats,  barley  and  potatoes,  as  well  as  cattle 
and  poultry.  Lord  Selkirk  was  seeking  new  colonists  all  the 
while,  and  he  started  another  company  the  next  year,  but  only 
fifteen  or  twenty  reached  the  Red  river  in  the  fall  of  1813,  as  a 
fever  caused  the  death  of  many. 

Governor  McDonald  had  taken  a  number  of  colonists  to  Pem- 
bina  during  1812,  where  buffalo  could  be  had.  Ninety-three  per- 
sons from  the  Orkney  islands  reached  the  Red  river  the  next 
year.  Long  before  this  time  the  North  West  Trading  Company, 
a  powerful  rival  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  which  had  been 
carrying  on  a  keen  rivalry,  induced  150  of  the  colonists  to  go  to 
Canada.  Shortly  after  they  were  induced  to  return,  having  had 
some  trouble  with  the  rival  company,  and  pioneer  hardships  all 


helped  to  prevent  the  growth  and  development  of  the  colony. 
However,  in  time  permanent  settlements  were  made. 

Trading  was  carried  on  -between  all  the  country  lying  be- 
tween Fort  Garry,  Winnipeg  and  St.  Paul.  It  was  an  interesting 
sight  to  see  the  long  line  of  Red  river  carts,  a  vehicle  made  with- 
out a  particle  of  iron,  bound  together  by  wooden  pins  and  pegs 
and  strapped  by  the  sinew  of  the  deer,  lubricating  oil  being  very 
scarce  in  the  settlements.  You  could  hear  these  carts  for  miles 
as  the  oxen  winded  their  way  across  the  plain. 

In  the  winter  the  dog  train  and  sled  took  the  place  of  the 
cart  and  ox.  The  pioneers  wrapped  warmly  in  their  furs,  bounded 
over  the  frozen  ground,  bringing  their  furs  to  exchange  for  the 
products  of  the  mill  and  factory.  The  Hudson  bay  trading  post 
was  an  interesting  place.  The  clerks  soon  managed  enough  of 
dialect  to  trade  with  the  Indians,  as  the  latter  would  not  conde- 
scend to  speak  English,  even  when  it  would  be  to  his  advantage. 
The  clerks  had  a  mongrel  language  of  their  own  by  which  they 
made  known  their  ideas  to  the  Indians. 

Since  the  company  had  to  protect  its  property,  numerous 
forts  were  built  along  the  frontier.  Some  of  these  are  still  in 
existence.  The  work  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  is  not 
over.  Wherever  the  new  posts  of  the  company  are  opened,  push- 
ing fartherest  into  the  frontier,  may  be  found  the  officers  of  the 
Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company.  Its  center  is  still,  as  it  always  has 
been,  in  London,  England.  It  is  to  be  admired  for  its  progres- 
siveness,  its  business  ability,  and  the  honor  it  has  shown  in  deal- 
ing with  the  natives.  Truly  it  is,  as  it  has  been  called,  "The 
Great  Company." 

Having  ample  capital  for  the  prosecution  of  their  business, 
they  conceived  the  idea  of  extending  their  relations  with  the 
original  settlers  of  our  country,  who  were  the  best  fur  collectors 
in  the  world,  and  established  posts  at  Grand  Forks,  Frog  Point, 
Goose  River  and  Georgetown.  The  base  of  supplies  was  Grand 
Forks,  and  from  this  point  they  supplied  their  sub-stations,  and 
while  they  did  a  large  business  with  the  white  residents,  they 
captured  nearly  all  the  fur  that  was  brought  into  Grand  Forks 
and  her  sub-stations.  They  were  shipped  to  London  to  be  dressed 
and  made  up,  and  returned  to  this  country,  as  we  were  not  sup- 


posed  to  know  how  to  tan  a  skin.  The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company 
employed  the  best  men  they  could  find  and  paid  liberal  wages, 
because  they  were  making  a  magnificent  profit  on  their  goods, 
and  the  fur  business  was  about  all  gain,  London  being  the  head- 
quarters for  the  world  on  fur,  as  on  many  other  articles.  They 
dictated  the  price,  they  bought  cheap  and  sold  high,  and  today, 
while  the  English  as  a  class  wear  very  little  fur,  they  dictate 
the  price  of  the  fur  market  for  the  world.  The  freight  rate  is 
in  their  favor,  their  goods  are  carried  on  English  vessels  that 
are  subsidized  by  the  government,  which  virtually  kills  all  com- 
petition on  freight  rates,  and  puts  our  American  vessels  prac- 
tically out  of  business.  England  has  her  agents  in  every  part 
of  the  world  employed  in  all  kinds  of  trade  and  commerce  that 
leads  to  London  as  the  fountain  head  of  the  world,  with  her  un- 
limited capital  and  her  subsidized  vessels,  England  stands  with- 
out a  rival  today  before  the  nations  of  the  world. 

The  Hudson  Bay  Fur  Company  buy  for  a  few  cents  our  musk- 
rat,  take  it  to  London,  dress  it  and  return  it  to  us  as  Aleutian 
seal  or  river  mink,  likewise  they  take  our  skunk,  dress  it  and 
return  it  as  martin.  Also  our  rabbit  or  Belgian  hare  comes  back 
from  London  as  Coney,  near  seal  or  electric  seal,  and  our  weasel 
as  ermine.  So  we  see  what  we  are  paying  for  this  work  and 
getting  paid  for  our  furs,  with  a  great  big  balance  in  favor  of  th